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Ex  Libris 
C.  K.  OGDEN 







STK.     DKVOTi; 






With  Eight  Reproductions  in  Colour  from  Drawings 

by  Charles  Maresco  Pearce,  and  with 

Forty-eight  Illustrations  in 

Black  and  White 







To  describe  the  economic,  social  mid  political  condi- 
tions of  a  count 7- If,  the  good  ivill  and  assistance  of  the 
authorities  responsible  for  its  govej-nment  must  be  secu?-ed. 

Fortunately,  a  lifelong  accjuaintance  xvith  the  Principality 
of  Monaco  has  placed  me  in  a  favourable  position.  So  far 
back  as  1882,  I  tvas  xvell  knoivn  to  the  officicds  as  colla- 
borating zvith  the  late  Doctor  Pickering,  in  wnting  and 
publishing  a  small  book  entitled  "  3Ionaco,  the  Beauty  Spot 
of  the  Riviera."  Sidjsequently  I  was  deputed  to  investigate 
various  epidemics  on  the  Riviera,  notably  the  cholera  epi- 
demics of  188  Jt,  1885  and  1893.  The  energetic  denunciations 
and  scie?itific  reports  I  then  contribiited  to  The  Lancet, 
describing  the  insanitary  conditions  prevcdling  at  the  so- 
called  health  resorts,  contributed  in  no  small  mcas^ire  to 
bring  about  the  notable  improvements  now  realised  along 
the  whole  Rivie7'a,  and  especially  at  Monaco.  More  recently, 
dwing  the  Conference  of  the  Internationcd  Association  of 
tlie  Medical  Press,  which  met  at  Monaco  in  1902,  I  was 
appointed  spokesman  of  the  eight  ?iationalities  ?-ep?'esented. 
hi  the  name  of  the  leading  medical  journals  published  by 
tlie  principal  nations  of  Eiirope,  I  had  to  address  his 
Serene   Highness,  Piincc  Albert   /.,   and  explained  that 
we  were  doubly  honoured.  We  were  honoured  by  the  regal 
reception  and  bounteous  hospitality  accorded  to  us  by  his 
Highness  as  Pi-ince  of  Monaco.   But  there  was  a  7nore 
intimate  link.   We  attached  still  greater  value  to  the  p?ivi- 
lege  of   being  the  guests  of  a   man  of  science  who  had 
rendered  the  world  sei'vice  by  his  original  I'esearch  and 

In  tlie  same  year  I  acted  as  interpretei-  from  French 


into  JEnglish  and  from  English  into  French  of  all  the 
speeches  delivered  at  tlie  Internatio?ial  Peace  Co7igress, 
likeivise  held  i?i  Monaco.  This  again  brought  me  into  per- 
sonal contact  with  the  reigning  Prince.  Finally,  I  am  also 
indebted  to  the  friendly  suppoi't  given  me  by  Professor 
Charles  Richet  of  the  Pa?is  Academy  of  Medicine.  Professor 
Richet  accompanied  the  Prince  on  one  of  his  deep-sea 
exploiting  expeditions,  and  is  a  feUow-ivoj-ker  in  the  Inter- 
national Peace  3£ovement  to  xvhich  Prince  Albert  is 
so  earnestly  attached.  Such,  I  presume,  are  the  principal 
reasons  xvhich  account  for  the  gracious  reception  accorded 
to  me  at  the  Court  of  Monaco,  and  for  the  fact  that  every 
assistance  has  been  tendered  me  to  facilitate  the  accomplish- 
ment of  my  task. 

During  a  long  audience  with  the  Prince,  I  endeavotired 
to  explain  that  the  book  I  pi'oposed  to  zcrite  would 
deal  partly  with  past  history,  but  more  especially  with 
moderri  problems.  These  comprised  many  economic,  social, 
political  and  psychological  subjects.  Then  there  were  the 
arts  and  sciences  tliat  could  be  studied  with  special  advantage 
in  the  principality.  In  conclusion  I  inquired  whether  his 
Highness  could  recommend  some  similar  work.  To  my 
surprise,  and  ivithout  a  momenfs  hesitation.  Prince  Albert 
7'eplied  that  there  ivas  no  such  book  in  existence.  There  were 
some  excellent  ivorks,  each  dealing  tcith  one  special  subject, 
such  as  that  writteti  by  the  historian,  Gustave  Saige,  on 
"Monaco:  Its  Origins  and  History."  There  xvere  the 
reports  and  books  on  the  anthropological  researches  and 
oceanographic  explorations  made  by,  or  under  the  direct 
supei'vision  of,  the  Prince  himself.  But  neither  in  French 
nor  any  other  language  had  any  general  book  on  Monaco 
been  published. 

A  fetv  days  later  I  ivas  convei'sing  with  Mr  Fredeiic 
Jf^cht,  the  General  Director  of  the  Casino,  and  I  put  to 
him  exactly  the  same  question  ;  only  to  recdre  precisely  the 
same  reply.  Such  a  work  as  I  proposed,  though  much  needed, 
had  never  been  attempted.  There  xvere  doubtless  hundreds, 
indeed  thousands,  of  books  and  pamphlets  on  Monaco  or 


Monte  Carlo.  Some  of  these  were  obvious  advertisements, 
others  meirhj  pocket  guides  \  but  the  majority  xvere  scurrilous 
sensational  publications  issued  in  the  hope  of  extorting 
blackmail.  A.  serious  study  of  the  many  problems  at  issue, 
nrittefi  impartially,  had  not  seen  the  light  of  day.  If  I  felt 
the  strength  to  grapple  xvith  such  a  variety  of  subjects  the 
Directoi's  of  the  Camio,  as  well  as  the  Government,  would 
put  at  my  disposal  every  facility. 

What  this  meant  no  one  can  well  imagine  till  taught 
by  experience.  To  liave  access  to  headquarters  for  all 
the  information  needed  is  indeed  a  great  advantage  and 
privilege ;  but  who  could  foresee  that  in  so  small  a  princi- 
pality there  would  be  so  many  headquarters  ?  Each  of  these 
departments  has  its  technical  chief,  tvho  naturally  imagines 
that  those  who  call  upon  him  knotv  something  about  his 
technique.  My  long  experience  as  an  investigator  of  all 
matters  concerning  the  public  health  of  many  nations  in 
Europe,  Africa  and  America  had  fortunately  rendered 
me  familiar  with  numerous  technical  problems  of  local 
government,  but  at  Monaco  some  of  the  subjects  tvere  of 
necessity  quite  new.  On  these  occasions,  I  had  to  confess 
my  ignorance  and  plead  for  patience  and  kindness  so  that 
I  might  be  allozved  to  learn.  On  the  high  rock  of  3Ionaco 
we  have  the  sciences,  notably  Oceanography  and  Anthro- 
pology. Mostly  on  the  loxvcr  levels  and  down  by  the  Conda- 
mine  there  are  industries,  such  as  art  pottery,  panification, 
h-ewijig,  the  building  of  the  port  and  its  groimng  trade,  the 
gas-works,  the  market,  the  scent  distillery,  etc.  Finally,  at 
Monte  Carlo  we  luive  a  haven  for  the  fine  aiis,  especially 
those  connected  with  music  and  the  stage.  Throughout 
fio?iculture  and  horticulture  receive  the  most  lavish  and 
scientific  attention.  Every  one  of  these  {and  many  other) 
forms  of  activity  has  its  fully  qualified  technical  chief,  ready 
to  give  forth  a  wonderful  account  of  hoiv  his  experience 
has  been  enriched  by  the  munificent  manner  in  which  his 
special  pursuit  is  encouraged  and  developed.  In  other 
countries,  insufficient  financial  resources,  the  difficulty  of 
making  ends  meet,  cripple  the  xvork,  and  check  the  happy 


results  that  only  need  sufficient  encouragement  to  hid  forth 

Here,  on  the  contrary,  is  a  small  principality  where,  pro- 
portio7iately  speaking,  more  money  is  spetit  on  local  govei'n- 
ment,  on  public  tt'0?"/is,  on  the  promotion  of  original  research, 
on  the  arts  and  sciences,  than  is  the  case  in  any  other  part 
of  the  tvorld.  This  will  appear  the  more  remarkable  vchen  it 
is  noted  that  it  has  all  been  done  without  awakening  irate 
taxpayers  or  leading  to  the  creation  of  a  Ratepayer's' 
Protective  League.  The  fact  is  that  the  principality  has 
applied  tvith  such  remar-kable  success  the  principle  q/ 
"  taxing  the  foreigner  "  that  there  is  no  necessity  for  any 
home  tax  xmatsoever.  It  is  true  that  indirect  taxation  is 
maintained :  customs  duties  on  tobacco,  matches  and  stamps, 
exactly  as  in  France.  But  this  is  not  done  for  the  sake  of 
the  revenue  resulting,  xvhich  after  all  amounts  only  to  the 
comparatively  insignificant  sum  of  700,000  francs.  Its  sole 
object  is  to  prevent  Monaco  becoming  to  France  what 
Gibraltar  has  been  to  Spain — namely,  a  great  smuggling 

With  the  exception,  then,  of  the  small  sum  derived  from 
indirect  taxation,  the  vast  revenues  of  the  principcdity  are 
obtained  solely  from  the  foreigner  and  the  alien.  Nw  is 
there  any  compulsion  about  this  very  convenient  form  of 
taxation.  On  the  conti'ary,  not  ordy  are  none  cdlozved  to 
contribute  imless  they  pr'ove,  xvith  papers  and  passports  in 
hand,  that  they  are  foreigners,  but,  it  is  at  least  the  theory 
that  if  they  are  poor  and  cannot  afford  it,  even  though  they 
are  foreigners  their  contribution  is  not  accepted. 

No  history  of  the  principality  would  be  complete  tvithout 
a  very  full  and  carefully  .studied  account  of  the  organisation 
of  the  casino  and  its  gaming-tables,  xvher'e,from  all  parts 
of  the  world,  millions  of  people  come  and  voluntarily  risk 
their  money.  That  they  thus  without  murmur  or  question 
defray  cdl  the  cost  of  local  government,  the  cost  of  the 
festivals,  concer'ts, performances,  balls,  sports,  etc.,  organised 
by  the  casino,  and  further  yield  fat  dividends  to  the  share- 
holder's is  a  social,  economical  and  psychological  phenomenon 


of  the   most  far-reaching  significance  and  of  absorbing 

What  is  this  fascinating  game,  erroneously  attributed  to 
a  priest,  the  great  mathematician,  Pascal  ?  What  particle  of 
trtith  is  there  in  all  the  wild  stoiies  related  ?  What  about  the 
ijifallible  systems,  tvhich  somehow  are  mainly  infallible  only 
in  the  regularity  with  which  they  prove  failures  1  To  judge 
of  these  things  it  is  necessary  to  examine  into  the  details 
xiery  minutely.  It  tvas  only  when  I  was  introduced  into  the 
gaming  saloons  before  they  were  opened  to  the  public, 
witne.'ssed  hoio  the  four  different  functionaries  appointed 
inspected  and  tested  each  table,  when  I  was  permitted  to  lift 
the  wheel  off',  and  see  its  internal  structure,  and  make  some 
few  eocperiments  with  my  own  hands,  that  I  realised  hoiv 
little  foundation  there  is  for  the  stories  told  about  playing 
to  defects,  and  controlling  the  results.  Absolute  honesty, 
combined  with  all  the  precision  of  a  scientific  instrument, 
explains  the  constant  influx  of  speculators  ready  to  risk  their 
money  inhere  they  knoiv  exactly  ivhat  prospect  of  winning 
is  before  them.  If  so  many  lose,  it  is  because  so  few  a?-e 
content  with  a  moderate  gain :  and  here  also  we  have  an 
observatory  for  the  contemplation  of  human  weakness  and 
overreaching  avarice.  This  is  often  accompanied  by  the 
most  extraordinary,  and  at  times  very  amusing,  develop- 
ments of  absolutely  unreasoning  superstitions.  On  the  other 
hand,  mathematicians  of  great  distinction  have  burned  the 
midnight  oil  to  study  the  laivs  of  chance  as  illust7-ated  by 
the  records  of  the  roulette-table. 

It  would  be  dull  work  to  convert  this  preface  into  a 
catalogue  of  the  subjects  treated  i7i  the  present  volume.  My 
only  object  is  to  explain  hoiv  I  have  been  able  to  collect  the 
information,  and  wliat,  on  broad  lines,  is  the  scope  of  the 
book.  The  great  variety  of  important  and  insti'uctive 
problems  opened  out  will,  I  ti-ust,  awaken  interest  in  the 
principality.  The  reader  will  realise  that  this  little  state 
has  served  as  a  laboratory  where  practical  legislative  and 
other  experiments  have  been,  and  are  being,  made,  that  serve 
as  educational  demonstrations  for  the   benefit    of   many 


nations.  Then  the  chief  of  the  state  also  enjoys  exceptional 
opportunities  of  rendering  humanity  inestimable  service. 
It  is  well  knoicn  that  Prince  Albert  I.  has  availed 
himself  of  his  privileged  position ;  and  on  more  than  one 
occasion  his  unofficial  and  friendly  intervention  has  con- 
tributed, at  very  critical  moments,  to  preserve  the  peace 
of  Europe. 

The  little  principality  is  thus  not  me?'ely  the  7nost  popular 
pleasure  resort  of  Europe,  but  a  laboratory  where  some  of 
the  greatest  problems  of  the  day  are  studied  a?id  oiiginal 
research  carried  forward  tinder  very  favourable  con- 
ditiojis.  This  double  part  ?night  be  defined  as — Monaco  for 
pacific  diplomacy ,  for  scientific  research  arid  for  humanitarian 
endeavours  ;  Monte  Carh  for  art,  beauty,  luxury,  pleasure, 
extravagance  and  folly :  such  is  the  dual  life,  the  dual  aspect 
of  the  principality.  The  least  worthy  side  is  the  best-known 
to  the  public  at  la?ge.  The  object  of  this  wo?k  is  to  make 
both  aspects  equally  familiar. 





I.    THE   MYTHOLOGY   OF   MONACO  ...  19 

n.    THE  EARLY  HISTORY  OF  MONACO      ...  34 

in.    THE    PRINCES    OF    MONACO    IN    THE    WARS    AGAINST 

ENGLAND  .....  49 

TION        ......  81 


Vn.  THE  PERIOD  OF  TRANSITION                 .                  .                   .  113 


IX.  THE  PRINCIPLES  AND  POLICY  OF  THE  PRINCE               .  132 

TION OF  EUROPEAN  PEACE  .  .  .  140 



AND    INSTITUTE  ....  168 

Xm.    THE  OCEANOGRAPHIC  MUSEUM  .  .  .183 

XIV.    ANTHROPOLOGY  :      PRIMITIVE     MAN     IN     THE     PRIN- 
CIPALITY .....  202 


AND  THE  LAWS   .....  213 





XVn.    THE  POLICE  ..... 
















XIV.    MONTE      CARLO      OPERA,      ORCHESTRA      AND      STAGE 

XV.    THE  SPORTS  .  .  . 



INDEX  .... 










KOQUEBRUNE        .... 




ROAD  ..... 

PALACE  ..... 



Facing  page  106 








MONACO        IN        THE        EARLY        PART        OF        THE 

1870,  AT  MONTE  CARLO 









THE  ANTHROPOLOGICAL  MUSEUM  .  .                  „              206 

NORTHERN  TYPE  OF  GLANT              .  .  .                  „              208 

THE  CAVERNE  DU  PRINCE                 .  .  .                  „              210 

PREHISTORIC        PAINTING        IN        THE        ALTAMIRA 

CAVERN  ......  212 



BEST  JOKESJ  .  .  .  .  „  218 

FRENCH    REPUBLIC   .  .  .  .  „  220 


PALACE  AND  THE  CONDAMINE  .  .   .  „  224 


CROWD   AT   THE  CAFil  DE  PARIS  IN  MIDWINTER    .  „  242 

MIDWINTER        SUN        BATH        ON        THE        CASINO 

TERRACE        ......  244 


THE   MONACO    HOSPITAL  .  .  .  „  252 


GEORGE      AUGUSTUS      SALA      AT      THE      HOMBURG 

ROULETTE     ......  292 


ARRIVAL  OF  PLAYERS  .  .  .  „  300 


ASPECT   IN   THE  SIXTIES  .  .  .  „  806 

THE     CASINO     UP     TO     1878  :     SOUTHERN     ASPECT, 

FACING  THE  SEA  .  .  .  .  ,,  308 



ROOM  BEFORE  1878  .  .  .  Foctng  page  310 

THE      GARNIER      THEATRE  :        VIEW      FROM      THE 

STAGE              ......  314 

EAST  VIEW  OF  THE  GARNIER  THEATRE     .                   .                  „  316 

WEST  VIEW  OF  THE  GARNIER  THEATRE     .                  .                  „  318 

THE  GARNIER  THEATRE  AND  THE  TERRACES            .                  ,,  320 

CHRONOLOGICAL  PLAN  OF  THE  CASINO       .                  .                  „  322 

THE       NEWEST      AND      PRU'^ATE       PART       OF      THE 

CASINO            ......  326 

THE  NOUVELLE  SALLE,  OR  SALLE  EMPIRE                  .                  „  328 

GALLELl's  PAINTING  OF  WATER    .                  .                  .                  „  330 

THE  HYDROPATHIC  ESTABLISHMENT            .                  .                  „  332 

"  DREAMS  "  :     A  CEILING  BY  GALLELI         .                    .                   „  334 

THE  SALLE  TOUZET             .                  .                  .                   .                  „  338 


DRAWING      .                    .                    .                    .                    .                   ,,  364 

RATE                ,....„  398 


DUTY               ......  420 



MARTIANA  FROM  THE  HIMALAYAH       .                    .                   „  422 

THE     MONTK     CARLO     OPERA :       A     SCENE      FROM 

"  IVAN  THE  TERRIBLE  "          .                  .                  .                  „  432 

THE  BATTLE  OF  FLOWERS                 .                  .                  .                  ,,  438 

THE  NAVAL  BATTLE  OF  FLOWERS                   .                  .                  „  440 

THE  INTERNATIONAL  REGATTAS    .                  .                  .                  „  442 




THE  GOLF  CLUB         .... 


THE  DOG  SHOW  .... 

Facing  page 













ANTHROPOLOGY  and  mythology  rather  than 
history  supply  the  earliest  beginnings  of  our 
knowledge  concerning  Monaco  and  its  peoples. 
History  does  not  go  so  far  back,  and  is  certainly  not  more 
reliable.  In  any  case,  it  seems  as  if  histories  that  passed 
current  half-a-century  ago  have  to  be  rewritten  in  the 
light  of  modern  critical  analysis.  The  history  of 
Monaco  has  not  escaped  this  common  fate.  The  old 
traditions  have  been  challenged.  Only  that  which  is 
proved  on  evidence  after  careful  examination  can  now 
be  accepted.  The  very  pedigree  of  Monaco's  princes  is 
exposed  to  the  meticulous  scrutiny  of  the  modern  critics, 
who  refuse  to  treat  tradition  with  unquestioning  reverence. 
Fortunately  Monaco  has  become  a  centre  for  the  pro- 
motion of  science,  especially  the  sciences  which  deal  with 
the  earliest  manifestations  of  life.  Thus  it  does  seem 
as  if  the  ancient  worship  established  on  this  rock  is  now 
bearing  fruit.  If  the  plankton — that  is,  the  fine  living  dust 
which  floats  on  the  face  of  the  deep — be  the  first  or 
earliest  manifestation  of  life,  the  materialisation  of  the 
spirit  that  moved  on  the  waters,  then  assuredly  the 
science  of  oceanography  will  constitute  the  first  chapter 
in  the  history  of  the  living  woi'ld,  and  Monaco  is  now 
the  world's  chief  centre  for  the  study  of  this  new  science. 
Monaco  is  also  a  centre,  though  of  less  importance, 
for  another  new  science  which  may  be  considered  as  the 
second  chapter  in  the  history  of  life.  Monaco  has  its 
Archaeological  Institute,  with  its  scholars,  its  explorers, 
its  museum  and  its  funds  for  the  endowment  of  original 


research.  Here  are  collected  rare  palceontological  treasures 
that  disclose  the  ingenuity,  the  artistic  aspirations,  the 
modes  of  existence  prevailing  in  prehistoric  times. 
Finally,  we  have  also  at  Monaco  archives  which  are 
among  the  richest  in  Europe,  and  where  a  vast  accumu- 
lation of  original  documents  and  state  correspondence 
give  real  and  interesting  testimony  bearing  on  important 
historical  events  of  recent  and  of  medieeval  times.  Thus 
while  enjoying  unusual  climatic  advantages  in  the  midst 
of  beautiful  scenery  coupled  with  all  the  comforts  of 
modern  town  life,  the  lover  of  science  and  history  finds 
at  Monaco  exceptional  facilities  for  study.  Dividing  his 
investigations  into  three  parts  we  have  first  biology  in 
the  library,  the  laboratories,  the  small  experimental 
aquaria,  the  large  public  aquarium  and  the  palatial 
museum  of  the  Oceanographic  Institute :  secondly  pre- 
historic archeology  at  the  Anthropological  Institute  and 
Museum  which,  like  the  Oceanographic  Museum,  over- 
looks the  sea  and  the  beautiful  Gardens  of  St  Martin 
at  Monaco :  thirdly  the  written  and  printed  evidence 
bearing  on  modern  history  now  carefully  stored  and 
catalogued  in  the  Archives  of  the  Palace  and  placed 
under  the  scholarly  control  of  Monsieur  L.  H.  Laborde, 
chief  archivist. 

In  attempting  to  summarise  history  the  abundance 
of  materials  is,  however,  of  more  encumbrance  than 
assistance  ;  nor  does  the  fact  that  the  Principality  is 
a  small  place  shorten  the  length  of  its  history.  There  are 
as  many  days  in  the  JMonegasque  calendar  as  in  that 
of  any  other  country.  Indeed,  the  history  of  Monaco 
is  in  part  the  history  of  France,  of  Spain,  of  Italy  and 
sometimes  England.  Its  princes,  who  were  related  to  the 
kings  and  princes  of  these  countries,  intrigued  at  the 
different  courts  and  became  the  heroes  of  love  ad- 
ventures, notably  at  the  courts  of  Versailles  and  of 
St  James.  Fortunately  in  the  difficult  task  of  abbreviating 
and  even  of  omitting  altogether  inany  portions  of  this 
history  there  is  the  authority  of  Lentheric  for  skipping 


over  no  less  than  five  centuries.  "  La  Provence  Maritime, 
Ancienne  et  Moderne,"  by  Charles  Lentheric,  is  a  learned 
and  fascinating  description  or  history  of  the  natural 
development  of  the  French  Riviera.  In  his  opinion 
positive  reliable  history  relating  to  this  part  of  the  world 
does  not  begin  before  the  sixth  century.  Out  of  the 
impenetrable  chaos  of  confused  legends  no  facts  stand  forth 
that  can  supply  the  elements  of  a  serious  discussion. 
All  we  know  is  that  ceilain  peoples  lived  here  and  certain 
other  peoples  periodically  overran  the  country  without 
actually  settling  and  forming  permanent  colonies.  There 
seems  to  have  been  a  hinterland  with  a  permanent — or, 
in  any  case,  a  comparatively  stable — population  ;  and 
an  ever-recurrent  flow  of  traders  or  invaders  visiting  or 
attacking  the  coast-line.  If  this  was  not  inscribed  in 
history  it  could  be  deduced  as  a  reasonable  probability 
arising  froin  the  geographical  conformation  of  the  country. 
The  more  recent  hinterland  populations  were  of  Aryan 
origin,  consisting  of  Celts,  otherwise  called  Gauls. 

Before  the  advent  of  the  Gaul,  however,  a  still  older 
race  peopled  the  land  stretching  from  the  mouths  of  the 
Rhone  to  the  further  limits  of  Etruria.  They  were  a 
much  lower  race,  though  hardy  warriors ;  small  of  stature 
but  strong,  active  and  brave.  Not  much  is  known  about 
them,  they  left  neither  monuments  nor  literature,  but 
they  survived  many  an  invasion,  notably  that  of  the 
Phoenician  fleets.  Indeed,  the  overcoming  of  this  resist- 
ance has  been  by  some  regarded  as  having  given  rise 
to  the  Heraklean  legends.  Such  myths  are  often  more 
important  than  the  bare  facts  of  history.  Whether  a 
certain  chief  governed  a  certain  tribe  for  a  long  or  a  short 
time  during  the  first  or  second  century  matters  very 
little  to  us  to-day ;  the  further  we  go  back  the  less  the 
chronology  of  generals  or  chiefs  seems  to  affect  us.  What 
is  of  interest,  and  still  of  importance,  for  it  continues  to 
influence  our  daily  life,  is  the  flow  and  ebb  of  races  and 
peoples  bringing  with  them  certain  customs  and  beliefs, 
unconsciously    embodying    conceptions    of    human    and 


cosmic  relations.  In  this  manner  have  the  souls  of  peoples 
been  moulded  and  modern  nations  are  but  the  children 
of  these  ancient  races.  It  is  not  because  we  are  told  such 
a  tribe  defeated  another  tribe  on  a  given  spot  and  on 
a  particular  day  that  we  shall  understand  the  dim  trend 
of  thought  and  aspiration  which  brought  about  the 
mental  and  material  evolution  out  of  which  we  ourselves 
are  born.  Contemplating  history  in  this  manner,  the 
myths  representing  the  ideals  and  veiling  the  truth  in 
the  fantasy  of  a  symbolic  fable  are  often  more  fruitful 
and  instructive  than  the  poor  and  unreliable  records  called 
early  history.  The  adventures  of  the  gods,  related  as  of 
a  time  when  gods  and  men  lived  in  close  communion 
with  each  other,  constitute  a  dramatisation  that  presents 
us  with  an  unconsciously  personated  manifestation  of 
forces  arising  out  of  economic  necessity.  Therefore  move- 
ments of  tribes  and  peoples  striving  for  better  conditions 
of  life  appear  as  the  arbitrary  actions  of  individual  heroes, 
their  eponymous  ancestors,  subsequently  deified  or  at 
least  raised  to  the  position  of  superhuman  "  heroes." 

Thus,  but  a  short  time  ago,  for  the  greatest  fete  and 
pageant  ever  given  in  the  Principality,  it  was  not  a  page 
of  history  the  organisers  invoked.  The  largest  and  also 
the  most  distinguished  crowd  ever  assembled  on  the 
rocks  and  shores  of  the  old  port  came  to  see  the  personi- 
fication of  the  sun-god  Herakles  wage  battle  with  the 
powers  of  darkness  ;  and,  triumphant,  install  in  Monaco 
the  arts  and  sciences,  while  conferring  the  gift  of  perpetual 
spring.  As  Apollo,  the  sun-god,  with  the  aid  of  the 
Muses,  represents  music  and  the  arts,  which  are  gener- 
ously subsidised  and  encouraged  in  the  Principality,  so 
the  Roman  Hercules  also  was  associated  in  Italy  with 
the  Muses.  On  those  occasions  Hercules  was  named 
Musagetes,  and  pictured  holding  a  lyre.  This  interpreta- 
tion, however,  was  purely  Roman ;  there  was  no  trace 
of  it  in  Greece.  To-day  the  muscular  strength  Herakles 
personified  is  superseded  by  the  much  greater  force 
acquired  through  the  scientific  control  of  the  elements 


of  nature.  It  is  this  modernised  conception  of  strength 
that  is  studied  by  the  government  of  the  Principality. 
In  deciding  problems  of  local  administration  the  teaching 
of  science  is  more  and  more  closely  observed,  and  it  may 
thus  be  said  that  by  utilising  the  force  science  confers 
Hercules  is  still  honoured. 

It  is  not,  however,  the  Grecian  Herakles  or  the 
Roman  Hercules  who  is  specially  connected  with  Monaco. 
The  most  brilliant  of  all  public  rejoicings  was  held  in 
April  1910  to  celebrate  the  inauguration  of  the  Oceano- 
graphic  Museum.  The  chapter  dealing  with  this  unique 
institution  will  describe  the  water  festival.  For  the 
moment  it  suffices  to  state  that  this  aquatic  spectacle 
recalled  the  old  legend  according  to  which  Monaco  was 
founded  sixteen  or  seventeen  hundred  years  before  the 
Christian  era  by  the  Phoenician  Melkarth,  or  sun-god, 
born  of  Baal  and  Astarte,  who  were  recognised  at  Tyre 
and  Sidon  as  the  father  and  mother  of  all  things.  Dupuis, 
in  his  great  work  "L'Origine  de  Tous  les  Cultes"  and  other 
eighteenth-century  authorities,  interpreted  myths  in  an 
astronomical  sense  which,  if  considerably  modified  by 
more  modern  I'esearch,  is  not  even  to-day  entirely  super- 
seded. According  to  this  school  man  had  no  sooner  given 
a  soul  to  the  world  and  an  intelligence  guiding  and 
vivifying  the  various  forces  of  nature  than  these  were 
promptly  represented  in  poems  and  chants  as  living 
personalities.  The  sun  as  the  redeemer  from  the  evils 
of  winter  appears  to  us  embodied  in  different  legends 
under  the  names  of  Hercules,  Bacchus,  Osiris,  Helios, 
Jason,  etc.,  etc. ;  in  all  these  myths  there  is  a  similar 
conception  differently  expressed.  With  Herakles  the 
myth  represented  strength,  primarily  solar  strength,  then 
human  endeavour  travailing  and  struggling  for  the 
accomplishment  of  a  given  task.  This  harmonises  very 
accurately  with  the  legendary  twelve  labours  of  Hercules 
piously  and  fittingly  painted  in  the  galleries  that  sur- 
round the  Court  of  Honour  of  the  palace  of  Monaco. 

The  legend  is  sometimes   appropriated   bodily  by   a 


people  who  flatter  themselves  into  the  belief  tliat  the  life 
history  of  the  god  as  their  eponymous  ancestor  is  the 
history  of  their  nation.  Thus  it  was  not  the  Phoenicians 
who  came  to  Monaco  ;  it  was  Herakles,  or  Melkarth, 
Menouakh  as  they  entitled  their  principal  god.  The  latter 
word,  according  to  I'Abb^  Burges  ("  Antiquitates  Grecae," 
v.,  p.  2831),  means  that  which  gives  asylum  or  rest,  and 
this  is  certainly  applicable  to  a  natural  harbour  such  as 
the  port  at  Monaco.  The  Greeks,  the  Abbe  maintains, 
erroneously  interpreted  the  term  as  signifying  sole  occup- 
ant or  inhabitant ;  but  certainly  in  the  temples  built  to 
Herakles  no  other  god  was  worshipped.  Thus  we  come 
to  the  Partus  HerakUs  Blonoeki  where  the  Phoenicians 
raised  a  temple  in  which  Melkarth  was  alone  to  be 
\vorshipped  as  the  god  of  strength,  the  symbol  of  the 
sun,  that  dissipates  darkness,  gives  light,  life,  harvest, 
fruit,  sweetness,  health  and  increase.  According  to  one 
version  the  word  Monaco  was  connected  with  a  form  of 
monotheism,  and  according  to  another  authority  with  the 
sense  of  hospitality,  of  rest  and  security  that  a  good 
harbour  offers  to  the  weary  mariner.  It  may  be  argued 
that  there  is  not  much  in  a  name,  especially  in  this  case, 
for,  according  to  Varro,  Hercules  rejoiced  in  no  fewer 
than  forty-four  aliases.  On  the  other  hand  these  forty- 
four  Herculeses  all  achieved  similar  exploits,  whether  it 
was  Hercules  at  Gabez  or  Samson  at  Gaza.  For  the  most 
part  they  killed  lions  and  procured  golden  apples. 

It  would  be  interesting  to  know  during  which  of  his 
twelve  labours  Monaco  was  discovered  by  its  titular  god. 
The  legend  says  he  conferi'ed  eternal  spring  on  this  favoured 
spot ;  a  poetical  conceit,  confirmed,  in  a  measure,  by  the 
springlike  climate  that  prevails  there  during  the  winter. 
The  probabilities  are  that  Herakles  would  be  described 
as  passing  by  Monaco  while  coasting  the  Mediterranean 
on  his  way  to  the  Gardens  of  the  Hesperides,  for  they 
were  alleged  to  be  near  Mount  Atlas  and  to  the  extreme 
west.  But  all  along  the  Riviera  people  claim  that  the 
golden  apples  were  none  other  than   the   oranges   they 


grew  in  their  gardens.  Ignoring  the  sweet  and  large 
oranges  of  Jaffa,  and  other  places  close  to  Tyre,  they 
imagine  that  the  sour  oranges  of  the  French  Riviera  were 
the  first  and  nearest  that  would  be  found  by  travellers 
coming  from  Tyre  or  Sidon.  Thus  the  islands  close  to 
Toulon  are  called  Les  Iks  d'Or,  because  the  inhabitants 
thought  that  Herakles  must  have  found  the  golden 
apples  or  oranges  in  this  neighbourhood.  At  the  winter 
station  of  Hyeres,  facing  these  islands,  the  first  hotels 
built  adopted  names  in  keeping  with  this  tradition.  There 
were  the  Hotel  des  lies  dOr  and  the  Hotel  des  Hesper- 
ides.  Other  places  along  the  Uiviera,  notably  the  islands 
opposite  Cannes,  also  claim  to  have  provided  Herakles 
with  the  golden  apples  he  needed.  Monaco  alone,  however, 
was  named  after  Herakles  and  known  in  history  as  the 
Porfus  Hei-aklis  Monaki  or  Partus  Herculis  3Ioncec/. 
But  the  reader  may  inquire  was  it  when  pursuing  Geryon 
or  when  seeking  for  golden  apples  that  he  paused  at 
Monaco  ?  On  this  point  the  myth  is  silent. 

To-day  the  zodiacal  sign  Leo  means  the  end  of  July 
and  the  first  twenty-two  days  of  August.  If  the  year  of 
Melkarth  began  in  Leo,  the  sun  has  precessed  through 
five  signs  since  that  time,  so  that  all  this  must  have 
happened  some  thirteen  thousand  years  ago.  Without 
attempting  the  lengthy  task  of  describing  the  twelve 
labours  of  Hercules,  we  may  take  the  twelfth  as  an  example, 
particularly  as  it  deals  with  the  golden  apples  said  to 
have  been  found  on  the  Riviera.  Dupuis,  in  the  manner 
of  his  day,  summarises  the  fable  and  compares  it  with  the 
astronomical  reality.  It  may  also  be  noted  that  after  his 
ascension  into  heaven,  in  a  cloud  of  glory.  Herakles  is 
stated  to  have  wedded  Hebe,  or  eternal  spring  ;  a  detail, 
a  later  poetical  version  of  the  myth,  which  may  haAC 
inspired  the  idea  of  associating  the  springlike  climate  of 
Monaco  with  tliis  legend. 

Thus  explained,  these  legends  lose  none  of  their  poet- 
ical value,  tliough  they  have  acquired  a  scientific  interest. 
When   armed   with   this   knowledge,  we  shall   see   how 


appropriate  are  the  frescoes  depicting  the  labours  of 
Hercules  painted  round  the  gallery  of  the  Court  of 
Honour  in  the  palace  of  Monaco.  They  give  the  princi- 
pal legend  out  of  which  Monaco  has  grown.  Herakles, 
having  secured  the  golden  apples  of  Hesperides,  is  inade 
immortal  and  marries  Hebe,  or  eternal  spring.  Remember- 
ing that  the  gardens  of  the  principality  are  worthy  of 
comparison  with  the  Gardens  of  the  Hesperides,  it  is 
equally  easy  to  admit  that  golden  apples  have  been 
discovered.  In  this  modern  version  of  the  classic  abode 
where  the  dragon  and  the  three  nymphs  known  as  the 
Hesperides  were  set  to  guard  the  golden  apples  Juno 
gave  to  Jupiter,  the  nymphs  are  to-day  more  numerous. 
The  dragon  still  guards  the  golden  apples  and  it  requires 
the  strength  of  Herakles  to  snatch  any  of  them  away. 
But  Herakles  does  not  represent  the  foreigners  who  come 
and  get  into  trouble  with  the  nymphs  or  are  devoured  by 
the  dragon.  He  is  the  titular  god  of  Monaco ;  he  killed 
the  dragon  and  took  the  apples. 

Again  it  must  also  be  borne  in  mind  that  Herakles, 
as  already  mentioned,  was  united  to  the  spring,  to  Hebe, 
who  was  fair  and  always  in  the  bloom  of  youth.  She  was 
cupbearer  to  the  gods,  and  could  restore  men  to  the 
vigour  of  youth.  Hebe  was  well  suited  to  accompany  the 
sun-god,  the  god  of  strength,  the  giver  of  life  and  light, 
who  nevertheless  is  defeated  annually  and  has  to  descend 
to  the  underworld,  there  to  be  born  again  and  rise 
triumphantly  in  the  springtime.  Though  this  endless 
battle  between  Ormuz  and  Ahriman,  between  Osiris  and 
Typhon,  between  Good  and  Evil,  between  Summer  and 
Winter,  is  waged  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  there  is  scarcely 
another  spot  where  the  fruits  of  the  sun's  victory  are 
more  superbly  displayed  than  on  the  Riviera,  and  especi- 
ally at  Monaco.  Well  may  the  titular  god  of  even  such 
a  travelled  people  as  the  Phoenicians  have  paused  before 
this  entrancing  panorama,  this  amphitheatre  of  majestic 
mountains  sheltering  the  subtropical  vegetation  and  the 
general   abundance   of  fruit   and    flowers    that   encircles 


the  port  Melkarth  was  supposed  to  make  his 

This  assuredly  was  the  moment  for  a  miracle.  Rarely 
had  the  benefits  the  sun  confers,  the  beauty  it  creates, 
been  so  harmoniously  manifested.  Nature,  like  the  faithful 
in  the  days  of  credulity,  seemed  to  cry  out  for  a  miracle. 
But  early  man  had  not  as  yet  begun  to  draw  the  distinc- 
tion between  the  miraculous  and  the  natural.  At  a  later 
stage  the  longing  for  the  miraculous  is  the  incentive  to 
gi'cat  works  ;  and,  after  all,  how  small  are  the  miracles  in 
the  legends  of  the  past  compared  with  the  every-day  feats 
of  modern  science. 

Herakles  performed  his  deed  of  might,  and  this  deed  is 
equal  to  the  greatest,  for  it  renders,  and  will  continue  to 
render,  inestimable  service  to  countless  millions  of  beings. 
The  great  sun-god  was  indignant  to  think  that  the  ac- 
cumulation of  his  best  achievements  clustering  together 
at  Monaco  was  to  be  injured  or  destroyed  by  his  old 
adversary  the  Evil  One,  the  Winter,  the  constellation  of 
the  Serpent  that  to-day  holds  the  sun  captive  during  the 
months  of  November,  December  and  January.  Therefore 
the  Herakles  known  as  Melkarth  or  Herakles  Monoekos 
raised  his  mighty  arms  and  bent  nature  to  his  will. 

Needless  to  say  no  gods  break  their  own  laws.  A 
miracle  has  been  well  defined  as  the  overthrowing  of  a 
general  and  well-known  law  of  nature  by  applying  another 
natural  law  that  is  not  so  well  known.  According  to  the 
usual  and  better-known  law  governing  countries  situated 
in  about  the  43rd  degree  of  latitude  they  should  experi- 
ence such  severe  winters  that  they  cannot  grow  tropical 
vegetation.  It  is  necessary,  generally  speaking,  to  go  a 
good  distance  south  of  Monaco,  to  Andalusia  in  Spain, 
for  instance,  to  cultivate  the  lemon  and  the  orange  or 
plant  palm-trees  in  the  open.  But  Herakles  performed 
the  miracle ;  he  bestowed  on  Monaco  perpetual  spring. 
The  winter  months  provide  springlike  weather,  and  the 
summer  is  cooler  in  Monaco  than  in  other  countries  of  the 
same  latitude.  Thus,  comparatively  speaking,  springlike 


weather  prevails  all  the  year  round.  The  miracle,  if  we 
may  call  it  a  miracle,  was  achieved.  The  general  law  regu- 
lating the  correspondence  between  latitude  and  climate 
was  overthrown  by  applying  another  law  that  cannot  be 
often  brought  to  bear,  the  law  of  shelter  and  i-eflection. 
The  shelter  from  cold  northerly  winds  is  afforded  by  the 
Maritime  Alps,  and  what  but  the  strength  of  Hercules 
could  have  so  raised  the  earth  as  to  form  this  lofty  and 
mighty  range  of  mountains  ?  Attracted  to  the  Alps  the 
rainclouds  leave  the  sky  at  Monaco  undisturbed  and  the 
sun,  without  interruption,  pours  his  heat  rays  on  the  lime- 
stone of  the  mountains.  Here  the  warmth  is  stored  and 
then  reflected  on  the  principality  even  after  the  sun  has 
set.  On  the  other  hand  the  fact  that  the  greater  part  of 
the  principality,  though  close  to  the  cold  waters  of  the  sea, 
is  300  feet  and  more  above  the  shore,  produces  a  cool 
refreshing  movement  of  the  air  which  mitigates  the  heat 
of  the  summer.  In  this  manner  is  Monaco  blessed  by  the 
sun-god,  who  personified  the  renowned  mariners  of  Tyre. 
Since  then,  and  from  all  quarters  of  the  world,  people  have 
come  to  this  privileged  spot  to  enjoy  the  climate  and  wait 
till  Hebe  restored  their  impaired  youthfulness.  It  may 
therefore  be  said  that  unto  this  very  day  are  the  old  sun- 
god  and  his  youthful  bride  worshipped  at  IVlonaco.  While 
the  foreigners  enjoy  the  climate,  the  natives  gather  the 
golden  apples  that  grow  more  and  more  plentifully  in  this 
modern  Garden  of  Hesperides  ;  but  they  devote  part  of  the 
proceeds  to  advance  the  arts  and  sciences  the  sun-god  has 
ever  favoured. 

Another  myth  that  plays  an  important  part  in  the  story 
of  Monaco  is  the  story  of  St  D(^vote.  This  legend  has  been 
well  preserved,  for  it  is  told  with  differences  that  only 
affect  matters  of  detail.  It  may  be  related  briefly  or  at 
length,  the  main  facts  remain  the  same.  But,  like  Herakles, 
St  Devote  does  not  belong  exclusively  to  Monaco.  The 
saint  has  also  her  chapel  and  votaries  in  Corsica.  Thus 
when  in  1747  a  revolt  broke  out  in  that  island,  its  chief 
leader,    Paolo,    instituted  an   order   of  knighthood   and 

LEGEND    OF    ST    DEVOTE  29 

thought  he  could  not  better  reward  those  who  had  served 
him  than  by  conferring  on  them  the  title  of  Chevalier  de 
Sdinte  Dixote.  From  this  example,  set  by  his  fellow- 
countryman,  Napoleon  is  said  to  have  derived  the  idea  of 
creating  the  Order  of  the  Legion  of  Honour. 

Perhaps  the  most  complete  account  and  most  easily 
accessible  will  be  found  in  the  Acta  Saiictoriiini, 
Jannuai-rii,  t.  2,  pp.  770  and  771,  of  the  Ex  Chroiiologia 
Ecrinensi.  Without  reproducing  this  document  in  full  it 
may  be  briefly  stated  that  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor 
Diocletian  and  JNIaximian  a  pious  Christian  girl  living 
in  Corsica  took  refuge  in  the  house  of  a  senator  named 
Euticus  to  escape  from  persecution.  This  was  St  Devote. 
She  is  described  as  passing  an  ascetic  and  contemplative 
life,  fasting  on  all  days  but  Sunday  and  inflicting  severe 
bodily  punishment  on  herself.  In  vain  did  Euticus  en- 
deavour to  dissuade  her  from  such  austerity.  St  Devote 
replied :  "I  do  not  ill  treat  my  body ;  on  the  contrary, 
I  indulge  in  diverse  delights,  because  God  in  heaven 
surfeits  me  every  day  with  his  gifts  and  his  goodness  " : 
and  Euticus,  we  are  further  told,  dared  not  persist  be- 
cause he  was  unable  to  face  the  radiance  of  her  visage. 
Then  follows  the  story  of  the  arrival  of  the  wicked 
prefect  sent  from  Home  to  persecute  the  Christians. 

Euticus  invited  the  prefect  to  dinner,  and  while  he 
was  at  table  someone  informed  the  prefect  that  a  young 
girl  who  despised  the  gods  was  concealed  in  the  house. 
As,  however,  the  senator  refused  to  give  her  up,  the 
prefect  caused  him  to  be  secretly  poisoned.  St  Devote 
was  then  seized  and  called  upon  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods. 
When  she  refused  a  stone  was  dashed  upon  her  mouth, 
to  prevent  her  from  blaspheming  against  the  gods. 
Then  her  feet  were  tied  together  and  she  was  dragged, 
naked,  by  a  horse  over  rough  stones.  In  the  midst  of  her 
sufTering  she  cried  out :  "  I^ord,  hear  thy  servant's  prayer, 
and  number  among  the  elect  Euticus,  who  has  been 
killed  on  my  account  by  the  barbarous  prefect."  There- 
upon   a    voice    was    heard    from    heaven    saying,   "My 


daughter,  thy  prayer  is  granted  and  all  that  thou  de- 
mandest  thou  shalt  obtain,"  upon  which  a  dove  came 
out  of  her  mouth  and  flew  to  the  skies.  The  prefect 
wished  to  burn  her  body  on  the  morrow  so  that  it  should 
not  go  to  heaven,  but  during  the  night  the  priest 
Benenatus,  from  Savoy,  and  the  deacon  Apollinaris  (who 
had  been  hiding  in  a  cave),  having  been  warned  by  a 
vision,  carried  the  body  to  the  boat  of  the  mariner 
Gratien.  They  started  for  the  coast  of  Africa,  but  a  fear- 
ful storm  blew  them  towards  Europe.  The  exhausted 
Gratien  fell  asleep.  St  Devote  then  appeared  to  Bene- 
natus and  told  him  that  the  storm  would  soon  be  over, 
that  a  dove  would  come  from  the  mouth  of  her  body, 
and  the  boat  must  follow  the  dove  till  they  reached 
a  place  the  Greeks  named  Monacho  and  the  Latins 
Singulare :  there,  in  a  valley  called  Gaumates,  the 
remains  were  to  be  buried.  This  was  all  fulfilled,  and 
the  burial  took  place  on  the  27th  of  January,  presumably 
of  the  year  304. 

There  are,  as  has  been  said,  other  versions  of  the 
story.  According  to  one  of  these  the  ship  was  completely 
wrecked  and  all  on  board  were  drowned.  The  body  of  St 
Devote  floated  about  on  a  plank  till  it  reached  the  port 
of  Hercules.  Here  it  was  found  that  someone  had 
thoughtfully  written  on  the  plank  full  explanations  and 
instructions,  so  that  the  saint  was  duly  buried  in  the  vale 
— or,  as  it  would  be  more  correct  to  say,  the  gorge — of 
the  Gaumates.  The  details  of  the  various  versions  vary. 
According  to  some  accounts,  St  Devote  was  only  sixteen 
years  old  and  very  beautiful.  Her  protector  Euticus  was 
poisoned  by  the  prefect's  cook,  sent  for  that  purpose, 
and  the  poison  consisted  of  herbs  with  which  the  cook 
pretended  to  flavour  an  eel-pie.  This  he  did  so  skilfully 
that  Euticus  died  rapidly  and  without  difficulty.  Many 
details  are  given  concerning  the  martyrdom  of  the  saint. 
According  to  one  story  she  was  to  have  been  crucified  but 
died  in  time  to  escape  this  last  torture.  Where  the  story 
is  weak  is  in  respect  to  what  happened  after  the  body  had 


reached  the  shore  at  Monaco.  It  is  rather  disconcerting 
to  find  that  what  was  apparently  the  first  church  built  on 
the  spot  where  the  saint  is  supposed  to  have  been  buried 
was  dedicated  to  St  George,  who,  it  seems,  took  not 
only  England  but  also  Genoa  under  his  patronage. 

All  that  we  know  on  which  positive  reliance  may  be 
placed  is  that  there  are  extant  title-deeds  concerning 
Monaco  which  were  drawn  up  in  the  eleventh  century, 
and  these  mention  the  existence  of  an  oratory  in  the 
ravine  of  the  Gaumates  which  was  a  dependence  of  the 
Abbey  of  Saint-Pons  at  Nice.  But  this  is  seven  hundred 
years  after  the  martyrdom  is  supposed  to  have  taken 
place.  We  do  know,  however,  that  the  Abbey  of  Saint- 
Pons  belonged  to  the  Order  of  St  Benoit  and  that  this 
order  did  at  some  time  or  other  propagate  the  cult  of  St 
Devote.  The  ruling  princes  of  Monaco  also  supported 
this  worship  and  agreed  that  St  Devote  should  be  the 
patron  saint  of  the  principality.  Finally  the  popes  gave 
their  approval.  In  the  well-stocked  archives  of  Monaco 
several  pontifical  bulls  are  to  be  found  on  this  subject. 
There  is  one  dated  1475  from  Sixtus  IV.,  and  another 
from  Benoit  XIII.  of  1725,  granting  a  two  years' 
indulgence  to  the  faithful  who  observe  St  Devote's  fete 
day  and  contribute  to  the  restoration  of  her  chapel. 

Though  many  centuries  elapsed  before  the  virtues  of 
this  saint  and  martyr  were  recognised,  it  is  not  surprising 
that  with  the  aid  of  the  august  patronage  ultimately  forth- 
coming, St  Devote  finally  gained  great  ascendancy  over  the 
minds  of  the  Monegasques.  In  the  course  of  time,  there- 
fore, St  Devote  became  the  object  of  ardent  worship,  and 
the  faith  now  firmly  established  had  a  suflicient  hold  on 
susceptible  minds  to  suggest  apparitions  and  miracles. 
In  1070  a  pirate  named  Antinope  having  anchored 
within  the  port,  succeeded  dui'ing  the  night  in  forcing 
the  doors  of  the  chapel,  and  stealing  the  reliquary 
containing  the  remains  of  St  Devote.  Next  day,  however, 
it  was  noticed  that,  though  the  wind  was  favourable, 
Antinope  was  unable  to  manoeuvre  his  boat  so  as  to  quit 


the  harbour.  This  awakened  suspicion.  The  theft  had  been 
discovered,  and  it  was  thought  that  the  saint  was  thus 
endeavouring  to  indicate  the  thief.  Boats  were  sent  out. 
Antinope  was  captured  and  the  rehcs  recovered.  He  was 
brouglit  before  the  Itahan  Prince  Hugo,  who  contented 
himself  with  having  his  nose  and  ears  cut  off  and  then 
allowed  him  to  return  to  his  boat. 

This  incident  accounts  for  the  fact  that  the  relics  were 
removed  to  the  Church  of  St  Nicholas,  up  at  ISIonaco, 
where  there  is  the  protection  of  the  fortifications  that 
surround  the  old  town.  But  every  year  on  the  27th  of 
January  these  relics  are  brought  down  to  the  Vale  of 
the  Gaumates.  There  is  a  grand  procession,  and  when 
the  priests  arrive  at  the  Condamine,  and  in  front  of 
the  chapel  dedicated  to  St  Devote,  they  turn  towards  the 
port  and  bless  the  sea  and  the  ships  with  her  relics.  In  the 
evening  a  bonfire  is  lit  by  the  captain  of  the  port  and 
is  answered  by  another  bonfire  at  Monaco  in  front  of  the 
palace.  Monaco,  itself,  however,  has  been  frequently  be- 
sieged and  sometimes  captured.  The  most  important  of 
these  sieges  began  in  December  1506  and  lasted  102  days. 
On  that  occasion  the  town  was  attacked  by  the  Genoese, 
and,  according  to  an  old  tradition,  would  certainly  have 
fallen  if  St  Devote  had  not  appeared  to  the  besiegers 
wrapped  in  a  cloud.  This  awe-inspiring  vision  disheartened 
the  Genoese  and  they  raised  the  siege.  Later,  in  1585,  a 
small  body  of  Corsican  and  French  soldiers  attempted  to 
surprise  the  garrison,  a  Corsican  living  in  Monaco  having 
undertaken  to  help  in  betraying  the  town.  With  ladders  and 
some  petards  the  audacious  invaders,  though  numbering 
only  150  fighting  men,  attempted  to  storm  one  of  the  outer 
gates.  They  failed,  however,  to  blow  up  the  gate  with 
their  petards,  and  a  few  shots,  followed  by  a  shower  of 
stones  from  the  walls,  sent  the  small  band  of  adventurers 
flying  for  their  lives.  This,  however,  is  only  the  dry 
version  given  by  historians,  who  are  so  very  unsympathetic 
as  to  require  proofs  or  evidence  before  recording  popular 
beliefs  as  if  they  were  facts.  The  reason  of  course  why 

THE    FEAST    OF    ST    DEVOTE  33 

this  assault  failed  was  the  intervention  of  St  Devote. 
What  could  be  more  plausible  than  that  the  saint  should 
appear  on  the  walls  of  Monaco  and  reprove  the  Corsicans 
for  attacking  a  town  where  the  relics  of  their  own 
Corsican  saint  and  martyr  were  so  carefully  guarded  and 
cherished.  Such  a  reproach  would  be  irresistible,  and  well 
may  the  assailants  have  desisted  and  hastened  back  to 
their  ships. 

By  such  stories  and  traditions  is  the  impression  created 
that  Monaco  was  brought  into  being  by  Melkarth,  the 
Herakles  of  the  Phoenicians,  and  preserved  as  an  inde- 
pendent state  for  many  centuries  by  its  patroness  St 
Devote.  The  question  might  then  be  put  whether  there 
is  not  with  regard  to  the  St  Devote  legend  a  rational 
explanation  such  as  that  I  have  just  given  with  respect  to 
Herakles.  It  would  indeed  be  strange  if  it  were  not  so ; 
but  while  no  one  still  desires  to  believe  Herakles  really 
did  exist,  killed  a  real  lion,  swept  out  a  real  stable,  and 
picked  genuine  golden  apples,  there  are  many  people 
whose  feelings  would  be  hurt  if  they  were  undeceived 
with  regard  to  the  dove  issuing  from  St  Devote's  mouth. 



DURING  the  first  year  of  the  forty-fifth  Olympiad 
— ^that  is,  about  six  hundred  years  before  the 
Christian  era — a  tribe  was  making  merry  in  a 
sheltered  bay  of  Southern  Gaul.  Their  chief,  named  Nann, 
was  about  to  give  his  daughter  Gyptis  in  marriage  when 
a  Phocian  galley  approached  the  shore.  The  strangers 
were  invited  to  land  and  participate  in  the  rejoicings. 
Toward  the  end  of  the  feast  the  chief,  giving  a  cup  to 
his  daughter,  ordered  her  to  present  the  wine  it  contained 
to  the  man  present  whom  she  would  select  to  wed.  It  so 
happened  that  the  captain  of  the  Phocian  galley  was  tall, 
handsome,  distinguished,  and  the  chieftain's  young  daughter 
offered  him  the  matrimonial  cup.  Some  say  his  name  was 
Protis  ;  others,  Euxenes  :  in  any  case  the  Ligurians  gave 
him  sufficient  land  for  building  a  town.  Massalia,  or 
Marseilles,  thus  came  into  existence.  To  this  day  the  in- 
habitants of  Marseilles  boast  that  they  are  descended  from 
the  Phocians. 

Before  this  happy  event  we  know  that  Ligurians, 
hailing  from  the  banks  of  the  Danube,  invaded  the  north 
of  Italy ;  and,  travelling  along  the  narrow  shores  from 
what  is  now  Genoa  to  Marseilles,  encountered  other 
invaders — the  Iberians  coming  from  Spain  and  travelling 
in  the  contrary  direction.  The  Ligurians  seem  to  have 
been  a  little  more  civilised  than  the  Iberians  :  at  any  rate 
the  latter  were  early  driven  away.  At  all  events  the 
Ligurians  knew  how  to  cultivate  grain.  They  had  some 
sort  of  tribal  organisation  and  possessed  better  weapons. 
The  Phocians  who  had  reached  Marseilles  just  in  time  for 



the  wedding  feast  came  from  Phocsea,  a  maritime  town 
of  Ionia,  between  Cumaj  and  Smyrna,  where  the  Athenians 
had  founded  a  colony.  They  therefore  represented  a  much 
higher  degree  of  civihsation ;  but,  if  they  found  the 
Ligurians  a  somewhat  barbarous  people,  they  were  greatly 
impressed  by  the  natural  advantages  of  the  gulfs  formed 
by  the  estuary  of  the  Rhone.  Here  was  an  opportunity 
of  exchanging  the  merchandise  of  the  East  for  the  agri- 
cultural produce  of  the  Rhone  Valley.  To  increase  the 
value  of  the  latter,  the  Phocians  brought  olives,  vines,  seeds 
of  all  sorts,  better  weapons  and  better  clothes.  They 
planted  vineyards  and  fig-trees.  The  Celtic  hovels  and 
mud  walls  made  room  for  Greek  temples  and  Corinthian 
fa(,"ades.  Nevertheless  the  Phocians  were  not  the  first 
civilised  people  to  trade  with  and  colonise  these  shores. 

The  Phoenicians  ^ — the  palm-tree  people — are  stated 
to  have  founded  colonies  even  beyond  the  Pillars  of  Her- 
cules, and  this  some  eleven  or  twelve  hundred  years  before 
our  era.  They  it  was  who  named  the  mountains  on  each 
side  of  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  the  Pillars  of  Hercules, 
and  whose  history,  we  have  seen,  is  the  basis  on  which 
rests  the  myth  of  Melkarth  or  Herakles,  the  Phoenician 
Hercules.  The  Phoenicians  not  only  preceded  the  Phocians 
by  many  hundred  years,  but  their  road  from  Tyre  and 
Sidon  was  not  via  Marseilles.  They  preferred  to  travel  via 
Monaco,  consequently  named  the  Port  of  Hercules.  Here 
it  was  that  the  Phoenician  ships,  easily  recognisable  by 
the  horse's  head  at  the  prow  and  the  fish's  tail  at  the 
stern,  first  touched  the  shore.  A  thousand  years  and  more 
before  the  dove  guided  St  Devote's  little  bark  to  this 
spot,  the  Phoenicians  had  also  landed  in  the  Condamine 
under  the  shelter  of  Monaco  on  one  side  and  Monte 
Carlo  on  the  other.  How  long  the  Phoenicians  remained, 
when  precisely  they  first  arrived,  antiquaries  and  his- 
torians must  be  left  to  discuss.  It  may  suffice  for  present 

1  Phoiitix :  Greek  for  phoenix  and  for  palm-tree.  Phoenic  has  become 
the  generic  name  for  palm-trees  ;  thus  phomic  dactylifera  is  the  date- 


purposes  to  record  that  they  colonised  this  part  of  the 
world  for  several  centuries.  Their  rivals  the  Phocians  w^ere 
known  to  history  only  about  800  B.C.  ;  but  they  early 
acquired  a  good  reputation  as  able  navigators,  keen 
tradesmen.  They  were,  withal,  a  noisy,  merry  people, 
characteristics  still  to  be  found  at  Marseilles  and  in 
Provence.  Fen  de  brut — Proven9al  for  "  make  a  noise  " — 
as  "  Tartarin  de  Tarascon "  shows  us,  is  still  a  joy  in 

After  the  downfall  of  Tyre  in  574  b.c. — wrought  by 
the  Persians  under  Cyrus — its  principal  colony,  Carthage, 
inherited  the  western  possessions  of  the  Phoenicians.  This 
gave  a  superiority  to  Carthage  which  was  not  approved 
by  the  Phocian  element  then  predominating  at  Marseilles. 
A  maritime  war  ensued  between  the  rival  ports,  by  that 
time  a  number  of  havens  and  strongholds  had  been  created 
along  the  coast,  such  as  Athenopolis,  Antipolis,  or  Antibes, 
Niccea,  or  Nice,  but  JMo/neces,  or  Monaco,  was  among  the 
most  ancient  and  the  most  important.  True  to  its  pure 
Phoenician  origin,  Monaco  took  sides  with  Carthage 
against  IMarseilles,  and  to  this  day  there  is  an  occasional 
revival  of  the  ancient  antagonism.  Monaco  occasionally 
served  as  a  basis  for  the  operations  of  the  Carthaginian 
fleet ;  and  to-day  the  people  of  IVIarseilles  have  not  ceased 
watching  lest  ^lonaco,  as  an  independent  principality, 
should  use  its  port  to  the  disadvantage  of  INIarseilles 

AVhen  the  Phoenicians  associated  Monaco  with  their 
great  divinity  Melkarth,  or  Herakles,  they  meant  the  whole 
mass  of  the  mountains  which  shelter  the  coast,  and  which 
only  a  giant  of  strength,  a  Hercules,  could  have  surmounted 
or  conquered.  It  is  generally  believed  that  a  temple  was 
raised  to  the  Phoenician  Hercules  and  built  on  the  rock 
where  the  old  town  of  Monaco  now  stands,  probably  on 
the  site  of  the  present  cathedral.  But  others  think  the 
temple  stood  on  the  Moneghette  height,  farther  inland 
and  behind  the  rock  of  Monaco  town.  On  the  site  of  the 
present  town  no  Phoenician  remains  have  been  found.  The 


earliest  traces  of  human  efforts  to  build  were  discovered 
farther  inland  and  higher  up ;  and  these  are  prehistoric, 
for  they  belong  to  the  time  when  the  use  of  mortar  and 
plaster  had  not  been  discovered.  The  nearest  is  the  castrwn 
in  the  Castelleretto  quarter,  near  the  Ophthalmic  Institute, 
founded  by  the  Princess  Alice  ;  though,  of  late,  the  cutting 
of  quarries  has  largely  destroyed  the  site  where  stones 
were  piled  together  to  form  a  castle.  Better  remains  of 
this  description  are  to  be  seen  away  up  toward  the 
highest  point  dominating  the  coasts.  On  the  summit  of 
Mount  Agel  there  is  a  levelled  plateau  that  suggests  the 
ground  on  which  a  sanctuary  stood.  Probably  there  was 
also  an  entrenched  camp.  A  sixteenth-century  map,  drawn 
during  the  Spanish  occupation,  speaks  of  las  muras,  the 
walls.  Behind  JNIount  Agel,  as  a  defence  of  the  pass  or 
road  from  Turbie  to  Peille,  there  are  some  well-preserved 
remains  called  Lou  Casteii.  Here  the  wall  in  some  parts  is 
still  about  sixteen  feet  high,  though  built  only  by  fitting 
stones  one  on  the  other.  There  was  no  cement,  mortar  or 
plaster  in  those  days.  Probably  several  temples  were 
raised  in  honour  of  Hercules  in  these  fortified  positions. 
Strabo  says  a  temple  was  built  at  the  port  itself :  though 
no  sign  of  it  remains  here  there  are  traces  elsewhere. 

Nothing  precise  is  known  as  to  what  happened  at 
Monaco  when  the  power  of  Carthage  was  on  the  wane. 
There  can  be  no  doubt,  however,  that  the  people  of 
Marseilles  clung  tenaciously  to  the  great  Heraklean  road 
the  Phoenicians  had  constructed.  For  many  centuries  it 
supplied  the  life-blood  of  the  whole  coast.  Many  authors 
mention  this  lengthy  road  and  describe  how  it  bore  most 
of  the  traflfic  from  Italy  to  Spain.  When,  after  the  Second 
Punic  War,  the  Romans  conquered  Spain,  Marseilles  was 
brought  into  close  contact  with  Rome.  Perhaps  it  was 
because  the  Heraklean  road  was  so  good  that  the  Romans 
expanded  their  road-building  faculties  in  other  less 
favoured  directions.  But  the  turbulent  liigurians  who 
remained  of  the  aboriginal  stock  showed  atavistic 
tendencies.   Though  the  civilisation  brought  from  Tyre 


and  Sidon  had  predominated  from  1000  to  600  or  500  B.C., 
and  was  then  reinforced  by  Grecian  civihsation,  coming 
from  the  Grecian  islands  in  the  wake  of  the  Phocians, 
the  Ligurians  still  indulged  in  occasional  brigandage. 
The  Roman  influence  was  now  substituting  itself  for 
that  of  the  Greeks,  but  does  not  seem  to  have  been  alto- 
gether welcome.  Livy  relates  that  in  189  b.c.  the  Praetor 
L.  Boebius  when  travelling  to  Spain  was  attacked  by 
Ligurians  and  died  from  his  wounds  at  Marseilles.  A 
similar  fate  befell  the  Prtetor  Fabius  in  173  B.C.  Consul 
A.  Opimius,  therefore,  headed  a  punitive  expedition  and 
inflicted  heavy  losses  on  the  Ligurians  near  Antibes. 

After  this  lesson,  the  Heraklean  road  once  more 
became  secure  and  useful.  It  was  frequented  by  many 
Roman  legions  going  to  and  from  Spain.  They  marched 
from  Italy  to  Monaco  and  there  embarked  in  galleys. 
History  mentions  the  arrival  at  Monaco  of  many 
Roman  generals,  and  the  port  became  an  important 
strategical  position  on  the  Italian  frontier.  Julius  Ca;sar 
himself,  at  the  beginning  of  the  civil  war,  came  to 
Monaco  from  Gaul,  and  there  embarked  on  the  vessel 
that  took  him  to  fight  Pompey.  On  this  occasion  the 
Ligurians  enrolled  themselves  under  Ca;sar,  though 
they  were  ever  ready  to  fight  against  the  Romans  when 
the  latter  became  oppressive.  Indeed,  they  were  not 
thoroughly  subjected  till  the  year  7  b.c,  when  Augustus 
Csesar  won  the  great  victory  commemorated  to  this  day 
by  the  imposing  though  ruined  monument  at  La  Turbie. 
This  Augustan  trophy,  raised  high  on  the  AIpe  Summa  or 
Alpe  Maritima,  stands  on  the  limit  of  Italy  and  ancient 
Gaul.  It  was  built  by  order  of  the  Roman  Senate  as  a 
mark  of  gratitude  for  the  decisive  victory  won  over  the 
Gauls.  This  work  was  begun  in  the  year  758  of  Rome. 
Stone  quarries  were  opened  for  the  purpose,  and  quarrying 
has  continued  as  a  local  industry  to  this  day.  Prisoners 
of  war  were  forced  by  the  Roman  soldiers  to  cut  stones 
from  the  side  of  the  Alountain  of  Battles,  as  the  Turbie 
is  sometimes  called.   It  was  thought  advisable  to  erect  a 

THE    ROMANS   AND    LA    TURBIE  39 

monument  of  such  dimensions  as  would  thoroughly 
impress  the  semi-barbarous  native  populations.  A  firm 
square  basis  was  first  constructed,  and  this  served  as  a 
pedestal  for  a  lofty  tower.  Superimposed  columns  orna- 
mented and  surrounded  the  tower.  Between  each  column 
was  a  niche  to  hold  the  efhgy  of  a  Roman  officer  or  other 
celebrity,  and  on  the  summit  stood  a  gigantic  statue  of 
Augustus  Caesar.  To  judge  from  the  size  of  the  head, 
discovered  in  158.5  by  Father  Boyer,  whose  MS.  de- 
scription still  exists  in  the  I^^rins  Library,  the  statue 
must  have  been  about  twenty-two  feet  high. 

This  ostentation  and  pride  of  conquest  lasted  but  a 
day.  The  very  populations  whose  defeat  was  thus  recorded 
in  stone  swept  by  this  very  spot  on  their  victorious  march 
to  Rome.  They  might  have  revenged  themselves  by 
destroying  the  monuinent,  but  this  was  left  for  vandals 
of  a  much  more  recent  date.  Meanwhile  the  name  of 
the  proud  Roman  trophy  degenerated  as  the  power  of  the 
Roman  Empire  declined.  From  Trophi  Augusti  we  have 
Torpea  or  Torpia,  and  finally  the  modern  village  and 
commune  of  La  Turbie. 

Under  the  Ctesars,  Monaco  became  a  very  important 
place  and  the  Roman  jewellery  found  shows  that  it  was 
inhabited  by  influential  and  wealthy  Romans.  A  remark- 
able collection  of  this  jewellery  is  at  present  to  be  seen  at 
the  Anthropological  INIuseum  in  Monaco  town. 

The  Roman  Emperor  Pertinax  was  born  between  Nice 
and  Monaco.  In  early  life  he  was  a  charcoal-maker,  but 
when  he  enlisted  in  the  Roman  army  he  distinguished 
himself  first  in  Syria,  then  in  Britain,  defeating  the 
Caledonians.  In  reward  for  his  services  Marcus  Aurelius 
raised  him  to  the  Senate,  and  at  the  death  of  Commodus 
he  was  proclaimed  Emperor.  The  charcoal-burner  who 
hailed  from  Monaco  and  Nice  became  a  most  estimable 
ruler,  both  modest  and  humane. 

During  the  civil  war  that  followed  the  death,  in  G9,  of 
Nero,  the  rival  claimants  for  the  imperial  purple,  Otho 
and  Vitellius,  met  in   battle   near   Monaco.    Otho   won 



three  battles.  Nevertheless  he  is  ci'edited  with  having 
nobly  put  an  end  to  his  own  life  rather  than  continue 
such  bloodshed  to  secure  his  personal  promotion.  Unfor- 
tunately, Vitellius,  for  whose  benefit  this  sacrifice  was 
made,  proved  unworthy  of  it.  He  led  so  degraded  a  life 
that  he  was  dragged  to  the  Gemonian  stairs  by  his  own 
soldiers  and  thrown  to  die  among  the  carcasses  of  criminals. 
Roman  soldiers  were  sometimes  apt  to  treat  the  chief  of 
the  state  with  but  scant  courtesy. 

According  to  some  authorities,  Christianity  was  first 
preached  on  the  Riviera  by  St  Barnabas,  who  had  worked 
with  St  Paul.  Others  attribute  the  conversion  of  the 
Ligurians  to  St  Nazaire  and  St  Celsius.  In  any  case,  they 
were  both  arrested  at  Vintimille  and  martyred  at  Rome 
in  the  time  of  Nero.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Jews  are  said 
to  have  placed  Mary  IVIagdalene,  Salome,  Lazarus  and 
Joseph  of  Arimathea  in  a  boat  from  which  the  rudder 
was  removed.  Thus  left  helpless  on  the  waves,  the  wind 
took  them  over  to  the  Riviera,  and  the  River  Magnum 
is  named  after  the  Magdalene.  Nevertheless  but  scant 
details  are  forthcoming  concerning  the  early  propaganda 
of  Christianity  till  we  reach  the  story  of  St  Dev'ote,  to 
which  the  date  of  a.d.  304  is  given.  The  downfall  of  the 
Roman  Empire  and  the  spread  of  Christianity  were 
accompanied  by  the  destruction  of  much  evidence  that 
might  have  served  to  constitute  history.  As  little  care  was 
bestowed  on  I'ecording  current  events  as  in  preserving 
the  history  of  the  past.  Hence  for  several  centuries  it  is 
almost  impossible  to  say  what  happened. 

The  wild  hordes  that  followed  the  Gauls  into  Italy 
passed  through  or  near  Monaco.  The  Vandals,  the  Goths, 
the  Suabians,  the  Burgundians  and  others  did  not  fail  to 
ravage  Liguria  on  their  road  to  Rome. 

It  was  not  till  a  pagan  once  more  occupied  the  imperial 
throne  that  the  name  of  Rome  was  again  respected.  The 
victories  of  Belisarius,  the  general  sent  by  the  Emperor 
Justitian,  restored  order  on  the  coast-line,  where  Monaco 
was  losing  all  its  former  importance  and  prosperity.  Un- 


fortunately  this   order   was   maintained   only  for  a  few 

Now  came  another  race  of  tormentors,  the  Lombards, 
from  the  valleys  of  the  Drave  and  the  Save.  They  had  al- 
ready begun  to  occupy  those  northern  provinces  of  Italy 
which  are  now  called  Lombardy.  Other  Lombards  came 
from  North  Germany,  from  Lcuige  Biirdc,  a  fertile  plain 
by  the  Elbe.  But  the  Italians  translated  the  name  into 
Langobardi.  longues  Ixa-bcs,  longbeards,  aud  finally  Lom- 
bards. From  Italy  the  Lombards  naturally  passed  over 
the  Maritime  Alps,  sacked  Nice  and  utterly  wiped  out 
Cimiez.  Soon,  however,  a  new  power  arose,  this  time  in 
the  west.  The  rois  faineants,  or  "  idle  kings,"  of  the  Franks, 
whose  names  historians  hardly  like  to  drag  forth  from  a 
well-merited  oblivion,  entrusted  the  cares  of  government 
to  a  functionary  called  the  Mayor  of  the  Palace.  The 
most  celebrated  of  these  rulers  was  Charles  M artel,  so 
named  after  the  word  ma?-feau,  or  hammer.  He  had 
hammered  down  his  enemies,  and  notably  the  Saracen 
invaders  of  the  south  of  France.  At  the  same  time  a  cele- 
brated Pope,  Gregory  I.,  was  busy  quarrelling  with  the 
Lombards,  for  they  had  rendered  themselves  very  unpopu- 
lar in  Italy.  To  obtain  help,  the  Pope  offered  to  make  Pepin, 
the  son  of  Charles  ]\Iartel,  King  of  the  Franks.  This  was 
the  beginning.  The  work  continued  when  Pepin  was  recog- 
nised as  the  first  Carlovingian  king  of  the  Franks  and 
only  concluded  when  Charlemagne,  Charles  Martel's 
grandson,  definitely  destroyed  Lombard  rule.  Charle- 
magne was  then  proclaimed  King  of  the  Lombards  and 
the  Franks.  This  Avas  in  774,  and  six  years  later  Charle- 
magne became  Emperor  of  the  Romans,  thus  attempting 
to  reconstitute  the  Roman  Empire  of  the  Caesars.  In  this 
manner  did  the  Riviera  come  under  his  rule,  and  it  was 
Charlemagne  who,  out  of  the  ruins  of  Cimiez  and  its 
ancient  dioceses,  founded  the  Abbey  of  Saint-Pons,  just 
above  Nice.  This  abbey  has  remained  one  of  the  most 
important  ecclesiastical  institutions  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Monaco. 


During  the  glorious  reign  of  this  great  conqueror, 
organiser  and  administrator,  numerous  war  galleys  had 
been  built.  These  Charlemagne  employed  to  drive  the 
Danes  away  in  the  north,  and  the  Saracens  in  the  south. 
The  Riviera  had  been  more  or  less  exposed  to  Mussulman 
iucursions  since  729.  It  was  necessary  to  institute  a 
system  of  fire  signals  at  night  and  smoke  signals  in  the 
day  along  the  entire  coast.  Traces  of  the  towers  then 
built  and  of  rusty  fire-grids  are  still  to  be  found  on 
prominent  heights  commanding  the  coasts.  Those  signals, 
however,  did  not  prevent  the  sacking  of  Nice  and  of 
many  other  towns  on  the  coasts,  the  Saracens  and  Moors 
carrying  off  all  the  women  they  could  find  to  people  their 
harems.  On  the  other  hand,  some  of  these  landing  parties 
occasionally  came  to  grief  and  were  themselves  captured. 
At  first  employed  as  slaves,  they  ultimately  assimilated 
with  the  native  population  of  the  Riviera,  among  whom 
to  this  day  very  evident  traces  of  Moorish  blood  may  easily 
be  detected. 

With  the  reign  of  Charlemagne  there  came  a  period 
of  peace,  and  even  the  Saracens  were  kept  at  a  respectful 
distance.  But  the  great  emperor  died  in  814,  and  his 
empire  was  divided  up  in  843.  His  various  successors  soon 
quarrelled  among  themselves  or  were  attacked  by  other 
pretenders.  This  gave  the  Saracens  their  chance,  and  they 
did  not  fail  to  return  to  the  Riviera,  where  they  once  more 
sacked  towns  and  plundered  on  all  sides.  The  mountains 
west  of  the  Esterelle,  reaching  as  far  as  Toulon,  are  still 
called  the  ISIoor  or  3£aures  mountains.  The  principal 
Moorish  strongholds  were  at  Fraxinet,  overlooking  St 
Tropez,  and  the  peninsula  of  St  Hospice,  sheltering  one 
side  of  Villefranche  harbour.  The  latter  port  communi- 
cated with  a  fort  perched  on  the  lofty  pinnacle  of  Eze. 
The  Saracens  had  also  a  fortress  at  the  top  of  Mount 
Agel,  above  Cap  Martin.  Thus  INIonaco  was  hedged  in. 
For  more  than  a  hundred  years  it  would  have  been  diffi- 
cult to  say  whether  the  Christians  or  the  JNIussulmans 
were  masters  of  the  Riviera.  It  is  true  that  in  the  year 


963  the  great  Emperor  Otho  swore  an  oath  that  he 
would  drive  all  the  Moors  away,  but  he  died  very  soon 
after  this  rash  resolve.  It  was  not  till  975  that  a  much 
more  modest  personage.  Count  William  of  Provence, 
really  accomplished  the  task.  The  Moors  at  that  time 
seem  to  have  been  masters  of  the  whole  coast-line  from 
Monaco  to  St  Tropez.  William  I.,  Viscount  of  Marseilles, 
Count  of  Aries  and  sovereign  of  a  large  part  of  Provence, 
set  out  against  them.  Izarn,  Bishop  of  Grenoble,  Boniface 
of  Castellane,  the  Lords  of  Vintimille,  and  one  Giballin 
Grimaldi  joined  their  forces  to  his  to  wage  war  against  the 
Moors.  They  soon  achieved  a  great  triumph  by  capturing 
the  principal  Moorish  fortress  at  Fraxinet. 

It  is  in  connection  with  this  memorable  victory  that 
some  historians  make  the  first  mention  of  a  Grimaldi. 
He  was  a  Genoese  patrician  called  Giballin  Grimaldi. 
It  is  related  that  with  a  handful  of  devoted  followers  he 
climbed  up  a  precipitous  rock  in  the  rear  of  the  Fraxinet. 
Supposing  such  a  feat  impossible,  the  INIoors  had  not 
attempted  to  defend  that  side  of  their  position.  Thus  they 
were  taken  by  surprise,  and  this  diversion  enabled  the 
main  force  to  deliver  a  successful  frontal  attack.  As  a 
reward  for  his  courage  and  skill  Grimaldi  was  given  land 
in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  his  victory  stretching 
from  St  Tropez  to  Frejus.  To  this  day  it  still  preserves 
his  name,  for  it  is  called  the  Golfe  de  G?i>naud,  while  the 
Grand  Fraxinet  of  the  Moors  is  now  known  as  the  Ga?'d€ 

This  early  and  somewhat  legendary  chief  seems  to 
have  been  the  Garibaldi  of  the  epoch,  for  he  was  called 
upon  to  deliver  the  whole  country  from  foreign  oppression, 
and  is  credited  with  having  driven  the  Moors  out  of  Nice 
and  the  Petit  Fraxinet,  now  St  Honore,  at  ^^illefranche. 
He  was  the  second  son  of  Grimaldi  I.,  Lord  of  Antibes, 
who  is  reputed  to  have  driven  the  Moors  out  of  Monaco ; 
some  say  in  920  others  in  962  or  968.  As  a  recompense 
for  this  victory  the  father  of  Giballin  is  said  to  have 
received  the  sovereignty  of  Monaco  from  the  Emperor 


Otho  I.  Thus  the  belief  was  widely  entertained  that,  with 
but  temporary  interruptions,  the  Grimaldis  have  reigned 
at  Monaco  ever  since  968.  Here,  then,  we  would  have  a 
dynasty  older  than  the  Norman  Conquest  of  England 
and  more  ancient  than  any  reigning  family  in  Europe.  If 
we  turn  to  the  older  official  annals  of  the  principality,  we 
shall  find  that  the  brief  historical  pedigree  of  the  house 
of  Grimaldi  begins  with  Grimaldi  I.  in  the  year  968. 

Tlie  modern  and  more  scientific  methods  of  writing 
history  have  destroyed  this  legend.  The  victory  of 
Giballin  at  the  Gi-aiid  Fraxinci  is  not  denied,  but  the 
proof  that  his  father  reigned  at  INIonaco  is  not  forth- 
coming. There  was,  however,  a  prominent  Genoese 
family  of  the  name  of  Grimaldi.  Even  modern  historians, 
in  spite  of  their  sceptical  and  critical  methods,  recognise 
that  an  Otto  Canella,  an  ancestor  of  the  Grimaldis,  was 
Consul  of  Genoa  in  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century. 
This  third  son,  Grimaldo,  was  three  times  Consul  from 
1162  to  1184.  He  it  was  who  definitely  decided  that 
Grimaldi  should  be  the  family  name.  JNlembers  of  this 
family  had  on  several  occasions  occupied  Monaco,  when 
they  fought  for  the  Guelfs,  but  it  was  as  frequently 
recaptured  by  their  adversaries. 

The  Genoese  always  recognised  the  strategical  im- 
portance of  the  port  of  Monaco,  and  the  Emperor 
Henry  VI.  conceded  Monaco  to  the  Genoese  in  1191  on 
condition  they  built  a  fortress  there  so  as  to  help  him 
against  the  counts  of  Provence.  Nevertheless  twenty 
years  elapsed  before  any  attempt  was  made  to  erect  this 
fortress.  Between  1215  and  1239,  when  Frederic  II, 
succeeded  to  the  empire,  Monaco  was  fortified.  But  it 
did  not  serve  the  emperor,  for  Frederic  II.  quarrelled 
with  the  Pope,  a  dispute  which  separated  him  from  the 
Genoese,  who  now  sought  the  alliance  of  the  counts  of 
Provence.  Important  consequences  ensued,  for  the  Genoese 
included  in  their  conditions  that  the  claims  of  Provence 
on  Monaco  should  be  abandoned.  This  they  obtained 
fiom  Raymond,  Count  of  Toulouse  and  Provence,  by  the 


Treaty  of  the  22nd  July  1262.  Thus  it  was  half-a-century 
after  its  fortress  had  been  built  that  the  position  of 
Monaco  was  definitely  recognised  by  treaty.  The  fortress 
consisted  of  a  castle  dominating  the  land  approaches, 
built  where  the  Prince's  Palace  now  stands.  At  the  other 
extremity  of  the  rock  there  was  a  second  fortress  over- 
looking and  commanding  the  port,  called  the  Chateau 
Neuf.  A  rampart  united  the  two  and  the  place  was 
rendered  the  more  unassailable  by  the  fact  that  there  was 
no  road.  A  narrow  steep  path  alone  led  from  the  port  up 
to  the  castle. 

The  Republic  of  Genoa  conferred  on  Monaco  a 
commune  similar  to  that  of  its  other  possessions.  The 
commander  of  the  castle  was  the  chief  of  the  commune. 
Sometimes  there  were  two  castles  and  two  commanders. 
In  that  case  the  first  was  called  Podestli  and  had  judiciary 
authority.  The  second  was  called  Castellan,  and  had  only 
military  authority.  For  administrative  purposes  all  the 
inhabitants  formed  part  of  a  general  Parliament,  but  for 
detail  work  they  elected  a  Council  of  ten  members.  This 
did  not  mean  that  the  people  in  any  way  abdicated  their 
right  to  legislate.  There  are  records  that  in  1246  the 
people  of  Monaco,  in  Parliament  assembled,  discussed 
their  relations  with  the  neighbouring  lords  of  La  Turbie. 
It  was  then  decided  that  those  inhabitants  of  Monaco — 
Monegasques,  as  they  are  called — who  held  land  on  the 
estates  of  these  lords  must  obey  them,  but  that  no 
Monegasque  could  be  allowed  to  buy  land  at  the  Turbie 
unless  special  permission  were  given.  This  was  the  be- 
ginning of  the  quarrels  that  lasted  for  many  centuries 
between  Monaco  and  La  Turbie,  disputes  which  may  yet 
be  revived,  though  of  course  in  a  modern  form.  It  will  be 
seen  that  the  early  Monegasques  enjoyed  a  large  measure 
of  home  rule  or  self-government. 

The  time  now  approached  when  Monaco  was  to 
become  a  bone  of  contention  between  the  Guelfs  and 
the  Ghibellines.  The  former  were  driven  out  of  Genoa 
in  1270.   They  reoccupied  the  town  six  years  later,  but 


in  1296,  after  street  fighting  that  lasted  unceasingly  for 
forty  days  and  forty  nights,  were  once  more  forced  away 
from  the  town.  The  Ghibellines,  again  masters  of  Genoa, 
took  possession  of  Monaco  also.  At  that  time  the  county 
of  Provence  had  been  incorporated  into  the  kingdom 
of  Charles  II.  of  Anjou.  This  king  claimed  that  his 
Provencal  dominions  included  Monaco  and  Vintimille. 
The  Guelfs  when  in  power  had  been  good  allies  of 
Charles  d'Anjou,  brother  of  St  Louis,  King  of  France ; 
but  when  his  son,  Charles  II.,  succeeded  to  the  throne  of 
Anjou,  Provence  and  Sicily  the  new  king  was  so  anxious 
to  preserve  the  support  of  the  Genoese  Republic  that 
he  turned  against  the  old  friends  of  his  family,  the 
defeated  Guelfs.  This  ingratitude  was  not,  however, 
agreeable  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  county  of  Nice. 
They  allowed  the  Guelfs  to  prepare  an  audacious  expedi- 
tion. For  this  purpose  they  selected  Franceschino  or 
Francis  Grimaldi  as  their  chief,  and  he  boldly  offered  his 
person  to  secure  the  success  of  the  enterprise. 

On  the  8th  of  January  1297  a  monk  approached  the 
gates  of  IMonaco.  Apparently  the  guards  were  not  very 
observant  for  they  should  have  noticed  that  the  monk 
wore  shoes  or  boots.  But  they  did  not  think  of  such 
details ;  and,  deceived  by  the  saintly  garb  of  peace,  let 
the  monk  enter.  No  sooner  was  the  gate  open  tlian  the 
monk  drew  a  sword  fi'om  under  his  robes  and,  having 
taken  the  guards  completely  by  surprise,  was  able, 
fighting  desperately,  to  keep  the  gate  open  till  his 
followers,  concealed  close  by,  came  rushing  up  and 
poured  into  the  town.  The  monk  was  Francis  Grimaldi, 
and  thus  Monaco  was  captured  by  Guelf  partisans  and 
a  member  of  the  Grimaldi  family.  This  explains  the 
presence  of  monks  with  drawn  swoids  defending  the  arms 
of  the  house  of  Grimaldi. 

Though  I  am  aware  that  all  is  fair  in  love  and  war, 
it  does  not  seem  to  me,  having  read  something  of  the 
history  of  the  Grimaldi  family,  that  this  stratagem  was 
one   of    their  finest  achievements.    It   is   true   that  the 


doctrines  of  peace  and  good  will  to  all  men,  associated  with 
the  religion  to  which  monks  are  supposed  to  devote  their 
lives,  were  singularly  neglected  in  these  days.  Nevertheless 
monks'  robes  were  not  oi-iginally  designed  to  conceal 
swords  carried  with  murderous  intent.  When,  however, 
I  confided  these  doubts  and  scruples  to  the  learned 
archivist  of  the  palace  I  found  he  was  also  well  armed — 
with  a  ready  reply  : 

"  You  have  not  noticed,"  he  observed,  "  that  the  monks 
wear  a  sort  of  boot  or  shoe,  and  a  monk  who  is  not 
barefooted  is  a  fighting  monk.  He  is  simply  a  soldier  who 
is  able  to  perform  some  priestly  functions,  and  it  is  quite 
fair  for  a  soldier  to  penetrate  into  a  fortress  by  any 
stratagem  he  can  devise." 

Unfortunately  some  persons,  ignoring  this  distinction, 
have  drawn  the  monks  barefooted,  which  is  very  wrong 
indeed.  The  morality  of  the  story  depends  on  the  shoes. 
The  proud  Scotch  saying :  "  JMy  foot  is  on  my  native 
heath,  and  my  name  it  is  Macgregor,"  would  therefore  be 
translated  into  Monegasque  as,  "  My  foot  is  in  my  shoe : 
and  my  name  is  Grimaldi."  The  Macgregor  plaid,  formed 
by  simple  alternate  squares  of  red  and  black,  becomes 
in  Monaco  a  plaid  of  alternate  lozenges  coloured  red  and 
white.  In  both  cases  it  is  the  chieftain  who  stands,  naked 
sword  in  hand,  to  secure  for  his  tribe  and  for  himself  a 
name  and  a  habitat. 

Modern  historians  maintain  this  was  the  first  occasion 
on  which  it  can  be  proved  that  a  Grimaldi  was  the  master 
of  Monaco.  In  any  case  a  Grimaldi  had  taken  the  fortress 
at  the  point  of  the  sword.  No  sooner  were  his  followers 
in  possession  of  the  stronghold  than  it  became  a  refuge  for 
the  remnants  of  the  Guelf  fleet.  From  this  strategical 
position  they  were  able  to  harass  the  Genoese  fleet  now 
in  the  hands  of  the  Ghibellines.  But  Charles  II.  of  Anjou 
and  Provence,  who  had  abandoned  the  Guelfs,  permitted 
the  Ghibellines  to  besiege  Monaco.  During  this  siege  five 
galleys  from  Monaco  attacked  with  remarkable  dash  and 
courage  the  port  of  Genoa.   They  were,  however,  out- 


numbered,  and  the  landing  party  captured.  A  sort  of 
compromise  peace  followed.  Some  leading  Guelfs  were 
restored  to  their  lands  on  condition  that  they  paid  tribute. 
But  Charles  II.  had  brought  from  the  Guelfs  the  land 
they  possessed  at  Monaco  and  handed  it  over  to  the 
Spinola  family  of  Geneva,  who  were  partisans  of  the 
Ghibellines.  Though  the  Spinolas  had  no  lordship  rights 
over  Monaco  they  thus  became  the  largest  landowners, 
and  this  made  them  powerful.  Nevertheless  Charles  II. 
also  watched  over  the  Guelf  interests,  for  he  now  began 
to  understand  that  he  should  not  have  neglected  those 
Avho  had  rendered  such  great  service  to  his  father.  Thus 
old  enemies  were  made  to  live  side  by  side  till  hostilities 
were  renewed  and  the  leading  families  once  more  led 
their  respective  forces  to  war  against  each  other. 

It  would  require  inuch  time  and  space  to  describe  the 
fluctuating  fortunes  of  these  combatants,  but  it  is  in 
no  wise  my  purpose  to  write  a  detailed  history  of  the 
Grimaldis  and  the  rival  families  with  whom  they  con- 
tended. Ha\dng  explained  how  the  Gi'imaldis  established 
their  claim  on  Monaco,  I  will  limit  this  brief  historical 
sketch,  first,  to  occurrences  that  are  of  more  than  local 
importance ;  and  secondly,  as  this  book  is  written  in 
the  English  language,  to  such  events  as  especially  concern 
English-speaking  people.  For  a  complete  history  of  the 
principality,  the  reader  may  be  referred  to  the  histories, 
such  as  "  Monaco  et  ses  Princes,"  by  Henri  Mdtivier,  of 
the  older  school  of  historians  ;  and  "  Monaco,  ses  Origines 
et  son  Histoire,"  by  Gustave  Saige,  representing  the 
modern  school.  There  are  of  course  many  others,  and 
even  a  few  English  histories,  not  always,  I  fear,  free  from 
strong  prejudices. 



THERE  is  nothing  to  indicate  that  the  earUer 
populations  inhabiting  the  Riviera  came  by  sea  and 
were  navigators.  On  the  contrary,  the  geological 
evidence  goes  to  show  that  there  was  a  wide  plain  stretch- 
ing in  front  of  the  mountains  before  the  sea  was  reached. 
It  is  also  supposed  that  a  land  connection  existed  with 
Northern  Africa,  and  this  may  account  for  the  negroid 
type  of  the  Troglodyte  skeletons  found  in  the  caverns  at 
Mentone.  But  putting  aside  the  aborigines,  and  no  one  can 
tell  to  what  extent  they  have  been  obliterated,  it  is  quite 
certain  that  the  commencement  of  modern  civilisation  is 
due  to  the  advent  of  essentially  maritime  peoples.  First 
the  Phoenicians,  who  brought  enlightenment  from  Tyre  and 
Sidon,  and  then  the  Phocians,  with  the  glorious  philosophy 
and  art  of  ancient  Greece.  The  one  race  utilised  Monaco 
as  its  principal  port,  the  other  Marseilles.  The  first  built 
and  the  second  maintained  the  great  Heraklean  Way.  Thus 
did  they  favour  by  land,  as  they  had  done  by  sea,  inter- 
course between  the  East  and  the  West,  between  the 
cradle  of  civilisation  and  the  farthest  confines  of  barbarism. 
In  the  neighbourhood  of  Monaco  there  exists  traces  of 
this  road,  now  several  thousand  years  old,  and  no  thought- 
ful person  can  stand  where  so  many  peoples  and  armies 
have  passed  without  feeling  the  deepest  emotion.  To 
endeavour  to  picture  all  the  services  rendered  by  the 
Heraklean  road  is  to  evoke  the  past  of  Western  Europe 
since  the  beginning  of  history. 

As   the    world's    interest   and    enterprise   spread    out 
beyond  the  basin  of  the  Mediterranean,  the  inhabitants, 

D  49 


especially  of  that  part  of  the  Riviera  stretching  from  Nice 
to  Genoa,  began  to  feel  cramped  for  want  of  space.  Genoa 
especially,  built  on  the  side  of  arid  mountains,  seems  as  if 
nature  had  planned  to  throw  the  town  into  the  sea.  In 
front  the  sea  has  no  boundary  and  places  the  whole  world 
within  reach  of  the  hardy  mariner,  but  behind  are  only 
inaccessible,  steep  and  barren  mountains.  Even  if  the 
Genoese  were  not  by  birth  a  sailor  race  they  would  have 
been  compelled  by  geographical  and  economic  necessity 
to  become  sailors.  While  the  Germans,  the  French,  the 
English  had  still  plenty  of  virgin  soil  to  cultivate,  in- 
dustries to  create  and  towns  to  build,  the  inhabitants  of 
the  Riviera  could  only  expand  seawards.  It  is  not  surpris- 
ing, therefore,  that  they  devoted  themselves  principally  to 
maritime  commerce.  Rut  if  they  started  out  to  trade  they 
came  back  having  learned  how  to  fight.  Valuables  could 
not  be  carried  about  with  impunity.  ITnder  the  pretext  of 
a  war,  or  frankly  as  an  act  of  piracy,  such  merchandise,  if 
not  strongly  protected,  might  be  plundered.  Rut  land  was 
also  infested  by  robbers.  In  many  cases  it  was  safer  to 
travel  or  to  send  merchandise  by  sea,  and  it  was  naturally 
to  the  Mediterranean  that  the  peoples  of  the  world  looked 
for  capable  mariners.  Prominent  among  these  were  the 

The  Crusades  more  than  any  other  event  helped  to 
develop  the  power  and  importance  of  the  maritime  people 
living  in  the  north-west  of  the  Mediterranean.  The 
crusaders  early  learnt  to  mistrust  the  perfidious  hospitality 
of  the  Ryzantines,  and  in  spite  of  storms  and  wrecks  found 
it  much  safer  to  proceed  to  the  Holy  Land  by  sea. 
Therefore  the  various  nations  of  Europe  appealed,  especi- 
ally to  the  Genoese,  for  ships  and  for  crews  capable  of 
taking  their  crusaders  to  Palestine.  For  their  own  trade 
purposes,  the  Genoese  had  already  sailed  as  far  as  the 
Levant  and  knew  the  road.  Among  the  Genoese  we  must 
include  the  Monegasques.  Thus  in  1104  a  fleet  of  seventy 
galleys  was  fitted  out  at  Genoa  for  Hugues,  brother  of 
Philippe    I.,    King    of    France,   and    placed    under    the 


command  of  Albert  Grimaldi.  Another  Grimaldi  com- 
manded the  fleet  which  conveyed  to  Egypt  Jean  de 
Brienne,  King  of  Jerusalem,  and  Andre  II.,  King  of 
Hungary,  who  were  the  chiefs  of  the  Fifth  Crusade.  The 
capture  of  Damietta  in  1219  was  due  in  a  large  measure 
to  the  fleet  acting  under  the  command  of  a  Grimaldi. 
Thus  in  the  Hall  of  the  Crusades  at  the  palace  of 
Versailles  the  arms  of  the  Grimaldis  occupy  a  place  of 

In  Europe  such  armaments  as  existed  were  organised 
for  war  on  land.  In  England,  France  and  Germany  the 
feudal  lords  and  noble  families  fought  against  each  other 
on  land  and  paid  but  little  attention  to  naval  matters. 
The  experience  acquired  during  the  Crusades  taught  them 
to  look  to  the  Italian  republics  for  ships,  to  Venice,  to 
Pisa  and  especially  to  Genoa.  Thus  it  was  with  mercenary 
sailors  and  foreign  fleets  that  many  of  the  earlier  naval 
battles  were  fought.  England,  France  and  Germany  very 
largely  depended  on  the  Italian  republics  for  their  battle- 

While  Francis  Grimaldi,  in  the  guise  of  a  monk,  had 
succeeded  in  capturing  the  fortress  of  Monaco,  another 
Grimaldi  was  rising  to  fame.  This  was  Rainier,  the  son 
of  I.,anfranco,  the  eldest  of  the  three  sons  of  Grimaldo 
Grimaldi,  who,  it  will  be  remembered,  from  1162  to  1184 
held  thrice  the  position  of  Consul  of  Genoa,  and  had 
decided  that  henceforth  Cirimaldi  should  be  the  family 
name.  Rainier  (irimaldi  was  born  in  12G7,  and  already 
in  1296  had  rendered  great  service  to  King  Cliarles  II.  of 
Anjou.  As  a  sailor  he  had  so  often  defeated  the  Cihibelline 
galleys  that  his  reputation  spread  far  and  wide.  During 
that  time  Philippe  IV.,  called  le  lid.  King  of  France,  had 
started  a  campaign  against  England  worthy  of  Napoleon. 
He  conceived  a  policy  of  alliances  for  the  purpose  of 
blockading  England.  From  Sicily  to  the  far  reaches  of  the 
Baltic,  English  trading  vessels  were  to  be  excluded,  and 
he  hoped  to  relegate  England  to  a  state  of  isolation  that 
would  certainly  have  nothing  glorious  about  it. 


To  a  very  large  extent  this  policy  was  successfully 
applied,  and  the  position  of  England  was  becoming 
desperate  when  King  Edward  I.  discerned  the  weak 
point  of  the  attack.  The  Continental  blockade,  by  isolating 
England,  was  also  destroying  Flemish  trade  and  pro- 
sperity. Therefore  in  1297  King  Edward  I.  was  able  to 
come  to  terms  with  Count  Guy  of  Flanders.  The  Treaty 
of  Bruges,  then  concluded,  conferred  on  English  and 
Flemish  ships  the  monopoly  of  intercourse  and  trade 
between  England  and  the  Continent.  Thereupon  Calais 
and  many  French  ports  began  to  suffer.  This  led  to 
war.  In  Flanders  a  sort  of  revolution  was  taking  place  in 
consequence  of  the  wealth  accumulated  by  the  weavers, 
artisans,  tradesmen,  merchants  and  industrial  classes 
generally.  The  old  nobility  were  being  gradually  forced 
into  a  secondary  position  and  it  gave  them  very  great 
offence.  Profiting  by  this  state  of  affairs,  Philippe  of 
France  intrigued  with  the  Flemish  aristocracy  and 
Edward  of  England  flirted  with  the  Flemish  democracy. 
When  the  rival  parties  came  to  blows,  in  1302,  the 
Flemish  people,  led  by  a  nobleman,  a  weaver  and  a 
butcher,  gave  the  combined  Flemish  and  French  aristo- 
crats a  good  sound  beating  at  Courtray.  This  was  the 
Battle  of  Spurs,  for  no  fewer  than  two  thousand  golden 
spurs  were  taken  from  the  defeated  aristocrats.  The 
difficulties  caused  by  this  and  other  defeats  prompted  the 
French  king  to  seek  help  on  all  sides.  Rainier  Grimaldi, 
having  already  rendered  great  service  to  the  French  king, 
Charles  of  Anjou  and  Sicily,  was  now  asked  to  serve  the 
French  king,  Philippe. 

Rainier  Grimaldi  accepted,  and  arrived  off  the  coasts 
of  France  with  sixteen  armed  galleys.  To  these  the  King 
of  France  added  twenty  vessels,  imperfectly  built  and 
manned.  Rainier  at  once  set  to  work  to  teach  the  French 
sailors,  and  practised  their  'prentice  hands  in  the  capture 
of  a  few  English  ships.  After  such  comparatively  easy 
exercises  he  started  on  the  really  serious  business  of  en- 
countering the  Flemish  fleet.  The  English  in  those  days 


were  considered  of  little  account,  but  the  Dutch  and 
Flemish  were  real  sailors.  It  Mas  in  August  1304  that 
the  great  encounter  took  place  off  Zierikzee,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Ooster  Schelde.  With  an  inferior  fleet,  but  superior 
seamanship,  after  prolonged  desperate  fighting.  Rainier 
Grinialdi  utterly  defeated  the  Flemish,  and  took  prisoner 
their  chief,  Guy  de  Dampierre.  For  this  brilliant  victory 
he  was  appointed  Admiral  General  of  France,  and  given 
the  lordship  of  Villeneuve  in  Normandy. 

A  period  of  comparative  peace  ensued,  interrupted  by 
fights  and  alarms,  in  which,  however,  the  Monegasques 
took  no  prominent  part.  At  home,  at  Monaco  and  Genoa, 
during  tlie  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century  it  was 
sometimes  the  Guelfs  and  Grimaldis  and  sometimes  the 
Ghibellines,  with  the  help  of  the  Spinolas  and  the  Dorias, 
who  were  the  masters.  \Vhen  Admiral  Rainier  died,  his 
son  Charles,  who  had  also  greatly  distinguished  himself 
as  a  sea  captain,  assumed  the  uncontested  headship  of 
the  Grimaldi  family.  In  1336  a  Monegasque  fleet  set  out 
on  a  remarkable  expedition  to  the  East,  and  captures 
were  made  off'  the  coasts  of  Syi'ia  and  Egypt,  Venetian 
commerce  being  the  objective.  At  last  the  Pope, 
Benoit  XII.,  had  to  intervene,  and  called  upon  King 
Robert  of  Naples  to  keep  the  Monegasques  in  order. 
This  event  is  especially  M'orth  noting  because  the  King  of 
Naples,  who  was  also  Ijord  of  Provence,  was  obliged  to 
admit  that  he  held  no  jurisdiction  and  had  no  power  over 
Monaco.  Thus  we  get  one  of  the  first  official  records  of 
the  independence  of  Monaco. 

At  the  same  time  the  people  of  Genoa,  wearied  at 
last,  revolted  against  the  Guelfs  and  the  Ghibellines. 
"  A  plague  on  both  your  houses  !  "  became  the  popular  cry, 
and  an  outsider,  Boccanegra  by  name,  was  elected  Doge. 
With  him  the  (irimaldis  had  an  easier  time,  and  could 
afford  to  spare  Charles  Grimaldi,  wlio  had  been  called 
upon  to  assist  the  French  in  the  opening  of  what  proved 
to  be  the  Hundred  Years'  War. 

King  Philippe  V"I.  of  France,  by  allying  himself  with 


the  Duke  I^ouis  of  Flanders  against  his  rebelhous 
subjects,  ahenated  the  sympathies  of  an  entire  people ; 
while  King  Edward  III.  of  England  showed  no  better 
judgment  by  waging  war  against  a  popular  hero  such  as 
David  Bruce  and  thus  antagonising  the  Scottish  people. 
Philippe  of  France,  under  the  pretext  of  yet  another 
Crusade,  had  obtained  money  and  equipped  a  large  fleet  in 
the  south  ;  but  instead  of  going  to  the  Holy  Land  he  sent 
it  north,  to  help  the  Scots.  However  surprising  to  the 
modern  Englishman,  it  appears  that  in  those  days,  1336, 
the  English  Government  had  an  excellently  organised 
Intelligence  Department.  They  were  so  well  and  promptly 
informed  of  these  plans  that  they  forestalled  and  frustrated 
the  French  attempt  to  help  the  Scots.  But  if  they  could 
not  effect  a  landing  in  Scotland,  the  south  of  England 
was  open  to  them.  Instead  of  guarding  the  coasts,  English 
sailors  from  Yarmouth  were  fighting  and  quarrelling  with 
their  compatriots  from  the  Cinq  Ports.  By  this  time  the 
French  fleet  was  well  organised  in  every  respect  except 
that  it  had  no  reserve  force.  In  the  naval  history  of  France 
by  Charles  de  la  Ronciere,  printed  in  1899  with  the  aid 
of  the  French  Ministry  of  JMarine,  the  help  given  by  the 
Genoese  and  the  Grimaldi  family  is  fully  acknowledged. 
To  this  semi-official  history  I  am  indebted  for  much  of 
the  following  information.  We  are  told  that  the  King  of 
France  asked  help  from  the  Dorias  and  the  Spinolas,  who 
had  fought  for  the  Ghibellines,  as  well  as  from  the  Grimaldis 
and  the  Fieschies,  who  were  on  the  Guelf  side.  Each 
faction  had  t^venty-eight  galleys,  and  there  were  altogether 
8560  men  to  man  these  Genoese  and  Monegasque  ships. 
Edward  III.  also  made  a  bid  for  their  assistance,  and  sent 
Vice-Admiral  Uso  di  Mari  to  try  to  buy  them  over. 
Doria  seemed  inclined  to  treat,  and  two  of  the  Grimaldi 
ships  deserted.  There  were  delays,  but  ultimately  the 
joint  Doria  and  Grimaldi  fleets  sailed  round  Gibraltar  to 
join  the  French  forces. 

Edward  III.  was  then  preparing  a  fleet  of  seventy  ships 
to  invade  Guienne,  and  another  of  two  hundred  vessels  to 


land  troops  in  Flanders.  While  these  preparations  were 
being  made,  the  Genoese  and  Monegasque  fleets,  with 
some  French  ships  picked  up  on  the  way,  appeared  off" 
Portsmouth.  The  inhabitants  thought  it  was  an  English 
fleet,  and  Portsmouth  was  captured  without  discharging 
an  arrow  or  striking  a  blow.  Edward  HI.,  in  a  letter  to 
the  Governor  of  the  Isle  of  A^'^ight,  described  the  result 
in  two  words  :  "incendiarism  and  pillage."  ^  Nothing  was 
spared,  and  all  the  preparations  to  send  reinforcements  to 
the  Guienne  fleet  destroyed.  Edward  III.,  with  his  huge 
fleet  of  two  hundred  ships,  managed,  however,  to  get  over 
to  Flanders,  and  the  French  had  to  be  content  with  sacking 
the  Anglo-Norman  Channel  Islands.  Then  five  of  the 
best  English  ships  and  1000  men  were  captured  near 
Middelbourg  and  brought  to  Calais.  Greatly  annoyed, 
Jlidward  III.  called  upon  the  Admirals  Bardy  and  Drayton 
to  stop  such  French  piracies. 

In  spite  of  these  orders,  on  the  .5th  October  1338 
fifty  galleys  rowed  swiftly  up  the  Southampton  waters. 
The  French  admiral.  Hue  Quieret,  had  offered  a  hundred 
pounds  tournois  to  whomsoever  would  first  penetrate  into 
the  town  of  Southampton,  and  his  own  men  eagerly 
clambered  up  the  walls.  The  civil  population  of  the  town 
was  praying  in  the  churches  ;  but  on  the  ramparts  the 
soldiers  were  strong  enough  to  hurl  many  Frenchmen 
down.  The  position  of  the  assailants  was  becoming  des- 
perate when  Charles  Grimaldi  and  Anton  Doria  arrived  on 
the  scene.  Shouting  the  Genoese  battle-cry,  they  swept 
the  English  off  the  ramparts.  The  town  was  at  once  given 
ov^er  to  pillage  and  many  dwellings  were  burned  down. 
After  having  slept  in  Southampton,  to  affirm  their  victory, 
the  French,  Genoese  and  Monegasque  sailors  loaded  their 
ships  heavily  with  booty  and  leisurely  sailed  away.  Militia 
from  Winchester,  Salisbury  and  I^ondon  hiuried  to 
Southampton,  but  by  the  time  they  arrived  the  invaders 
were  nearing  the  port  of  Dieppe,  where  they  landed  their 

'  Rymer,  vol.  ii,,  part  iv.,  p.  12. 



A  few  weeks  later  the  French  and  Monegasque  fleets 
were  at  the  mouth  of  the  Thames.  While  cruising  off 
Margate  four  ships  appeared  from  the  south.  Pursued, 
the  four  ships  prepared  to  fight,  and  the  fleet,  by  which 
they  were  now  surrounded,  summoned  them  to  surrender 
if  English.  But  they  replied  they  were  not  English.  They 
were  convoying  the  King  of  Scotland,  David  liruce,  who 
was  going,  with  some  of  the  principal  lords  of  his  court, 
to  ask  the  King  of  France  for  help.  The  French,  Genoese 
and  Monegasque  sailors  then  respectfully  and  courteously 
escorted  the  King  of  Scotland  to  Calais. 

Now  that  the  King  of  England  and  his  fleet  were  away 
in  Flanders  the  French  and  Genoese  ships  were  masters  of 
the  Channel  and  free  to  invade  England.  This  dangerous 
state  of  affairs  continued  through  the  autumn  of  1338.  For- 
tunately for  the  English,  the  French  were  not  quick  to  seize 
the  opportunity.  It  was  not  till  the  following  23rd  of 
March  1339  that  the  Convention  of  Notables,  assembled 
at  Vincennes,  voted  in  favour  of  such  an  invasion.  Still 
nothing  was  done,  as  it  was  thought  fit  to  refer  this  de- 
cision to  the  States  of  the  Provinces.  The  latter,  however, 
acted  with  some  promptitude,  for  they  had  all  ratified  the 
decision  by  the  25th  of  April.  Even  at  that  late  hour  a 
competent  leader  might  have  been  successful ;  but  court 
influence  rather  than  competence  prevailed.  Jean,  son  of 
the  French  king,  was  named  chief  of  the  expedition,  but 
he  was  obviously  unfitted  for  such  a  task.  Nevertheless, 
with  the  aid  of  the  Monegasques  and  Genoese,  the  French 
were  so  completely  masters  of  the  sea  that  they  had 
already  drawn  up  a  Domesday  Book  describing  generally 
how  England  was  to  be  divided  by  its  conquerors. 
Among  other  details,  only  £20,000  rcA  enue  was  to  be  left 
to  the  English  Church.  But  Pierre  Royer,  Archbishop 
of  Rouen,  and  subsequently  Pope,  under  the  name 
of  Clement  VI.,  objected  to  the  spoliation  of  an  entire 
people  ;  and  all  this  talk  of  what  was  to  be  done  with 
England  when  annexed  proved  very  harmful  to  the 
French.  The  English  did  not  fail  to  quote  these  proposals 


extensively,  and  used  them  as  a  pretext  to  justify  their  own 
action  when  they  had  an  opportunity  of  invading  France. 

In  the  meanwhile  petty  attacks  continued.  English 
ships  were  cut  out  of  the  ports  of  Bristol  and  Plymouth 
and  captured  or  destroyed.  A  landing  party  set  fire  to  the 
town  of  Harwich.  Some  French  and  5lonegasque  sailors, 
with  as  many  ships  as  composed  the  fleet  which  Charles 
Grimaldi  accompanied  when  he  successfully  stormed 
Southampton,  returned  to  that  port,  but  they  were  badly 
received.  They  were  told  to  land  and  rest  for  two  days 
and  then  the  English  would  fight  them,  ten  against  ten, 
twenty  against  twenty,  whatever  number  they  might 
prefer.  It  is  said  that  the  French  would  have  accepted 
this  proud  challenge,  but  the  INIonegasques  did  not  look 
upon  it  as  good  business.  They  contented  themselves  with 
making  descents  on  Hastings,  the  Isle  of  Thanet,  Dover 
and  Folkestone,  which  they  were  able  to  plunder  with 
comparative  facility.  They  returned  to  Calais  on  the 
2nd  of  .June,  and  were  accorded  a  triumphal  entry.  But 
these  sailors  had  disgraced  themselves  by  the  cruelties 
they  perpetrated  on  the  English  coasts.  They  exhibited 
to  the  people  at  Calais  ears,  fingers  and  other  human 
trophies  which  had  been  cut  off  their  English  victims. 
French  historians  themselves  acknowledge  and  blame  this 
brutality.  They  even  find  in  this  cruelty  an  explanation 
of  the  bitterness  Edward  III.  felt  towards  the  people  of 
Calais  and  of  his  desire  to  hang  six  of  the  most  notable 
citizens  of  that  town. 

The  time  for  such  revenge  was  now  approaching.  The 
French  had  wasted  their  opportunity.  English  ships,  no 
longer  detained  in  the  Flemish  ports,  were  reappearing 
in  the  Channel,  and  the  democratic  allies  of  the  English 
king  were  ready  to  take  the  offensive.  Jacques  d'Arteveld, 
the  brewer,  and  popular  leader,  was  willing  to  lead  the 
sturdy  Flemish  people  on  to  Calais  and  thus  second  the 
efforts  of  the  English  ships  as  they  lay  off  Wissant.  The 
French  fleet  by  itself  was  not  sufficiently  numerous  to 
offer  much  resistance,  for  the  Ghibellines   had  selected 


this  moment  to  desert  the  French  cause.  Thereupon  their 
pay  was  stopped.  Of  course  the  sailors  protested  noisily. 
A  few  of  the  more  disorderly  among  them  were  arrested 
and  imprisoned.  The  Ghibelline  Genoese  galleys  now  set 
sail  for  Genoa,  stopping  at  various  ports  on  their  way  and 
relating  that  the  French  had  incarcerated  and  ill-treated 
some  of  their  comrades.  At  Boulogne-sur-Mer,  however, 
they  met  some  Genoese  or  Monegasques  of  the  Guelf 
party,  the  followers  of  Charles  Grimaldi,  who  took  up  the 
other  side  of  the  argument.  The  people  rose,  not  knowing 
exactly  for  what  cause,  and  the  Genoese  sailors  profited 
by  the  general  disorder  to  proclaim  a  Ligurian  Republic 
at  Boulogne-sur-Mer ! 

The  quiet  little  port,  which  of  late  years  has  become 
the  most  English  town  out  of  England,  was  thus  suddenly 
transformed  into  a  minor  Monaco,  with  Guelf  and 
Ghibelline  quarrelling  for  mastership.  A  Ghibelline  doge 
was  elected,  Avho  maintained  at  Boulogne  in  the  far  north 
of  France,  and  within  twenty-seven  miles  of  Folkestone, 
the  Law  of  Exile  against  the  Guelfs  which  had  been 
enacted  at  Genoa.  What  Englishman  would  to-day 
imagine  that  Monegasque  politics  were  fought  out  so 
near  to  the  cliffs  of  Dover  ? 

Of  course  the  Guelfs  would  not  submit,  and  the 
French  Government  was  too  busy  with  the  Avar  against 
England  to  trouble  about  these  local  disputes.  Indeed  the 
French  were  at  that  time  meditating  a  descent  on  the 
herring  fishing  fleet  when  it  assembled  at  Yarmouth.  By 
capturing  or  slaughtering  the  crews  of  these  fishing  boats 
they  would  destroy  the  recruiting  ground  for  the 
English  war  galleys.  On  the  8th  of  September  1339 
Charles  Grimaldi,  having  received  the  pay  for  his  fleet, 
and  being  reinforced  by  some  French  ships,  started 
to  attack  the  herring  boats.  Grandiloquent  promises 
were  made  that  a  hundred  English  ships  would  be 
captured  and  no  fewer  than  four  hundred  towns  raided 
and  destroyed.  In  this  there  was  much  talk  and  little 
execution.  A  violent  storm  wrecked  some  of  the  ships. 


Then,  as  the  Enghsh  and  the  Flemish  were  penetrating 
into  the  north  of  France,  it  occurred  to  the  fleet  that 
the  ships  would  be  best  employed  removing  arms  and 
valuables  from  the  northern  ports  before  the  invading 
forces  arrived.  Thus  the  allied  fleets  undertook  the  modest 
but  useful  functions  of  a  floating  pantechnicon. 

This  done,  the  Grimaldi  naval  division  and  what 
remained  of  the  Doria  ships  were  ordered  back  to  the 
Mediterranean,  to  defend  in  those  waters  the  French 
mercantile  fleet.  It  was  in  great  need  of  protection.  Thus 
the  Monegasques  and  their  kindred,  the  Genoese  partisans 
of  the  Ghibellines,  got  away  in  time  to  escape  any  responsi- 
bility or  participation  in  the  great  disaster  which  was 
about  to  befall  the  French  arms.  Of  the  enormous  fleet  of 
two  hundred  and  two  ships  the  French  had  gathered  to- 
gether there  only  remained  a  very  small  Genoese  contingent 
under  Captain  Barbavera.  The  great  battle  of  rEcluse,  by 
which  the  English  gained  the  command  of  the  Channel, 
is  so  well  known  in  history  that  it  is  only  necessary  to  say 
that  Barbavera,  at  least,  foresaw  the  disaster. 

Barbavera  was  on  outpost  duty  and  sent  the  following 
message: — "^ly  lords,  here  is  the  King  of  England  and 
his  fleet  coming  against  us.  Haste  to  reach  the  open  sea 
with  all  your  ships  ;  if  you  remain  here,  the  English,  who 
have  the  wind  in  their  favour,  the  sun  and  the  tide,  will 
so  hem  you  in  that  you  will  not  be  able  to  defend  your- 

Following  his  own  advice,  Barbavera  and  his  ships 
gained  the  open  sea  and  thus  escaped  from  the  clutches  of 
the  approaching  English  fleet.  The  French  ships  did  not 
act  upon  this  wise  counsel :  they  remained  in  the  Scheldt, 
and  were  nearly  all  destroyed. 

Nothing,  however,  of  any  importance  followed  upon 
the  great  English  victory  of  rEchise.  Of  course,  and  that 
was  important  enough  in  itself,  England  was  now  free 
from  the  danger  of  invasion  ;  but  tlie  victory  was  not 
followed  up,  and  indeed  a  truce  of  nine  months  was 
concluded  in  September  1340.  During  that  interval  the 


French  not  only  endeavoured  to  reconstitute  their  naval 
forces  but  they  once  more  and  most  urgently  implored 
Charles  Grimaldi  to  come  to  their  aid. 

In  April  1341  Jean  III.  of  Brittany  died.  The  King  1 

of  France  repudiated  the  Salic  Law,  by  which  he  himself 
had  come  to  the  throne,  and  supported  the  claims  of  Jean's 
niece,  Jeanne,  who  had  married  Charles  de  Blois ;  while 
Edward  III.,  for  no  better  reason  than  a  desire  to  quarrel, 
supported  the  claim  of  the  late  Jean's  third  brother,  Jean 
de  Alontfort.  Brittany  had  no  navy,  but  the  Monegasque 
division  had  managed  to  sail  through  the  Straits  of 
Gibraltar  in  spite  of  the  wintry  weather.  It  numbered 
twenty  good  war-vessels,  with  some  minor  craft,  and 
assisted  at  the  siege  of  Chateaureaux.  Then  it  helped  to 
bring  about  the  capitulation  of  Nantes,  when  the  English 
candidate,  Jean  de  Montfort.  was  taken  prisoner. 

The  English  now  gathered  an  army  at  Portsmouth,  and 
there  prepared  to  sail  for  Brittany,  under  a  new  banner, 
which  de  la  Ronciere  in  his  naval  history  treats  some- 
what disrespectfully.  It  represented  a  St  George  bearing 
the  arms  of  England  and  slaughtering  a  dragon.  But  we 
are  told  that  this  mystic  effigy  did  not  begin  its  career  in 
a  promising  manner,  for  it  was  the  dragon  that  defeated 
St  George.  The  Comtesse  de  Montfort  had  gathered  some 
troops  at  Northampton  and  was  bringing  them  to  France 
to  rescue  her  captured  husband.  But  Anthony  Doria, 
cruising  off  Guernsey  in  mid  August  1342,  spied  an 
English  fleet  of  forty-six  sail  approaching.  Soon  a  duel 
began  between  the  English  archers  and  the  Genoese  cross- 
bowmen.  On  coming  to  close  quarters,  the  Comtesse  de 
Montfort,  "who  was  worth  a  man  because  she  had  the  heart 
of  a  lion,"  repelled  the  attempt  to  board  her  ship,  but 
suddenly  a  great  darkness  spread  over  the  skies.  Such  a 
thunderstorm  ensued  that  the  chroniclers  of  the  epoch  de- 
clare it  seemed  as  if  the  world  was  coming  to  an  end.  None 
was  so  brave  but  he  wished  to  be  back  safe  on  land,  says 
Froissart.  INIost  of  the  ships  seem  to  have  sought  safety 
from  the  storm  rather  than  victory  over  the  enemy.  In 


this  flight  from  the  storm  four  English  ships,  however, 
were  captured.  In  their  turn,  a  httle  later,  the  English 
inflicted  some  loss  on  Grimaldi's  fleet  near  Morlaix. 
Nevertheless  the  English  were  obliged  to  abandon  their 
attempt  to  blockade  the  coasts  of  Brittany. 

The  war  dragged  on  without  any  great  event  till 
Charles  Grimaldi  was  persuaded  to  gather  yet  another 
fleet,  numbering  this  time  thirty-two  galleys  and  7000 
men.  On  the  other  hand,  he  was  inexplicably  slow  in 
bringing  his  fleet  from  the  Mediterranean  to  the  Channel. 
By  generously  compensating  tlie  shipowners  who  had  lost 
their  vessels  at  the  battle  oilKcbise,  Philippe  VI.  of  France 
managed  to  get  another  fleet  together,  and  something 
might  have  been  done  had  not  the  Monegasque  contingent 
wasted  so  much  time  in  coming.  The  news  that  a  large 
English  fleet  was  about  to  sail  arrived  before  Grimaldi's 
fleet.  The  latter  had  lost  time  at  Nice,  Marseilles  and 
Majorca.  On  his  side,  Edward  III,,  by  skilful  manoeuvr- 
ing, succeeded  in  landing  and  taking  the  town  of  Caen,  in 

If  Charles  Grimaldi  had  not  arri\  ed  in  time  to  partici- 
pate in  a  great  naval  battle,  which  after  all  did  not  take 
place,  he  was  in  time  to  play  a  gallant  part  in  the  battle 
of  Crecy.  This  celebrated  battle  was  fought  on  the  26th 
of  August  1346,  and  the  Genoese  crossbowmen  under 
Charles  Grimaldi  and  Anthony  Doria  were  placed  in  the 
first  line.  They  were  already  exhausted  by  a  long  march, 
yet  no  time  was  given  them  to  rest.  The  strings  of  their 
crossbows  were  wet  and  loosened  by  the  rain  which  had 
recently  fallen.  The  English  archers  had  taken  the  pre- 
caution to  keep  their  strings  dry.  The  English  arrows  hit 
the  mark,  the  bolts  from  the  Genoese  crossbows  fell  short. 
What  with  fatigue  and  inefficient  weapons,  the  Genoese 
began  to  lose  ground.  Instead  of  realising  the  special 
difficulties  of  their  position,  King  Philippe  cruelly  ordered 
his  cavalry  to  ride  down  upon  the  Genoese.  "  Kill  these 
canaille  !"  he  shouted,  "they  bar  our  road  for  no  reason." 
The  French  knights  galloped  over  the  Genoese,  but  they 


themselves  soon  fell  under  the  relentless  hail  of  English 
arrows.  The  English  had  also  wooden  guns,  which  threw 
stone  balls.  The  latter  did  not  do  much  harm,  but  the 
noise  of  the  explosions  frightened  the  horses  and  thus 
the  first  use  of  artillery  in  battle  did  add  considerably  to 
the  confusion  of  the  enemy.  After  their  cruel  ingratitude 
to  their  good  allies  the  Genoese,  the  French  merited  the 
very  severe  chastisement  they  then  received  at  the  hands 
of  the  English.  Charles  Grimaldi  was  desperately  wounded 
and  left  for  dead  on  the  field  of  battle.  Nevertheless  he 

Not  very  long  after  the  battle  of  Crecy,  when  besieging 
Calais,  Edward  III.  had  the  mortification  of  seeing  the 
ships  with  which  he  was  blockading  the  port  attacked  and 
captured  by  Grimaldi's  galleys.'  But  the  siege  of  Calais 
continued,  with  all  its  horrors  and  heroisms.  The  French 
naval  forces,  badly  handled,  were  of  little  help,  and 
ultimately  Calais  capitulated.  It  was  but  a  poor  revenge 
for  the  French  fleet  to  land  some  troops  in  Devonshire  and 
destroy  the  town  of  Budleigh. 

In  1350  what  is  known  as  the  naval  battle  of  Winchel- 
sea  was  won  by  the  English  against  the  Spanish  allies  of 
France,  and  Peter,  the  new  King  of  Castille,  at  once  signed 
a  treaty  of  peace  with  Edward  III.  This  was  the  final 
blow  to  the  policy  of  Philippe  de  V^alois,  and  he  died 
shortly  afterwards,  on  22nd  August  1350. 

His  successor,  Jean  II.,  has  often  been  adversely 
criticised,  but,  in  any  case,  he  appreciated  the  import- 
ance of  reviving  the  French  navy,  and  even  of  arming 
the  ships  with  cannon.  Then  for  the  first  time  the 
record  was  made  of  the  number  of  guns  carried  by 
a  ship. 

In  1355  Rainier  Grimaldi,  the  grandson  of  the  first 
Rainier,  whose  exploits  have  been  described,  arrived  with 
twenty-four  galleys  and  6000  crossbowmen.  Again  there 
was  lack  of  organisation  on  the  French  side,  and  this  led 
to  the  disaster  of  Poictiers   when  the  Black  Prince,    in 

'  RjToaer,  vol.  ii.,  part  iv.,  p.  205. 


April  1357,  took  prisoner  the  French  king,  Jean  II.,  and 
most  of  his  knights. 

On  the  20th  of  May  a  truce  of  two  years  was  arranged. 
The  French  bourgeoisie  now  began  to  exert  themselves. 
They  had  been  driven  to  the  conclusion  that  the  aristo- 
cracy were  not  heaven-sent  rulers,  and  that  the  modest 
tradesmen  and  craftsmen  might  manage  matters  just  as 
well,  if  not  better.  They  therefore  took  upon  themselves 
to  equip  a  fleet  to  deliver  their  king,  Jean,  II.  This  French 
bourgeois  fleet  duly  sailed  in  1360.  It  crossed  over  to 
Portsmouth,  hesitated,  and  finally  overwhelmed  whatever 
English  ships  could  be  found  near  Winchelsea.  The 
French  force  then  landed  and  took  the  town  of  Winchel- 
sea by  assault,  but  fearing  reprisals  they  returned  to 
Boulogne.  This  demonstration  was  not  without  effect,  for 
shortly  after  the  Treaty  of  I^ondon  was  signed,  by  which 
Jean  II.  regained  his  liberty  and  a  truce  was  concluded. 

By  the  time  the  truce  was  over,  Charles  V.,  the  Wise, 
was  on  the  French  throne,  and  he  at  once  set  to  work 
to  reconstitute  the  French  fleet.  Like  his  predecessors,  he 
turned  to  the  INIediterranean  ports,  and  especially  to 
Monaco.  In  response,  Rainier  Grimaldi  fitted  out  four 
galleys.  In  the  Channel  he  met  a  squadron  under  Robert 
Assheton,  who  was  taking  Charles  le  Mauvaif;,  King  of 
Navarre,  back  to  Cotentin.  After  desperate  fighting  one  of 
the  English  ships  was  captured  and  all  on  board  perished 
by  the  swoi-d.  The  ship  was  a  fine  vessel  of  one  hundred 
and  eighty  tons.  It  was  sold  for  prize  money  in  Normandy. 
As  a  reprisal  the  English,  in  August  1330,  captured  ships 
belonging  to  Andre  Spinola  and  d'Oberto  Squarziafico  and 
the  Genoese  boats  liaijurd  and  Le  Vent. 

The  arrival  of  Rainier  Grimaldi  was  opportune,  and 
English  sliips  were  destroyed  near  Gospoi-t  and  South- 
ampton. During  the  many  raids  the  Monegasques  made 
on  the  coasts  of  England  an  incident  occurred  which 
became  legendary.  Many  more  important  events  are  com- 
pletely forgotten  ;  this  has  remained  a  popular  story.  The 
ship  commanded  by  Rainier  Grimaldi  was  driven  ashore. 


Saige  says  this  occurred  at  the  Isle  of  Wight ;  La 
llonciere  and  "  La  Chronique  des  Quatres  Premiers  Valois" 
say  it  was  near  Sandwich.  In  any  case,  some  EngUsh 
soldiers  came  up  and  asked  to  whom  the  galley  belonged. 
Rainier  (Trimaldi  replied:  "To  the  king  of  France."  "Then," 
returned  the  soldiers, "  surrender  the  galley  to  the  King  of 
France  and  of  England."  "  What  is  his  name?"  shouted 
Grimaldi.  "  Edward,"  was  the  answer.  "  Edward  !  "  ex- 
claimed Grimaldi.  "  That  is  not  the  name  of  the  King  of 
France;  he  is  called  Charles,  and  to  him  only  will  we 
give  up  our  ship."  Thereupon  the  English  soldiers  attacked 
the  galley,  but  were  driven  off  till  the  rising  tide  floated 
the  ship  once  more  and  Grimaldi  victoriously  sailed  away. 
Subsequently  Rainier  Grimaldi  was  employed  to  convoy 
merchant  ships  sailing  up  or  down  the  Channel.  On  one 
occasion,  with  only  a  few  ships  and  1200  men,  he 
threatened  Southampton,  not  really  with  a  view  of  attack- 
ing the  town,  now  jealously  guarded,  but  as  a  diversion  to 
retain  in  England  John  of  Lancaster,  who  was  arming 
11,000  men  to  pass  over  to  Calais.  The  Duke  of  Lancaster, 
however,  was  not  deterred  from  going  to  France.  Indeed, 
his  fleet  subsequently  captured  Rainier  Grimaldi  himself. 
This  happened  in  the  spring  of  1375,  and  Edward  III. 
thought  so  much  of  the  capture  that,  according  to 
Rymer,  he  bought  the  prisoner  for  12,000  golden  francs. 
The  entry  made  of  this  transaction  is  thus  worded : 
"  Renier  Grymbaud,  genevoys,  prisonner  of  Rauf  Basset 
of  Drayton." 

Shortly  after  this  event  a  truce  of  two  years  was  signed 
at  Bruges,  in  June  1375.  When,  in  1377,  the  war  was  re- 
newed, the  French  fleet,  with  the  aid  of  Rainier  Grimaldi, 
now  liberated,  won  a  great  naval  battle  off"  Rye,  but 
quarrelled  among  themselves  afterwards.  One  party  wished 
to  occupy  Rye  permanently  and  make  it  the  Calais  of 
England  and  the  basis  for  future  invasions.  Ultimately 
they  effected  a  landing  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ouse,  at 
Rottindean,  and  there,  after  some  fighting,  took  prisoner 
a  number  of  English  soldiers.  It  was  from  these  prisoners 


that  the  French  first  heard  of  the  death  of  Edward  III. 
and  the  accession  of  Richard  II.  After  burning  the  town 
of  Lewis,  the  French  and  Rainier  Grimaldi  took  to  the 
sea  again.  They  pillaged  Portsmouth,  Dartmouth  and 
Plymouth,  and  they  overran  the  Isle  of  Wight,  with  the 
exception  of  Carisbrooke  Castle ;  where  the  governor, 
Hagues  Tyrrel,  held  out  bravely.  Instead,  however,  of 
pillaging  the  island,  the  French  and  the  Monegasques 
accepted  a  ransom  of  1000  marks  ("  Chronicon  Anglite," 
p,  166).  For  many  years  the  shores  of  England  remained 
exposed  to  sudden  naval  incursions.  Even  Gravesend  was 
captured  and  burned  to  the  ground.  The  inhabitants  of 
London  had  good  reason,  and  on  more  than  one  occasion, 
to  be  seriously  alarmed.  Du  Guesclin  and  Jean  de  V^ienny, 
the  two  principal  French  admirals,  were  remarkably 
successful  in  spreading  terror  along  the  English  coasts. 

It  is  not  clear  at  what  precise  moment  Rainier 
Grimaldi  got  tired  of  fighting  for  the  French,  but  he  had 
already  departed  when  the  truce  of  1389  was  signed. 
Also  by  this  time  there  had  arisen  plenty  of  trouble 
at  home,  for  the  Barbary  pirates  resumed  their  old  habit 
of  raiding  the  Riviera  coasts.  Genoese  and  Monegasques 
were  now  asking  for  French  help  against  these  old 

Later  on,  however,  when,  in  1415,  Henry  V.  of  England, 
with  a  large  fleet,  appeared  at  the  mouth  of  the  Seine,  the 
French  once  again  appealed  for  maritime  help  to  the 
Genoese  and  Monegasques.  While  Henry  V.  besieged 
Harfleur,  boats  were  collected  higher  up  the  Seine,  but, 
in  spite  of  a  gallant  attack,  they  could  not  relieve  the 
besieged  town.  Harfleur  having  capitulated,  Henry  V. 
marched  his  much  reduced  and  distressed  army  towards 
Calais.  Meeting  the  superior  French  forces  on  the  road, 
he  won,  in  most  disadvantageous  circumstances,  tlie 
brilliant  and  decisive  victory  of  Agincourt  (25th  October 
1415).  Thomas  Beaufort,  Earl  of  Dorset,  had  been  left 
in  command  of  the  English  ships  at  Harflem-.  But  in 
the  spring  of  1416  a  French  fleet,  under  Guillaume  de 


Montenay,  six  galleys  under  Nicolas  Grimaldi,  and  eight 
large  ships  built  in  the  Portuguese  style,  with  as  many 
galleys  from  Genoa,  under  the  command  of  Jean  Spinola 
and  Janus  Grimaldi,  came  upon  the  scene.  These  ships 
seized  a  number  of  English  transports  bringing  provisions 
and  reinforcements  for  the  English  armies  in  France.  In 
one  of  these  encounters,  Janus  Grimaldi  was  killed. 

Subsequently  Guillaume  de  Montenay  and  Nicolas 
Grimaldi,  with  the  ships  they  had  gathered  together  at 
Honfleur,  sailed  for  Southampton  to  attack  the  English 
fleet  which  was  to  bring  provisions  to  Harfleur.  Twice 
before  Southampton  they  made  unsuccessful  efforts  to  fire 
the  English  fleet,  and  then  some  of  their  ships  were 
wrecked  by  a  fierce  storm.  Finally  an  important  naval 
action  took  place  in  the  Seine  between  Honfleur,  Harfleur 
and  Chef  de  Caux.  The  Genoese  greatly  distinguished 
themselves.  Nevertheless  the  English  were  victorious,  and 
got  their  provisions  into  Harfleur.  At  another  naval 
battle,  which  took  place  in  June  1417,  the  French  and 
Genoese  were  again  defeated  by  the  English  and  the  ships 
of  Gaspar  Spinola  and  other  Genoese  taken.  The  dispersal 
of  the  French  fleet  now  enabled  the  English  to  occupy 
Honfleur,  and  thus  they  became  masters  of  both  sides  of 
the  mouth  of  the  Seine. 

When,  twenty  years  later,  the  fortunes  of  war  favoured 
France  once  more,  and  the  English  were  not  only  driven 
out  of  France  but  so  lost  control  of  the  Channel  that 
England  was  menaced  with  starvation,  we  hear  nothing 
more  of  the  Monegasques  and  the  Genoese.  Probably  they 
were  not  wanted  to  share  the  fruits  of  victory ;  their  part 
had  been  to  supply  help  in  the  hours  of  defeat. 





WHII^E  the  first  Rainier,  Charles,  and  the  second 
Rainier  were  warring  against  the  Enghsh  and 
the  Flemish  in  the  Channel  and  the  North  Sea, 
the  Grimaldi  family  was  consolidating  its  hold  on  Monaco. 
In  the  description  of  the  wars  the  term  ISIonegasque  has 
perhaps  been  employed  somewhat  too  early,  chronologic- 
ally speaking.  Indeed  it  might  even  be  maintained  that 
there  are  no  Monegasques,  and  that  the  term  at  most 
only  signifies  a  geographical  division  between  members  of 
one  and  tiie  same  race.  Undoubtedly  it  would  be  difficult 
to  define  by  a  precise  line  where  the  Genoese  people  is 
replaced  by  the  Provenc^'al  people ;  and,  within  the 
Genoese  frontier,  the  subdivision  that  separates  the 
Monegasques  from  the  Genoese.  For  my  part  I  have 
classified  as  Monegasques  the  inhabitants  of  ^lonaco  and 
the  neighbouring  estates  belonging  to  the  Grimaldis. 
Subsequently  these  retainers  of  the  Grimaldi  family 
consolidated  and  became  the  subjects  of  a  principality, 
with  a  Grimaldi  as  its  chief.  Racially  there  does  not  seem 
to  be  a  marked  difference  between  them  and  the  Genoese, 
but  politically  their  status  differed  more  and  more  as  the 
making  of  Europe  progressed.  It  is  true  that  the  counts 
of  Provence  claimed  that  their  lands  extended  to  \^inti- 
mille,  and  it  cannot  be  said  that  the  Provencal  people, 
with  their  special  language  and  literature,  are  the  same  as 
the  Genoese.  The  claim,  however,  was  never  maintained 
for  long.  In  fact  it  might  be  argued  that  the  Monegasques 
must  have  differed  from  their  neighbours  by  reason  of  the 
readiness  with  which  these  latter  were  willing  to  barter 


them  away  whenever  there  was  any  chance  of  making 
a  bargain.  Thus  in  1174  Raymond,  Count  of  Toulouse 
and  Marquis  of  Provence,  offered  to  make  over  Monaco 
and  other  Provencal  territory  to  Genoa  if  the  Genoese 
would  help  him  to  recover  his  rights  over  Provence.  Then 
in  1191,  when  the  Emperor  Henry  VI.  wished  to  fight  the 
people  of  Provence,  he  also  made  a  present  of  Monaco 
to  the  commune  of  Genoa.  Later,  in  1241,  Raymond 
Beranger  V.,  Count  of  Provence,  yielded  his  rights  over 
Monaco  to  the  Genoese  Republic.  Thus  it  does  seem  that 
originally  Monaco  was  considered  as  a  part  of  Provence, 
but  it  is  doubtful  whether  this  is  sufficient  to  justify  the 
conception  that  the  Monegasques  always  have  been 
different  from  their  neighbours,  the  Genoese  on  one  side 
and  the  Proven(;'als  on  the  other.  Again,  in  1262,  Charles 
d'Anjou,  as  Count  of  Provence,  confirmed  the  handing 
over  of  Monaco  to  the  Genoese  and  the  latter,  now  secure 
in  their  possession  of  Monaco,  granted  the  ISIonegasques 
the  large  measure  of  Home  Rule  already  described.  But 
this  security  of  possession  was  soon  to  be  shaken,  though 
not  by  any  outside  event  or  foreign  pressure. 

The  Grimaldis  were  the  principal  family  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Monaco,  and  they  took  sides  with  the  Guelfs. 
When,  in  1296,  this  party  was  defeated,  the  Guelfs  and 
Grimaldis  were  exiled  from  Genoa.  We  have  seen, 
however,  that  Francis  Grimaldi  returned  ;  and  by  dis- 
guising himself  as  a  monk  succeeded  in  surprising  the 
garrison  and  taking  the  fortress  of  Monaco.  Thus  Monaco 
became  independent,  being  in  rebellion  against  Genoa  and 
no  longer  claimed  by  the  counts  of  Provence.  Of  course 
the  Genoese  would  not  accept  this  situation,  and  in  1298 
laid  siege  to  Monaco.  The  result,  as  already  related,  was  a 
sort  of  compromise  peace. 

After  this  for  many  years  the  fate  of  Monaco  fluctua- 
ated  with  that  of  the  Guelf  party.  So  far  as  the  Grimaldis 
were  concerned.  King  Charles  II.  of  Anjou,  having 
bought  property  possessed  by  Guelf  partisans  at  Monaco 
and  in  the  neighbourhood,  made,  in  1301,  a  present  of  it 


to  Nicolas  Spinola.  The  latter  was  the  chief  of  the 
principal  rival  family  to  the  Grimaldis,  and  the  Spinolas 
also  fought  on  the  other  side — that  is,  for  the  Ghibellines. 
But  in  1341  this  matter  was  finally  settled  in  quite  a 
prosaic  manner.  Charles  Grimaldi,  in  the  intervals  of  his 
wars  against  England,  simply  bought  all  the  lands  which 
Nicolas  Spinola  possessed  in  JNIonaco.  The  price  paid,  it 
is  said,  was  1280  golden  florins,  which  is  a  large  sum  as 
money  went  in  those  days  ;  but  after  sacking  Southamp- 
ton, and  several  other  English  towns,  Charles  Grimaldi 
could  well  afford  this  little  extravagance.  He  also  bought 
the  lordships  of  Castillon,  in  the  diocese  of  Vintimille,  of 
Roquebrune,  of  Menton  and  of  Eze.  The  latter  was  then 
considered  to  be  part  of  Provence. 

How  many  pleasure-seekers  on  their  holiday  jaunts 
think,  as  they  gaze  at  the  romantic  walls  and  battlements 
of  Monaco,  or  admire  the  quaint  old  palace  still  occupied 
by  the  Grimaldis,  that  this  family,  the  oldest  reigning 
family  in  Europe,  first  made  itself  distinguished  by 
sweeping  the  English  off  the  sea ;  and,  what  at  the 
time  was  much  more  difficult,  annihilating  the  fleet  of 
the  Flemish  in  their  own  waters,  the  Scheldt.  To  the 
Grimaldis,  Rainier,  Charles  and  the  second  Rainier  the 
English  should  feel  deeply  indebted.  They  taught  us 
most  effectively  that  an  island  cannot  be  defended 
without  a  strong  fleet.  When  Hrst  he  came  on  the  scene. 
Rainier  Grimaldi  trained  his  inexperienced  French 
recruits  by  setting  them  upon  the  English  ships.  It  is 
worth  repeating  that  the  only  real  sailors  were  the 
Flemish,  and  therefore  Rainier  sent  his  untrained  hands 
to  acquire  necessary  skill  and  strength  by  attacking  the 
badly  equipped  and  inefficiently  manned  English  ships. 

Those  who  governed  England,  the  feudal  lords,  were 
far  too  busy  with  intrigues  and  internecine  conflicts  to 
think  of  building  up  an  efficient  navy.  A  navy  must  be 
a  national  institution,  and  the  feudal  system  was  better 
suited  to  local  efforts.  Indeed  the  idea  of  nationality  grew 
as  the  feudal  system  declined. 


Strange  though  it  may  seem,  after  so  long  a  lapse  of 
centuries,  there  is  still  a  Grimaldi  living  in  what  remains 
of  the  fortress  that  Francis  Grimaldi  surprised  and 
captured  in  1297.  What  may  be  accounted  even  more 
surprising  is  the  fact  that  the  Grimaldi  of  to-day,  like  his 
ancestors  six  hundred  years  ago,  is  once  again  giving  the 
world  lessons  in  matters  relating  to  the  sea.  But  the 
world  has  moved  in  the  interval.  Other  and  better  ideals 
have  arisen.  The  pen  has  proved  itself  mightier  than  the 
sword  and  the  light  of  science  is  preferred  to  the  flash  of 
arms.  It  is  with  the  creation  of  a  new  science,  the  science 
of  oceanography,  that  the  present  Grimaldi  is  concerned, 
and  this  he  combines  with  active  propaganda  in  the  cause 
of  peace.  But  are  we  absolutely  certain  that  there  was  not 
underlying  those  fierce  combats  of  the  Grimaldis  some 
vague  ideal  of  peace  ?  The  quarrel  was  between  Guelf  and 
Ghibelline,  but  it  may  be  that  there  were  on  both  sides 
combatants  who  entertained  a  dim  hope  of  bringing 
about  an  era  of  universal  peace  and  concord. 

The  world  did  not  wait  for  the  advent  of  Victor  Hugo 
to  realise  that  this  end  would  best  be  attained  by  es- 
tablishing the  United  States  of  Europe.  At  the  time  now 
under  consideration  the  great  struggle  was  between  two 
rival  powers  each  striving  to  carry  out  this  very  policy. 
On  one  side  there  was  the  Church  of  Rome  seeking 
universal  dominion,  and  among  other  means  to  that  end 
very  wisely  endeavouring  to  establish  Latin  as  the 
universal  language.  This  of  course  meant  the  states  of 
Europe  federated  under  a  theocracy.  Others  equally  in 
favour  of  union  desired  a  political  and  secular  union.  To 
them  Charlemagne  represented  the  nearest  approach  to 
success,  and  they  strove  to  reconstitute  the  Roman 
Empire.  In  this  struggle  between  Emperor  and  Pope 
the  Ghibellines  sided  with  the  Emperor ;  the  Guelfs, 
among  whom  were  the  Grimaldis  and  those  who  became 
Monegasques,  sided  with  the  Pope.  Judged  according  to 
the  modern  aspect  of  politics  and  the  actual  meaning 
given   to   words,  the  Guelfs  would  be  clericals  and  re- 




actionists.  But  it  may  be  argued  that  in  those  days 
clericahsm  was  much  more  closely  allied  to  progress  than 
at  present.  On  the  other  hand,  princes  were  little  better 
than  pirates.  The  Church  could  never  have  acquired  the 
power  and  popularity  it  enjoyed  for  several  centuries  if, 
on  the  whole,  it  had  not  protected  the  people  against 
tyranny  and  many  abuses.  This,  in  any  case,  was  the  view 
taken  by  the  Guelfs  and  their  Grimaldi  followers. 

Beneath  the  broad  mantle  of  religion  the  peoples  of 
the  world  might  possibly  be  brought  together.  Under  the 
threat  of  eternal  punishment  and  the  promise  of  ever- 
lasting bliss  they  might  be  induced  to  forgo  the  love  of 
revenge,  to  sink  worldly  differences,  to  forget  personal 
ambitions,  and  unite  to  bring  about  an  era  of  peace  and 
good  will  to  all  men.  But  could  such  unity  of  purpose  and 
action  be  secured  under  the  crown  of  an  emperor  ?  Then 
who  should  be  this  one  sovereign  of  the  world  ?  It  is  only 
at  rare  intervals  in  history  that  a  Charlenuigne  appears 
who  can  command  the  suffrages  of  all.  The  result  showed 
that  the  world  was  not  ripe  for  such  counsel  of  perfection. 
Of  the  two,  the  Papacy  rather  than  the  Imperial  throne 
was  nearer  success ;  but  both  were  sadly  out  of  keeping 
with  the  ideal. 

During  the  fourteenth  century  the  Genoese  on 
several  occasions  occupied  and  administered  Monaco.  The 
Grimaldis  then  lived  on  their  other  estates  at  JNIentone, 
Castillon  and  Cagnes.  On  one  occasion  the  Grimaldis  of 
Beuil  seized  INIonaco,  though  they  had  no  legal  claim,  and 
managed  to  keep  possession  of  it  from  1395  to  14.01. 
They  were  then  driven  out  by  Marshal  Boucicaut, 
Governor  of  Genoa.  The  Genoese  themselves,  however, 
revolted  and  overthrew  their  governor.  Then  Monaco 
appealed  to  King  Louis  II.  of  Anjou,  who  sent  a  few 
soldiers  to  protect  the  town  against  the  Genoese.  Ten 
years  afterwards  the  Guelfs  regained  power  at  Genoa  and 
in  June  1419  the  sons  of  Rainier  were  able  to  return  to 
Monaco,  from  which  the  family  had  been  exiled  for 
sixty-two  years.  But  the  Grimaldis  had  been  driven  out 


of  Monaco  because  they  were  partisans  of  the  Guelfs. 
The  RepubUc  of  Genoa  continued  to  allow  the 
Monegasques  to  enjoy  Home  Rule  and  various  commer- 
cial privileges.  In  a  truce  signed  in  1412  between  King 
Louis  IL  of  Anjou  and  Genoa,  Monaco  figures  as  an 
independent  community  in  alliance  with  the  King  of 
Sicily.  In  1424  and  1426  other  treaties  recognised  Monaco 
as  independent. 

At  the  death  of  the  second  Rainier,  in  1407,  he  left 
three  sons,  Ambroise,  Antoine  and  Jean ;  who,  when 
they  became  masters  of  Monaco,  made  the  extraordinary 
arrangement  to  reign  each  in  his  turn  for  one  year.  Their 
first  care  was  to  renew  all  the  treaties  concluded  by  Charles 
Grimaldi  to  ensure  the  independence  of  Monaco.  But 
having  taken  part  in  a  M^ar  againt  the  Duke  of  Milan 
they  Avere  severely  defeated.  The  Duke  of  Savoy  desired 
to  see  Monaco  destroyed,  and  a  Milanese  garrison 
occupied  the  town,  which  was  thus  again  lost  to  the 

Jean  Grimaldi,  however,  Avas  a  great  sailor,  and  he  was 
employed  by  Francisco  Sforza  to  fight  the  Venetians  on 
the  Po.  Here  he  won  a  fierce  battle,  against  the  celebrated 
Carmagnola,  on  the  23rd  JSIay  1431.  In  1436  he  was 
restored  to  Monaco,  but  as  a  vassal  of  the  dukes  of 
Milan.  During  Jean's  absence  from  Monaco,  the  Duke  of 
Savoy  suddenly  made  a  descent  upon  the  town,  and  by 
treachery  he  also  took  Jean  prisoner.  But  Pomelline 
Fregose,  Jean  Grimaldi's  wife,  was  a  heroine.  She  organ- 
ised the  defence ;  and  even  when,  to  intimidate  her,  her 
husband  was  brought  under  the  walls  she  refused  to 
surrender.  He  had  sent  a  message  that  if  his  captors  killed 
him  under  the  ramparts  still  she  was  not  to  yield.  In  the 
face  of  such  resistance  the  Duke  of  Savoy  abandoned  his 
enterprise  and  the  next  year  he  released  his  prisoner,  who 
then  returned  to  Monaco.  A  year  later  (1440)  the  Duke 
of  Milan  renounced  his  overlordship  of  Monaco,  which 
now  became  absolutely  independent. 

The  policy  of  Jean  was  based  on  faithful  devotion  to 


Philippe- Marie  Visconti,  whom  the  Genoese  had  chosen 
as  their  governor.  When,  however,  Visconti  died,  Jean 
Grimaldi,  now  advanced  in  years,  sought  protection  from 
his  old  enemy  the  Duke  of  Savoy.  He  offered  in  exchange 
for  such  protection  the  lordship,  not  over  Monaco,  but 
over  a  part  of  Mentone  and  all  Roccabruna.  This  act 
was  destined  to  lead  to  many  difficulties  and  troubles  in 
the  future.  .Jean  also  contemplated  selling  Monaco  itself  to 
the  Dauphin,  son  of  Charles  VI L,  for  15,000  golden  ecus, 
but  this  sum  was  never  paid ;  the  Dauphin,  having 
abandoned  the  idea  of  invading  Italy,  had  no  need  to  buy 
Monaco.  At  Jean's  death  the  first  act  of  his  son,  Catalan 
Grimaldi,  was  to  repudiate  this  treaty. 

Before  dying,  Jean  Grimaldi  made  a  will  establishing 
the  order  of  succession.  This  was  to  be  by  primogeniture 
to  male  heirs.  Women  were  only  to  succeed  in  the 
absence  of  any  male  heir,  and  on  condition  that  their 
husbands  took  the  arms  and  name  of  the  Grimaldis. 

Catalan  reigned  only  three  years,  and  died  in  1457, 
when  but  forty-two  years  old.  Of  his  three  children,  only 
a  young  girl  named  Claudine  Grimaldi  survived.  Before 
his  death  Catalan  decided  that  his  daughter,  Claudine, 
should  marry  I^ambert  Grimaldi,  brother  of  Gaspar,  Lord 
of  the  Antibes.  So  far  as  the  family  property  was  con- 
cerned the  arrangement  was  admirable,  but  Claudine  was 
only  six  years  old  and  her  future  husband  had  already 
attained  the  ripe  age  of  forty-two.  During  Claudine's 
minority  her  grandmother  Pomelline  conspired  against  her 
future  grandson-in-law  because  the  population  of  Monaco 
wished  him  to  assume  the  reins  of  governinent  at  once.  An 
attempt  was  even  made  to  seize  Lambert  by  force.  The 
future  grandmother-in-law  sought  to  imprison,  some  say 
to  murder,  her  future  grandson-in-law.  Fortunately,  he  got 
wind  of  the  conspiracy,  escaped  and,  returning  with  a 
superior  force,  first  gave  the  conspirators  a  good  beating 
and  then  proceeded  to  incarcerate  Pomelline.  She  was, 
however,  allowed  to  live  in  her  own  house  at  Mentone, 
where  she  was  kept  prisoner  and  carefully  guarded.  Lam- 


bert  married  Claudine  in  1465,  and  in  spite  of  the  dis- 
proportion in  age  they  Hved  happily  together.  Lambert 
reigned  till  1494  and  displayed  great  diplomatic  skill  in 
maintaining  the  independence  of  Monaco.  Not  only  was 
this  independence  generally  admitted  but  it  was  recognised 
in  the  treaties  signed  by  some  of  the  principal  powers. 

We  now  approach  a  period  of  history  which  might 
well  be  dramatised.  Those  who  love  the  old-fashioned 
melodrama  would  here  find  ample  materials,  and  "  The 
Tragic  Widow ;  a  Romance  of  Monaco "  might  be  a 
suitable  title.  The  widow  is  Claudine,  who  lived  to  see 
three  of  her  sons  murdered.  The  first  to  reign  was  Jean  II. 
He  is  the  first  Prince  of  Monaco  mentioned  in  history 
as  having  encouraged  the  fine  arts,  and  pictures  com- 
missioned by  him  are  still  to  be  seen  in  the  cathedral  of 
Monaco.  He  also  greatly  embellished  the  palace.  But  he 
was  not  skilful  in  diplomacy.  His  tendency  was  to  defy 
everybody,  and  he  made  enemies  on  all  sides.  The  diffi- 
culties this  occasioned  were  so  great  that  in  his  extremity 
he  thought  of  selling  Monaco  to  the  \'enetians.  On  the 
11th  of  October  1505,  when  dining  with  his  mother  in 
their  castle  at  Mentone,  a  quarrel  arose  between  Jean  II. 
and  his  brother  Lucien  on  this  subject.  No  one  knows 
what  happened  except  that  daggers  were  drawn,  Jean  II. 
was  stabbed  and  fell  dying  at  his  mother's  feet.  It  is  urged 
that  Lucien  cannot  have  been  so  very  much  to  blame,  for, 
while  deeply  lamenting  the  loss  of  her  son  Jean,  Claudine 
bore  no  ill-will  towards  Lucien,  and  made  no  opposition  to 
his  entering  into  possession  of  the  estate  as  the  head  of 
the  family. 

The  very  next  year  the  Genoese  determined  to  put  an 
end  to  the  independence  of  Monaco  and  then  began  the 
greatest  of  the  many  sieges  which  that  town  has  had  to 
endure.  Lucien,  with  the  aid  of  his  young  brother,  Charles, 
and  Barthelemy  Grimaldi,  organised  a  heroic  resistance. 
The  siege  lasted  one  hundred  and  two  days,  and  artillery 
was  brought  to  bear  upon  the  walls  for  the  first  time.  A  final 
assault  was  made  on  the  19th  of  March  1507.  A  breach  had 


been  effected  in  the  wall  at  Serravalle,  where  to-day  the  old 
tower  overlooks  the  road  to  Nice  just  behind  the  palace. 
But  fresh  works  had  been  rapidly  constructed  behind  the 
breach,  and  after  a  stubborn  hand-to-hand  fight  the  enemy 
was  beaten  off.  In  despair  they  raised  the  siege.  This 
magnificent  resistance  on  the  part  of  the  Monegasques 
had  the  inconvenience  of  making  Louis  XII.  of  France 
realise  the  importance  of  iVlonaco,  and  he  at  once  pro- 
ceeded, by  means  both  fair  and  foul,  to  make  sure  that,  in 
the  event  of  a  war,  Monaco  should  be  on  tlie  French  side. 
The  celebrated  JNIachiavelli  also  realised  the  new  situation, 
and  we  hear  of  his  visiting  JNIonaco  on  behalf  of  the 
Florentine  maritime  interests  in  JNIay  1511.  Ferdinand 
the  Catholic  likewise  began  to  bestow  favours  and 
attentions  upon  Lucien.  This  may  account  for  the  solemn 
recognition  of  the  independent  sovereignty  of  JNIonaco  by 
Louis  Xn.  in  1512.  Lucien  as  an  independent  sovereign 
thereupon  proceeded  to  coin  money  in  his  own  name. 

The  Dorias,  and  more  distant  relatives  of  the  Grimaldi 
family,  however,  were  so  jealous  that  Barthelemy  and 
Andre  Doria  conspired  to  overthrow  Lucien.  The  details 
of  this  plot  would  make  an  excellent  play.  On  22nd 
August  1528  we  have  the  arrival  of  Barthelemy  at 
Monaco  under  the  guise  of  friendship ;  his  conscience, 
however,  is  so  disturbed  that  he  refuses  to  accompany 
Lucien  to  church.  After  dinner  Barthelemy  on  some 
pretext  draws  Lucien  away  from  his  followers  to  a  distant 
part  of  the  palace,  where  the  conspirators  are  in  waiting. 
Here  the  prince  is  murdered,  and  the  conspirators  make 
themselves  masters  of  tlie  lower  part  of  the  palace.  They 
seek  to  gain  the  upper  floors,  from  which  to  signal  to  the 
fleet  of  ships  anchored  in  the  port — the  fleet  of  the  Dorias 
— to  send  to  their  assistance  a  force  with  which  they  may 
capture  the  town.  By  this  time,  however,  the  subjects  of 
Lucien  have  completely  recovered  from  their  surprise. 
They  defend  the  approaches  to  the  second  floor  and 
prevent  the  signal  from  being  given.  At  this  moment 
Augustin  Grimaldi,  brother  of  Lucien,  and  the  next  heir, 


arrives  from  Cannes.  He  rallies  the  Monegasques,  and  the 
conspirators  are  about  to  be  put  to  the  sword.  But  they 
have  had  the  foresight,  at  the  moment  when  they  became 
masters  of  the  situation,  to  lay  hands  upon  Jeanne  de 
Pontevis,  the  wife  of  Lucien,  and  her  children.  Holding 
knives  to  her  breast,  they  threaten  her  and  her  children 
with  instant  death  if  they  are  not  allowed  to  leave 
unmolested.  The  conditions  must  be  granted,  and  the 
conspirators  safely  retire.  Thus  Lucien,  who  murdered  his 
brother,  falls  by  the  assassin's  dagger  in  his  turn. 

Claudine's  third  son  now  assumed  the  sovereignity 
of  JNIonaco,  and  he  too  came  to  an  untimely  end.  In 
his  case  it  was  not  the  assassin's  knife  but  the  more 
treacherous  poison  of  a  murderous  political  opponent.  At 
this  time  Charles  the  Fifth  of  Spain  was  the  principal 
monarch  in  Europe.  This  great  ruler  thought  Monaco  of 
sufficient  importance  for  him  to  pay  Prince  Augustin 
a  personal  visit.  When  on  his  way  to  be  crowned  at 
Bologna,  Charles  V.  disembarked  at  Monaco  on  the  5th 
August  1529  and  proceeded  by  land  to  Genoa.  He  was 
accompanied  by  Angustin  Grimaldi  and  Honor^,  the  son 
of  Lucien,  who  was  then  only  seven  years  old. 

These  friendly  relations  ended  in  the  establishment  of 
the  Spanish  protectorate.  The  princes  of  JSlonaco  were  to 
render  feudal  homage  to  the  Emperor  Charles  V.,  but 
Monaco  was  to  retain  its  autonomy  as  an  independent 
principality.  This  is  set  forth  in  the  document  known  as 
the  Declaration  of  Tordesillas.  But  it  was  not  without 
reluctance  that  the  Spanish  victories  and  the  force  of 
complex  circumstances,  which  it  would  require  much  time 
to  explain,  led  Augustin  to  turn  from  France  to  Spain  for 
protection.  To  the  last  he  entertained  the  hope  of  return- 
ing to  France,  and  continued  negotiations  with  this  view. 
Perhaps  these  intrigues  may  account  for  his  sudden  death, 
so  sudden  as  to  have  caused  the  conviction  that  it  was 
due  to  poison. 

Honort^  I.,  son  of  the  murdered  Lucien,  was  only  ten 
years  old  when  he  succeeded  his  uncle,  Augustin.  The  time 


of  his  minority  was  far  from  tranquil ;  it  was  occupied  by- 
plots  and  counterplots  as  to  who  should  be  his  tutor.  Then 
there  was  trouble  with  the  Spaniards,  who  now  insisted 
on  keeping  a  garrison  at  Monaco  under  the  pretext  that 
the  French  were  about  to  attack  the  town.  Thus  there 
was  an  Imperial  Resident,  Valenzulea  by  name,  command- 
ing Spanish  soldiers,  who  did  not  feel  at  all  disposed  to 
respect  the  autonomy  of  INIonaco  and  its  princes.  Etienne 
Grimaldi,  who  ultimately  obtained  the  tutorship  of  the 
young  Prince  Honore,  resisted  these  encroachments  so 
well  that,  when  Honore  became  of  age,  Etienne  was  asked 
to  continue  governing  in  the  capacity  of  Honore's  *'  elected 
father"  and  of  Gubernant,  ov  governor.  Etienne  showed 
himself  a  very  able  administrator  and  greatly  improved 
Monaco.  He  constructed,  among  other  things,  the  great 
cistern,  which  holds  1700  cubic  metres  of  rain-water,  azid 
which  enabled  Monaco  to  endure  long  sieges.  The  twelve 
arcades,  the  marble  balustrades  and  the  semicircular 
flight  of  steps  in  the  Court  of  Honour  of  the  palace  which 
we  admire  to-day  owe  their  existence  to  Honore's  "  father 

Great  financial  difficulties  with  Spain  now  arose.  The 
Spanish  Government  failed  to  pay  its  soldiers  in  garrison 
at  Monaco  and  there  was  the  same  embarrassment  with 
regard  to  the  Monegasque  ships  in  the  service  of  Spain. 
Many  of  these  ships  were  seized  for  debt  and  afterwards 
were  lost  off  the  island  of  Zerbi,  taken  by  the  Turks  in 
1561.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the  decay  of  Monaco's 
maritime  power ;  though  some  ships  under  the  Grimaldi 
standard  took  a  creditable  part  in  the  battle  of  Lepante. 

Honore  I.  died  in  1581,  leaving  four  sons  and  five 
daughters.  His  eldest  son,  Charles  II.,  succeeded  at  the  age 
of  twenty-seven,  and  shortly  after  his  accession  some  500 
Corsicans  and  French  attempted  to  take  Monaco  by  storm. 
It  was  on  this  occasion  that  St  Devote  is  supposed  to 
have  appeared  on  the  walls  and  upbraided  the  Corsicans 
for  attacking  the  town  that  took  such  good  care  of  the 
remains  of  their  patron  saint.  The  attack  totally  failed. 


Charles  II.  did  not  marry,  and  died  young.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded in  1589  by  his  brother,  Hercules  I.  As  the  Spanish 
continued  to  neglect  all  their  financial  responsibilities  there 
was  increasing  dissatisfaction  and  distress.  Another  night 
surprise  was  attempted  against  Monaco,  this  time  by  700 
men  from  Provence.  They  were  commanded  by  a  Mone- 
gasque  named  Cesar  Arnaud,  but  in  spite  of  their  vigour 
in  attacking  they  were  driven  off.  Next  a  notary  named 
Boccone  entered  into  a  conspiracy  with  the  house  of 
Savoy  to  upset  the  dynasty,  get  rid  of  the  Spaniards  and 
put  Monaco  into  the  hands  of  Savoy.  Probably  it  was  to 
a  similar  plot  that  the  murder  of  Hercules  in  the  rue  du 
Milieu  may  be  attributed.  The  prince  was  leaving  the 
house  of  Gastaldi  the  Governor  when  he  was  stabbed, 
l^his  was  the  house  that  now  bears  the  number  15  in  the 
rue  du  3Ii/ieu. 

Honore  II.  was  the  next  heir,  and  at  first  he  reigned 
under  the  tutorsliip  of  l*rince  de  Valdetare,  an  uncle  on 
his  mother's  side,  who  was  entirely  devoted  to  the  Spanish. 
Consequently  he  soon  became  unpopular  among  the 
JNIonegasques.  A  larger  garrison  of  Spanish  troops  was 
brought  to  Monaco,  and  Honor^  II.  received  the  Order  of 
the  Golden  Fleece.  Valdetare  abolished  the  communal 
prerogatives  of  Monaco  on  which  the  Grimaldis  had  relied 
since  the  origin  of  their  lordship.  The  more  the  Spaniards 
reduced  the  power  of  the  Grimaldis,  the  more  they  be- 
stowed upon  them  outward  shows  of  fa\^our.  For  example, 
the  title  of  Prince,  used  up  to  this  time  only  by  courtesy, 
was  now,  with  the  sanction  of  Spain,  officially  conferred. 
Thuswehear  of  "  Honore  II.,  Prince  and  I^ord  of  Monaco." 
Honore  was  also  encouraged  to  issue  coin  with  his  own 
likeness,  but,  in  reality,  he  was  obliged  to  abstain  from 
governing  and  rest  contented,  for  thirty  years,  with  the 
honour  of  receiving  princes  and  the  pleasure  of  beautify- 
ing his  palace.  In  this  latter  work  he  succeeded  so 
well  that  the  seventeenth-century  poets,  artists  and 
travellers  all  agreed  in  singing  the  praises  of  the  palace 
of  Monaco. 


In  1631  the  plague  broke  out  at  Monaco.  The  disease 
already  prevailed  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  it  was  said 
that  some  infected  linen  from  La  Turbie  was  brought  to 
Monaco  to  be  washed.  The  most  rigorous  measures  were  en- 
forced. The  people  were  kept  prisoners  in  their  houses,  and 
all  social  intercourse  forbidden.  But  one  day  there  came  two 
monks  from  Nice  declaring  that  dirt  was  the  cause.  Every- 
one was  thereupon  driven  to  the  sea  and  made  to  take  a 
prolonged  bath.  At  the  same  time  their  furniture  was 
brought  down  and  also  washed  in  the  sea,  while  their 
houses  were  fumigated.  To  further  these  efforts  there 
came  a  deluge  of  rain.  The  plague  was  thus  washed  away 
and  the  epidemic  at  once  ceased. 

As  time  wore  on,  the  position  became  more  intolerable 
and,  in  the  absence  of  their  pay,  the  Spanish  soldiers  even 
asked  permission  to  pillage  the  palace  they  were  supposed 
to  protect.  At  last  Honore  II.  succeeded  in  secretly  con- 
cluding a  treaty,  the  Treaty  of  Peronne,  with  Cardinal 
Richelieu.  This  act  bears  the  date  of  September  1041.  A 
French  garrison  was  to  occupy  Monaco,  but  its  officers 
were  to  be  under  the  orders  of  the  Prince  of  INIonaco, 
whose  independence  should  in  every  way  be  respected. 
It  was  on  the  17th  November  1641  that  the  coup  d'eiat 
was  accomplished.  A  number  of  partisans  were  arrested 
and  brought  to  the  Monaco  prisons.  In  the  night,  after 
a  banquet  at  which  all  the  Spanish  officers  and  soldiers 
had  been  well  plied  with  drink,  the  prisoners,  who  were 
friends  in  disguise,  were  armed  and  released.  AVith 
the  rest  of  the  population  they  sprang  upon  the  garri- 
son. A  cannon  fired  from  the  rampart  brought  up 
French  soldiers  concealed  in  the  neighbourhood ;  and 
the  Spaniards,  overwhelmed,  were  glad  to  save  their  lives 
by  surrendering.  Only  five  of  them  had  been  killed  and 
ten  wounded. 

Honore  II.  published  a  manifesto  to  the  Powers  ex- 
plaining his  conduct,  and  returned  the  Order  of  the  Golden 
Fleece.  Of  course  he  lost  all  the  property  he  possessed 
in  Spain,  and  all  the  privileges  and  honours  the  Spanish 


emperor  had  conferred  on  him.  The  alliance  of  the 
Grimaldis  with  Spain  had  been  most  disappointing,  and 
Honor^  II.  was  convinced  that  France  was  not  only  the 
nearer  but  the  more  reliable  ally.  Still,  the  enmity  of 
Spain  was  now  to  be  anticipated,  and  precautions  must  be 



EUROPE  was  now  in  the  throes  of  the  great 
struggle  between  Protestantism  and  the  Roman 
CathoHc  Church.  Monaco  was  but  a  small  state, 
some  may  think  too  small  to  take  part  in  this  war  of 
giants.  Nevertheless  it  had  thrown  off  the  incubus  of 
Spain  just  in  time  to  assist  in  working  out  the  far-reaching 
policy  of  Richelieu  and  his  successor,  Mazarin.  Richelieu 
was  determined  not  to  allow  Austria  to  accomplish  in 
1635  what  Prussia  did  in  1870.  He  had  ruthlessly 
beheaded  French  aristocrats  who  conspired  against  the 
King  and  had  tenaciously  fought  the  French  Protestants 
so  as  to  maintain  the  authority  of  the  throne  and  the 
unity  of  the  nation.  But  when  Austrian  policy  was  likely 
to  bring  about  German  unity  Richelieu  fought  for  the 
Protestants  in  Germany,  though  he  sought  to  crush  them 
in  France.  Though  a  cardinal  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church,  he  was  willing  to  support  the  Protestant  cause 
beyond  the  Rhine  rather  than  allow  the  creation  of  a 
powerful  Germany  on  the  French  frontier.  As  in  these 
wars  Spain  was  arrayed  against  France,  Monaco,  by 
reason  of  its  geographical  position  and  the  safe  shelter 
afforded  in  its  harbour,  became  a  place  of  importance. 
Louis  Xin.  of  France,  to  compensate  Honord  II.  for 
what  he  had  lost  in  abandoning  Spain,  conferred  on  him 
the  Duchy  and  Peerage  of  V^alentinois,  made  him  Count 
of  Carladez,  Baron  of  Buis  and  Calvinet,  and  gave  him  the 
lands  and  lordship  of  Saint  Remy.  Honoro  II.  was 
received  at  the  court  in  Paris,  and  later  Louis  XIV. 
became  godfather  to  Honor^'s  grandson,  Louis.   As  this 

F  81 


child's  father  was  accidentally  shot  a  few  years  afterwards, 
it  was  the  godson  of  Louis  XIV.  who  became  the  next 
Prince  of  Monaco,  under  the  title  of  Louis  I.  Honore  II. 
died  in  1662,  after  a  long  and  very  successful  reign.  He 
so  improved  the  court  of  Monaco  that  he  was  called 
the  Louis  XIV.  of  ]Monaco,  and  he  greatly  increased  the 
influence  of  his  family  by  marrying  his  grandson  Louis  to 
Charlotte,  daughter  of  the  Marshal  de  Gramont. 

When  the  English  revolution  drove  the  Stuarts  into 
exile,  Charlotte  de  Gramont,  wife  of  Prince  Louis  of 
Monaco,  became  the  favourite  companion  of  Henrietta, 
daughter  of  Charles  I.  of  England  and  wife  of  the  Duke 
of  Orleans.  The  Duke  of  York,  subsequently  James  II. 
of  England,  desired  to  avail  himself  of  the  situation  in 
favour  of  his  plans  by  making  use  of  the  port  of  Monaco. 
He  conceived  a  scheme  for  assembling  at  Monaco  a  fleet 
with  which  to  sail  for  England  and  re-establish  the 
monarchy.  But  if  the  court  of  France  was  anxious  to 
show  sympathy  with  the  exiled  Royal  Family  of  England, 
Cardinal  Mazarin  was  much  more  concerned  to  keep  peace 
with  Cromwell.  It  was  all  very  well  to  sympathise  with 
the  fallen  Stuarts ;  but  if  Cromwell  could  be  induced  to 
lend  a  few  of  his  Ironsides  to  aid  the  French,  in  their  wars 
against  Spain,  that  was  a  purpose  far  more  worthy  of 
accomplishment.  It  was  in  1650  that  the  Duke  of  York 
cast  his  eyes  on  Monaco.  Honore  II.  was  still  living,  and 
the  King  of  France  entrusted  him  with  the  very  difficult 
task.  He  was  to  satisfy  the  Duke  of  York  in  any  way 
except  that  of  allowing  him  to  make  use  of  the  port  of 
Monaco  for  hostile  purposes  against  the  English  Common- 
wealth. This  Honore  II.  did  with  so  much  skill  that  he 
was  especially  congratulated  and  complimented  by  the 
court  of  France. 

Mazarin's  policy  was  successful.  He  not  only  estab- 
lished very  friendly  relations  with  Cromwell  but  actually 
obtained  the  assistance  of  some  of  Cromwell's  soldiers 
to  fight  the  Spaniards.  There  still  exists  at  Monaco 
written  evidence  in  proof  of  this  fact.  These  historical 


documents  came  to  be  included  among  the  archives  of 
Monaco  in  the  following  manner.  Honore-Charles-Maurice, 
Due  de  Valentinois,  subsequently  Honore  V.,  married 
the  only  daughter  and  surviving  child  of  the  sixth  and 
last  Due  d'Aumont ;  the  Due  d'Aumont  had  married 
Jeanne  de  Durfort-Duras,  Duchesse  de  Mazarin ;  the 
Grimaldi  family  therefore  inherited  the  d'Aumont  papers, 
which  included  some  relating  to  Mazarin.  These  consist  of 
one  hundred  and  seventy-four  letters,  a  large  portion  of 
which  are  letters  from  Cardinal  Mazarin  to  Marshal  d'Au- 
mont, writenfrom  July  16-t3  to  August  1659.  The  ink  is 
good  but  the  paper  bad.  Some  of  the  letters  are  folded  eight 
times.  The  courteous  first  sentence  and  the  signature  are 
always  in  Mazarin's  hand,  and  in  some  cases  the  entire 
letter.  Occasionally  the  Cardinal  wrote  to  a  dictated  letter 
a  postscript  in  his  own  hand  as  long  as  the  letter  itself. 
The  letters  generally  bear  a  red  or  blue  ribbon  sealed  with 
the  Cardinal's  ring,  engraved  with  his  arms.  Marshal 
d'Aumont  was  engaged  for  a  long  time  in  the  war  against 
the  Spaniards,  and  the  struggle  was  protracted  for  some 
twenty-four  years.  Many  of  the  letters  relate  to  this 
campaign.  Mazarin's  policy  of  reconciliation  with  England 
succeeded  so  well  that  Cromwell  sent  6000  troops  to  help 
the  French  against  the  Spaniards.  Among  the  d'Aumont 
correspondence  is  one  from  Cromwell  regarding  an 
English  contingent  sent  to  Mai-dike,  a  town  near 
Dunkerque.  It  is  addressed  to  the  Marshal,  and  is  worded 
as  follows  : — 

"  For  his  Excellency  the  Marshal  of  Aumont  at 


"  My  Lord, — Wee  having  been  given  to  understand 
that  the  Spanyard  had  some  Designe  to  attacqs  Mardike 
did  send  five  companyes  of  Colonell  Guibons  Regiment 
from  home  for  assisting  of  the  fForces  there  but  having 
now  understood  that  there  is  an  addition  of  forces  of 
French  and  English,  which  wee  hope  (through  the 
blessing  of  God)  may  be  able  to  defend  that  place  against 


any  attempt  of  ye  enemy.  It  is  our  desire  that  your 
Lordship  will  please  to  cause  the  returne  to  England  of 
these  five  Companies  of  Colonelle  Guibons  Regiment  with 
all  possible  speed,  for  whose  transportation  we  have 
labourard.     Your  good  friend, 

"  Oliver,  P. 

"Whitehall,  BQth  Decemb.  1657." 

Thus  the  princes  of  Monaco  not  only  helped  Cromwell 
by  refusing  to  allow  the  Duke  of  York  to  use  their  port, 
but  they  married  into  a  family  which  had  fought  side  by 
side  with  Cromwell's  soldiers ;  and  they  still  possess  one 
of  Cromwell's  lettei's.  Few  people  realise  how  often  the 
house  of  Grimaldi  has  been  involved  in  English  politics. 
Generally  its  action  has  been  against  England,  but  it  was 
in  favour  of  Cromwell  and  the  Commonwealth.  After  the 
Restoration  of  the    Stuarts,    French    arms    were    again 
turned  against  England  ;  and,  the  better  to  wage  a  mari- 
time war,  the  French  became  the  allies  of  the  Dutch. 
They  were,  however,   very  unstable  allies,  and  preferred 
rather  to  see  the  Dutch  and  English  ships  damage  each 
other  than  risk  French  ships  in  the  fighting.  Louis  I.  of 
IMonaco,  anxious  to  escape  from  the  court  intrigues  in 
which  his  wife  was  compromising  herself,  and  desirous 
of   distinguishing    himself  by   some   feat   of  arms,   was 
waiting  in  vain  for  the  arrival  of  the  French  fleet  under 
]M.  de  Beaufort.  At  last,  in  company  with  his  brother- 
in-law,  the  romantic  Comte  de  Guiche,  Prince  Louis  of 
IMonaco  took  service  with  the  Dutch  fleet,  just  in  time  to 
assist  at  the  celebrated  battle  of  Texel.  This  great  fight, 
which  lasted  for  four  days,  took  place  at  the  beginning  of 
June  1666.   The  Comte  d'Estrades,  French  ambassador 
in  Holland,  sent  the  following  repoi-t  to  Louis  XIV.  con- 
cerning the  conduct  of  the  two  combatants  : 

"  M.  le  Prince  de  Monaco  and  M.  le  comte  de  Guiche, 
being  on  the  ship  commanded  by  Captain  Terlon,  second 

^A..y/iyfff*^a/^^^t  /f}i>er  Ani^,/a^M 

fO-ff^^i  f-afi^' 


^0  afVP  ^v<tf:e: 



"*'«••    '"■•■  ." 

Li:ill.K    I'ROM    Ol.IVEK   CkOMWIU.!. 

RUYTER    AND    LOUIS    I  85 

to  Admiral  Ruyter,  were  the  first  to  charge  the  enemy, 
and  then  were  so  prompt  in  accosting  the  vice-admiral 
of  the  Red  Pennant  that  they  came  to  pistol  shots,  and  as 
both  had  supports  the  fight  lasted  two  hours.  Hence  there 
were  many  people  killed.  The  comte  de  Guiche  mixed 
with  the  soldiers  and  sailors  because  he  speaks  more 
easily  than  the  captain  himself.  At  the  moment  when 
they  thought  they  were  about  to  capture  the  enemy's  ship 
their  own  ship  caught  fire.  They  worked  hard  to  extinguisli 
the  fire ;  but  as  the  flames  had  spread  to  the  sails  the 
Prince  of  Monaco  and  M.  de  Guiche  undressed,  retaining 
only  their  drawers,  so  as  to  jump  into  the  sea  before  the 
powder  magazine  was  ignited.  At  that  moment  a  Dutch 
vessel,  the  Little  Holland,  passed  and  fastened  itself  to 
the  stem  of  their  ship,  and  several  of  the  crew  were  able 
to  throw  their  weapons  into  this  ship  and  scramble  on 
board.  The  boat  which  they  thus  boarded  was  commanded 
by  the  brother  of  Admiral  Ruyter ;  it  was  on  its  way  to 
assist  another  ship  which  was  much  damaged.  They  again 
fought,  and  for  three  hours,  on  this  vessel ;  till  at  last  it 
was  put  ho?:s-  de  combat  and  had  to  be  rescued.  M.  le 
Prince  de  Monaco  and  M.  le  comte  de  Guiche,  with  the 
sieur  de  Nointel,  who  did  not  abandon  them,  were  taken, 
by  the  vessel  which  came  to  their  help,  to  Admiral 
Ruyter's  ship.  The  Admiral  received  them  with  great 
joy  and  ordered  clothes  to  be  brought  them.  It  was  the 
last  day  of  the  battle  which  was  the  hardest.  These 
gentlemen  were  always  in  the  forefront  of  danger.  M.  de 
Guiche  was  wounded  in  the  arm  and  shoulder  by  a  cannon- 
shot.  He  lost  three  of  his  servants  and  the  equerry  of  the 
Marshal  de  Gramont." 

Admiral  Ruyter  lost  four  ships,  which  were  sunk,  but  he 
captured  six  English  ships  and  sank  or  burned  seventeen.  A 
thick  fog  enabled  the  remains  of  the  English  fleet  to  escape. 

Louis  XIV.  was  delighted  that  a  few  officers  coming 
from  the  French  court  had  been  able  to  render  distin- 
guished service  to  his  allies,  as  this  helped  to  maintain 


French  prestige,  otherwise  somewhat  compromised 
through  the  absence  of  the  French  ships.  It  was  during 
this  war,  it  will  be  remembered,  that  the  Dutch  sailed 
up  the  Thames  with  brooms  fastened  to  their  masts  to 
indicate  that  they  would  sweep  the  English  off  the  seas ; 
but  they  did  not  quite  succeed  in  doing  this.  Indeed, 
when  the  ensuing  peace  was  signed  at  Breda,  in  July 
1667,  the  Dutch  gave  New  Amsterdam  over  to  the  English, 
and  this  Dutch  colony  was  henceforth  named  New  York. 
Having  encountered  Charles  II.'s  fleet  in  the  war. 
Prince  Louis  of  Monaco  was  destined  to  encounter 
Charles  II.  personally.  On  the  latter  occasion  the  struggle 
was  for  the  smiles  of  one  of  the  most  beautiful  women  of 
the  time.  Separated  at  last  from  his  wife,  whose  intrigues 
were  incorrigible.  Prince  Louis  became  attached  to 
Cardinal  Mazarin's  beautiful  niece,  the  notorious  Hortense 
Mancini,  Duchess  of  JNIazarin.  When  she  was  exiled  from 
France,  in  consequence  of  her  intrigues,  Prince  Louis 
followed  her,  first  to  Rome  and  then  to  London.  Here 
Charles  II.  forthwith  became  enamoured  of  the  beautiful 
refugee,  and  at  one  time  it  seemed  as  if  she  would  take 
the  place  of  the  Duchess  of  Portsmouth.  A  ruinous 
contest  followed  between  the  powerful  King  of  England 
and  the  prince  of  a  minute  principality.  At  one  moment, 
in  jealous  anger,  Charles  II.  withdrew  the  pension  of 
£4000  he  had  allowed  to  the  Duchess  of  Mazarin,  where- 
upon Prince  Louis  immediately  allowed  her  a  pension  of 
the  same  amount.  Metivier,  in  his  history,  maintains  that, 
on  the  whole,  though  he  was  but  a  prince  and  his  rival  a 
king,  the  lady  preferred  to  bestow  her  favours  on  Prince 
Louis  of  Monaco.  Nevertheless,  fortunately  for  his  peace 
of  mind  and  for  his  purse,  Louis  managed  to  cure  himself 
of  his  passion.  Then,  after  having  pretty  energetically 
kicked  over  the  traces,  he  returned  to  his  principality  and 
to  his  subjects,  to  draw  up  a  model  code  of  laws,  known  to 
this  day  as  the  Code  Louis.  But  if  Prince  Louis  improved 
the  laws,  he  abolished  what  vestiges  still  remained  of  the 
communal  or  municipal  life  established  by  the  Genoese. 

CHARLES    II    AND    LOUIS    I  87 

In  thus  excluding  the  people  from  all  share  in  the  re- 
sponsibility of  government,  he  prepared  the  ground  for 
the  dissatisfaction  that  on  more  than  one  occasion  wrecked 
the  fortunes  of  the  Grimaldis. 

Soon  a  new  call  was  made  upon  Prince  Louis.  When 
Louis  XIV.  married  Marie-Therese  of  Austria  she  was 
obliged  to  renounce  her  claim  to  the  Spanish  succession. 
When,  however,  the  succession  was  open,  Louis  XIV. 
conveniently  discovered  that  a  private  contract  could  not 
prevent  the  application  of  a  fundamental  law.  Therefore 
he  determined  to  assert  his  wife's  rights  to  the  Spanish 
succession.  Rome  was  the  centre  of  negotiations,  and  as 
Prince  I^ouis  of  Monaco  possessed  not  only  the  necessary 
diplomatic  subtlety,  but  also  a  Southern  love  of  ostenta- 
tious display  and  extravagance,  he  was  thought  admirably 
suited  to  represent  France  at  Rome.  The  result  was  that 
Prince  Louis  spent  a  large  part  of  his  fortune  in  fulfilling 
this  mission,  and  in  outward  show  he  eclipsed  all  the  other 
ambassadors.  It  is  related,  as  an  instance  of  his  magnifi- 
cence, that  the  horses  of  his  escort  were  shod  with  silver. 
Further,  care  was  taken  to  nail  on  the  shoes  very  loosely, 
so  that  some  of  them  dropped  off,  to  the  delight  and 
benefit  of  the  crowd.  Such  pomp  and  prodigality  had 
never  been  seen.  The  Prince  had  spent  a  year  in  preparing 
for  the  journey,  but  perhaps  he  overshot  the  mark,  and  his 
display  of  wealth  and  extravagance  was  by  some  considered 
to  be  exaggerated.  Rendu,  who  is  an  impartial  historian, 
is  of  opinion  that  Prince  Louis  was  successful,  and  kept 
the  French  interests  well  to  the  front.  The  French 
obtained  satisfaction  in  so  far  that  it  was  ultimately 
decided  that  the  grandson  of  Marie  Therese,  the  second 
son  of  the  Dauphin,  should  succeed  to  the  crown  of  Spain 
if  he  renounced  all  claim  to  the  crown  of  France.  The 
importance  of  such  negotiations  is  obvious,  and  shows 
what  a  responsible  part  some  of  the  princes  of  Monaco 
have  played  in  European  politics. 

These    negotiations   took   place   in    1099,   and    later. 
Prince  Louis  I.  died  in  1701,  at  the  age  of  fifty-nine,  having 


reigned  nearly  forty  years.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
Antoine  I.,  who  was  already  forty  years  old.  Like  his 
father,  he  married  a  woman  more  celebrated  for  her 
beauty  than  for  her  virtue.  His  mother,  "  Madame  de 
Monaco,"  as  the  heroine  of  novels  and  many  a  story  more 
or  less  fictitious,  had  earned  unenviable  notoriety,  and  now 
his  wife,  Marie  de  Lorraine,  daughter  of  the  Comte  de 
Armagnac,  seemed  bent  on  following  the  example  of  her 
mother-in-law.  The  conduct  of  Marie  de  Lorraine  was 
such  that,  like  his  father.  Prince  Antoine  was  glad  to  leave 
her  and  take  service  for  France.  Thus  it  came  about  that 
he  took  part  in  the  German  campaign  of  1688  and  was 
present  at  the  seiges  of  JNlons  and  Namur. 

Shortly  after  the  death  of  Louis  I.,  Europe  was  torn 
by  the  war  over  the  Spanish  succession.  At  first  this  did 
not  affect  Monaco,  but  in  1705,  Savoy  having  taken  sides 
against  France,  the  safety  of  Nice  and  Monaco  was 
menaced  from  the  sea  by  English  ships,  and  from  the 
mountains  by  Savoyard  soldiers.  Prince  Antoine  wished 
to  see  the  French  occupy  the  strategical  position  of  La 
Turbie.  Marshal  de  La  Feuillade,  however,  would  not 
consent  to  this ;  but,  considering  that  the  historical  and 
Roman  trophy  of  La  Turbie  might  be  used  as  a  fortress, 
he  caused  it  to  be  blown  up.  The  explosion  destro5^ed  only 
half  the  tower,  but  it  was  an  act  of  vandalism  for  which 
obviously  there  was  no  sufficient  excuse.  The  near 
approach  of  war  caused  Antoine  L  to  devote  much  care 
and  much  money  to  the  improvement  of  the  fortifications 
of  Monaco.  There  still  remains  the  picturesque  fort  which 
he  built,  and  which  now  commands  the  end  of  the  quay  on 
the  commercial  side  of  the  port.  It  bears  a  tablet  with  the 
inscription,  Fort  Antonius  Prim  anno  Salutis  INIDCCIX. 
Above  is  a  modern  flag-signalling  station,  but  close  to  it 
stands  a  stone  sentinel-box  such  as  might  have  been  con- 
structed when  the  Saracens  were  still  to  be  feared.  The 
wall  is  partly  rock  and  partly  masonry,  with  large  stone 
embrasures  for  cannon.  The  walk  round  this  corner  is  one 
of  the  most  interesting  in  the  principality,  both  on  account 


of  the  old  fortifications  and  the  natural  growth  of  the  rock. 
Nor  is  this  vegetation  unconnected  with  warlike  prepara- 
tions. In  the  days  when  wire  entanglement  had  not  been 
invented  the  thorns  of  the  aloe,  the  agave  and  the  prickly 
pear  were  a  very  effective  substitute.  From  the  end  of  the 
new  breakwater  an  inspiring  view  of  the  picturesque  battle- 
ments may  be  enjoyed.  The  darkness  of  the  stones, 
probably  due  to  the  modern  gas-works  rather  than  to 
antiquity,  gives  them  the  appearance  of  recording  the 
history  of  untold  centuries.  One  above  the  other  rise  three 
fortified  terraces,  with  palm-trees  like  defiant  feathers 
waving  their  branches  on  the  top. 

To  build  Fort  Antoine,  Prince  Antoine  had  his  silver 
melted  down  and  sold  his  jewels.  He  also  constructed  vast 
underground  refuges  to  be  used  in  case  of  a  bombardment, 
and  kept  the  cisterns  in  good  order  and  well  filled  with 
water.  These  works  were  not  terminated  till  1713.  By  that 
time  (especially  during  the  negotiations  for  the  Treaty  of 
Utrecht)  Antoine  was  in  great  danger  of  losing  his  in- 
dependence, for  the  Duke  of  Savoy  energetically  claimed 
the  cession  of  Monaco.  The  King  of  France  replied  that 
he  could  not  give  what  was  not  his  ;  but  the  old  servitude 
in  respect  of  Roccabruna  and  JNIentone,  which  Jean 
in  a  weak  moment  had  foolishly  ceded,  was  now  revived. 
While  INIonaco  remained  independent,  on  behalf  of 
Mentone  and  Roccabruna  Antoine  was  obliged  to  ac- 
knowledge the  overlordship  of  the  house  of  Savoy. 

Another  source  of  grief  was  the  absence  of  male  issue. 
Antoine  had  only  daughters,  of  whom  three  survived  in 
1712.  The  eldest,  Ijouise-Hippolyte,  was  but  fifteen  years 
old,  and  already  the  most  distracting,  underhand  family 
intrigues  were  pursued  with  regard  to  her  future  husband. 
Antoine's  brother,  though  a  priest  and  the  Abbd  of 
INIonaco,  was  evidently  quite  willing  to  accept  the  succes- 
sion. Several  betrothals  were  attempted,  and  through  all 
these  complications  Antoine  very  wisely  insisted  that  his 
daughter  should  not  marry  into  a  very  exalted  family,  for 
fear  the  member  of  such  a  family  should  not  willingly  and 


sincerely  renounce  his  own  name  to  take  the  name  and 
position  of  the  chief  of  the  Grimaldis.  Finally,  Princess 
Louise-Hippolyte  married  Jacques  de  Goyon  JNIatignon, 
Comte  de  Thorigny,  a  member  of  one  of  the  oldest  families 
of  Brittany.  He  was  descended  from  the  celebrated 
Marshal  Jacques  de  JNIatignon,  who  at  the  time  of  the 
Massacre  of  Saint  Bartholomew  refused  to  carry  out  the 
orders  he  had  received.  He  would  not  stain  his  hands  by 
treacherously  murdering  his  Protestant  neighbours.  Thus 
in  the  history  of  the  princes  of  JNIonaco,  as  in  so  many 
other  histories,  we  find  that  there  are  circumstances  when 
the  "  don't  shoot "  policy  can  be  carried  out  to  the  unani- 
mous approval  of  posterity. 

Prince  Antoine  I.  died  in  1713,  and  though  he  had 
suffered  in  his  private  capacity  as  a  husband  and  a  father 
he  was  an  able  politician,  and  had  done  much  to  make  his 
people  happy.  He  was  also  a  patron  of  painting,  and  de- 
voted to  music.  He  attracted  artists  to  Monaco,  and  did 
his  best  to  encourage  refinement  and  culture.  So  great, 
however,  was  the  spirit  of  intrigue  at  that  time  that  when 
Louise-Hippolyte  succeeded  Antoine  I.,  as  Princess  of 
Monaco,  she  had  already  been  taught  to  look  with  jealousy 
upon  her  husband,  and  accused  him  of  assuming  more 
authority  than  was  his  right.  However,  this  disagi-eement 
did  not  last  long,  for  after  a  reign  of  only  eleven  months 
the  princess  contracted  smallpox  and  died.  Without  the 
slightest  opposition,  her  husband  was  recognised  as  reign- 
ing prince,  under  the  title  of  Jacques  L  But  his  sister-in- 
law.  Princess  Isenghien,  second  daughter  of  Antoine  I., 
did  not  fail  to  conspire  against  her  dead  sistei-'s  husband. 
Her  excuse  was  that  the  population  would  not  be  governed 
by  a  prince  who  had  no  Grimaldi  blood  in  his  veins. 
Prince  Jacques  met  this  objection  by  appointing  the 
Chevalier  de  Grimaldi  Governor  of  the  Principality.  The 
new  governor  was  the  natural  son  of  Antoine  L,  and  a 
man  of  exceptional  ability.  For  half-a-century  he  managed 
the  affairs  of  the  principality  to  the  satisfaction  of  all 


In  1733  Jacques  I.  abdicated  in  favour  of  his  son, 
Honore  III.,  though  the  latter  was  barely  fourteen  years 
old,  but  the  Chevalier  de  Grimaldi  kept  a  tight  hold  on 
the  affairs  of  the  principality  during  the  prince's  minority 
and  his  absence.  In  his  younger  days  the  prince  was 
absent  in  the  service  of  the  French  army,  and  once  again 
we  find  the  Grimaldis  taking  sword  in  hand  to  fight  the 
English.  It  is  extraordinary  that  the  Grimaldis  always 
contrived  to  take  up  arms  against  the  English  at  the  times 
when  the  English  were  particularly  unfortunate.  It  some- 
how happened  that  when  the  fortunes  of  war  changed,  and 
the  English  were  victorious,  the  Grimaldis  were  usually 
absent.  The  battle  of  Crecy  was  an  exception  to  this  rule, 
but  at  the  battle  of  Fontenoy  both  Honore  III.  and  his 
brother,  Charles  Maurice,  Knight  of  Malta,  fought  with 
such  distinction  that  Voltaire  in  his  "  Poeme  de  Fontenoy  " 
wrote : 

"Monaco  pcrd  son  sang  et  I' Amour  en  Soiipire." 

The  English,  though  they  had  the  Dutch,  the  Hano- 
verians and  some  Hungarians  to  help  them,  were  defeated 
after  a  stubborn  resistance.  Charles  Maurice  of  Monaco 
was  wounded  at  Fontenoy.  Later,  at  the  battle  of  Rancoux, 
Prince  Honors  III.  was  wounded,  and  at  Lawfeld  his 
horse  was  killed  under  him.  Honore  HI.  received  the  Cross 
of  St  Louis,  and  at  the  Peace  of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  in  1748, 
was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Marshal. 

While  these  "wars  were  distracting  the  great  powers, 
the  Chevalier  de  IMonaco,  who  was  practically  ruling  the 
little  principality,  managed  to  maintain  its  neutrality. 
Thus  he  impartially  assisted  both  English  and  French 
ships  when  endangered  by  stress  of  weather  or  other 
causes.  In  1747,  nevertheless,  after  the  battle  of  Gorbio 
and  the  occupation  of  the  county  of  Nice  by  the  allied 
Austrians  and  Sardinians,  Monaco  was  blockaded  by  sea 
and  by  land.  The  surrounding  country  was  devastated, 
especially  by  the  Croatians,  who  formed  part  of  the 
Austrian    army.    Fortunately,    however,    the    victorious 


advance  of  the  French  in  1748  soon  cleared  the  Riviera 
and  restored  peace. 

It  was  not  till  1757  that  Honore  III.  married 
Mademoiselle  de  Brignole,  whose  forefathers  had  been 
doges  at  Genoa.  This  family  was  very  anxious  to  make 
it  quite  evident  that  they  thought  just  as  much  of  them- 
selves as  any  princely  house.  Therefore  when  Mademoiselle 
de  Brignole  arrived  on  board  a  ship  in  the  port  of  Monaco, 
her  mother  insisted  that  the  Prince  of  Monaco  must  come 
on  the  ship  so  as  to  conduct  his  bride  to  the  shore.  This, 
however,  Honore  III.  conceived  to  be  against  princely 
etiquette.  There  was  a  painful  scene,  aggravated  by  the 
fact  that  a  large  portion  of  the  bridal  party  were  terribly 
seasick.  Nevertheless  the  Genoese  flotilla  sailed  away  and 
anchored  off  Bordighera.  Negotiations  followed,  and  were 
continued  for  two  days.  At  last  the  following  compromise 
was  effected.  The  bride  should  return  to  INlonaco.  Prince 
Honore  would  not  go  on  board  to  bring  her  to  the  shore : 
the  bx'ide  on  her  side  refused  to  land  alone.  But  a  long 
wooden  bridge  should  be  thrown  from  the  shore  to  the 
ship.  The  prince  would  go  half  way  across  this  bridge. 
Mademoiselle  de  Brignole  would  cross  it  half  way  on  her 
side,  and  the  future  husband  and  wife  could  thus  meet  in 
the  middle.  It  could  not  be  said,  therefore,  that  either  had 
made  any  concession  to  the  other,  and  a  perfect  equality 
between  them  would  be  maintained.  From  this  union  was 
born,  in  1768,  the  future  Prince  Honore  IV. 

During  the  summer  of  1767  the  Duke  of  York, 
brother  of  King  George  III.,  was  travelling  by  sea  from 
Marseilles  to  Genoa,  M^hen  he  was  suddenly  taken  ill.  As 
Monaco  was  near  at  hand  the  English  ship,  flying  the 
Royal  Standard  and  showing  signals  of  distress,  entered 
the  port.  Honore  III.  hastened  to  give  every  assistance, 
and  placed  his  palace  at  the  disposition  of  the  Duke  of 
York.  After  lingering  eleven  days,  the  duke  died. 
According  to  the  popular  legend,  a  pleasure  yacht  fol- 
lowed the  Duke  of  York's  ship  and  anchored  off  the 
Pointe  de  la  l^eille.  A  beautiful  young  woman  came  on 


shore  and  entered  a  cavern  in  the  rock,  and  the  yacht 
sailed  away.  The  peasants  declared  that  this  fair  form, 
draped  in  white,  was  seen  daily  sitting  on  the  rock  and 
gazing  in  the  direction  of  the  palace.  When  at  last  the 
duke  died,  and  the  Royal  Standard  flew  half-mast  high, 
the  fair  apparition  plunged  into  the  water,  never  to  be  seen 
again.  After  this  the  rock  was  considered  to  be  haunted, 
and  the  peasants  would  make  the  sign  of  the  cross  when 
they  passed  near  the  fatal  spot. 

George  III.  and  his  brother  the  Duke  of  Gloucester 
wrote  and  expressed  great  gratitude  for  the  care  Honore 
III.  had  taken  of  their  brother  during  his  last  moments. 
The  Duke  of  Gloucester  sent  Honore  III.  six  magnificent 
horses  which  had  belonged  to  the  Duke  of  York,  and 
George  III.  invited  him  to  court.  Accordingly,  Honore 
III.  went  to  London  in  1768,  and  was  received  with  great 
honours  by  King  George. 

At  first  Honore  III.  lived  happily  with  his  proud 
Genoese  wife,  in  spite  of  all  the  difficulties  she  had  made 
with  regard  to  her  landing  at  Monaco.  But  the  princess 
was  twenty  years  younger  than  her  husband,  and  was 
much  courted  and  admired.  Instead  of  meeting  in  Honord 
a  friend  and  adviser,  she  found  herself  treated  with 
suspicion  and  reserve.  At  last  the  young  woman  became 
weary,  revolted  and  deliberately  gave  her  husband  good 
cause  to  demand  a  separation.  Often  victorious  in  war,  the 
Grimaldis  have  not  been  as  fortunate  in  their  love  affairs. 
The  separation  was  pronounced  in  1770.  After  the  death 
of  her  husband,  Catherine  de  Brignole  married,  dui'ing  the 
emigration,  the  Prince  de  Conde.  The  very  large  fortune 
she  had  inherited  from  her  family  was  swallowed  up  by 
the  army  Cond^  tried  to  form  so  as  so  invade  his  own 
country  and  chastise  the  French  people  for  selecting  a 
form  of  government  of  which  he  did  not  approve.  This 
imfortunate  woman  died  in  England  in  1813;  she  was 
then  seventy-five  years  old.  Her  second  husband,  the  Prince 
de  Cond^,said  that  he  could  not  afford  to  pay  for  her  funeral. 
Tlie  cost  was  defrayed  by  the  Prince  Regent,   and   the 


funeral  took  place  at  night,  at  the  Catholic  chapel  near 
Wimbledon.  When  she  was  fifty-three  years  old  Goethe 
had  described  her  as  young,  animated  and  joyful.  From 
her  first  husband  her  grandson  Honor^  IV.  married,  as 
akeady  explained,  the  only  daughter  of  the  Duke 
d'Aumont  and  (through  her  mother)  became  heir  to  the 
JNIazarin  family.  From  this  union  were  born  Honore  V. 
and  Florestan  I. 

During  the  reign  of  Honore  III.  efforts  were  made  to 
encourage  trade,  especially  the  trade  in  lemons  and  citrons, 
which  grew  so  plentifully  on  this  coast.  Later  printing 
works  were  established,  and  the  first  newspaper,  the 
Courrier  de  Monaco,  was  issued.  The  Chevalier  de  Grimaldi 
died  in  1784,  a  severe  loss  for  the  prince  and  his  people. 
Several  distinguished  men  were  born  in  the  principality 
during  this  reign.  Among  others  there  was  the  composer 
Langld,  the  master  of  Dalayrac ;  the  celebrated  sculptor 
Bosio,  and  his  brother,  a  distinguished  painter  of  historical 
scenes  ;  Alphonse  de  Beauchamp,  contributor  to  Michaud's 
"  Universal  Biography  "  and  author  of  a  history  of  Vendee. 
The  Vignali  family,  one  of  whose  members  went  to 
America  before  1538,  also  flourished  at  this  time.  In  1770 
a  Vignali,  whose  master  was  the  celebrated  painter 
Raphael  Mengs,  won  the  prize  of  the  French  Academy 
of  Painting. 



ON  the  principle,  perhaps,  of  the  calm  before  the 
storm,  the  reign  of  Honore  III.  was  now  so 
peaceful  that  it  provides  no  material  for  comment. 
One  matter,  perhaps,  should  be  mentioned.  The  Prince  of 
Monaco  took  the  initiative  in  bringing  about  the  abolition 
of  the  droit  (TAubaiiie,  by  which  the  sovereign  receives  the 
inheritance  of  any  stranger  dying  on  his  lands.  As  there 
were  many  more  French  dying  in  Monaco  than  IMone- 
gasques  dying  in  France  this  was  a  distinct  loss  to  the 
prince,  but  he  thought  it  a  very  inhuman  practice,  and  at 
his  request  it  was  abolished  by  the  Compiegne,  the  18th 
of  August  1770.  The  quietude  now  enjoyed  continued 
until  the  fall  of  the  Bastille  (14th  of  July  1789);  for 
Monaco  did  not  escape  the  shock  felt  by  the  whole  world. 
Here  also  the  people  proclaimed  the  Rights  of  Man. 
Tired  of  being  subjects,  they  insisted  on  becoming  citizens. 
They  recalled  the  communal  franchises  enjoyed  under  the 
Genoese  Republic  ;  and,  France  being  evidently  about 
to  declare  herself  Republican,  were  ready  to  follow  her 
example.  In  the  thunder  of  acclaim  that  heralded  the 
birth  of  Democracy,  Monaco  could  not  remain  silent. 
Like  her  French  neighbours  she  was  at  first  anxious  not 
to  injure  her  prince.  He  might  continue  to  dwell  in  the 
palace,  preserve  the  outward  forms,  even  act  as  the 
executive  power ;  but  the  policy  to  be  followed,  the  laws 
to  be  enacted,  must  be  decided  by  the  duly  elected 
representatives  of  a  sovereign  people. 

At  first  Honore   III.   felt  it  useless  to  attempt  any 



resistance,  and  consented  to  allow  Roccabruna,  Mentone 
and  Monaco  to  elect  representative  councils.  But  of  more 
personal  concern  to  the  prince  was  the  abolition  by  the 
French  National  Constituent  Assembly  of  all  the  feudal 
rights  and  privileges  enjoyed  by  the  aristocracy.  The 
concessions  made  to  his  ancestors  by  the  Treaty  of 
Peronne,  the  Dukedom  of  Valentinois  and  many  other 
large  and  valuable  estates  conferred  on  the  Grimaldis 
when  they  drove  out  the  Spaniards  and  allied  themselves 
to  France,  were  all  to  be  confiscated.  Honore  III., 
thoroughly  alarmed  by  the  progress  of  the  French  Revolu- 
tion, began  to  issue  edicts  to  restrict  the  freedom  he  had 
accorded  to  his  own  people.  Such  reactionary  measures, 
coming  within  a  year  of  the  concessions  made,  destroyed 
confidence,  and  thus  the  prince  imprudently  drove  his 
people  to  extremities.  Instead  of  remaining  on  the  spot 
to  weather  the  storm  and  attend  to  the  welfare  of  the 
principality  he  started  off  to  Paris  in  the  hope  of  saving 
his  private  fortune.  He  pointed  out  to  the  National 
Constituent  Assembly  that  the  property  he  possessed  was 
not  the  gift  of  some  capricious  sovereign,  but  a  reward 
for  the  services,  the  very  substantial  services,  rendered  by 
the  Grimaldis  to  the  French  nation.  So  well  did  Prince 
Honore   establish   his   case   that   the   Assembly   decided  | 

that  a  fund  should  be  created  to  pay  to  the  princes  of 
Monaco,  in  consideration  of  the  estates  taken  from  them, 
an  annual  pension  of  273,786  livres  (i.e.  francs.) 

Before  this  decision  could  be  carried  out  came  the 
10th  of  August,  and  the  people's  cannon,  dragged  to  the 
Place  du  Carrousel,  shattered  the  crown  and  carried 
Danton  into  power.^  On  the  following  22nd  of  September 
1792  the  French  Republic  was  proclaimed.  In  the  midst 
of  all  this  turmoil  the  public  mind  had  not  much 
attention  to  spare  for  Honore  III.  and  the  Grimaldi 
estates.  Nevertheless ,  early  in  1792,  Honore  III.  obtained 
from  the  French   Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  a  formal 

*  J'ai  ete  porie  au  minislere  par  titi  houlet  de  canon.     Speech  by  Danton 
after  the  1 0th  August. 


declaration  that  the  neutraUty  of  the  principaUty  would 
be  respected.  In  practice,  however,  this  proved  but  a 
pious  wish.  On  the  1.5th  of  December  1792  the  Con- 
vention, which  now  replaced  the  Constituent  Assembly, 
decreed  that  when  generals  of  the  Republic  entered  a 
foreign  territory  they  should  establish  free  institutions 
on  the  French  model.  General  Anselme  having  annexed 
Nice,  the  storm  burst  at  Monaco.  On  the  13th  of  January 
1793  the  Monegasque  National  Convention  passed  a 
decree  dethroning  Prince  Honore.  They  then  proceeded 
to  ask  General  Brunet  to  forward  to  the  French  National 
Convention  their  petition,  which  set  forth  that  the  re- 
presentatives of  the  jNIonegasque  people  had  unanimously 
v^oted  in  favour  of  incorporation  with  the  Fiench  Republic. 

On  the  of  February  1793  Carnot  presented  to 
the  Convention  a  report  on  the  subject.  In  his  speech 
Carnot  acknowledged  that  the  Prince  of  Monaco  had 
always  been  a  sincere  friend  and  ally  of  France,  and  that, 
though  now  deprived  of  his  prerogatives,  he  ought  to 
obtain  from  the  loyalty  of  the  French  people  the  protec- 
tion and  personal  security  to  which,  as  a  simple  citizen, 
he  was  entitled.  The  Convention  voted  on  the  morrow 
and  on  the  following  4th  of  March.  The  commissioners 
for  the  county  of  Nice,  Jagot  and  the  Abbe  Gi-egoire, 
went  to  Monaco  to  notify  the  decree.  By  this  act  the 
Monegasque  convention  was  dissolved,  and  the  ancient 
principality  incorporated  in  the  department  of  the  Alpes- 
Maritimes.  During  the  debates  in  the  French  Parliament 
on  the  claims  of  the  Prince  of  INIonaco,  M.  Gombert,  a 
depute  of  the  Left,  made  a  remark  which  Napoleon  I. 
afterwards  plagiarised  when  speaking  of  the  Pope.  Citizen 
Gombert  said :  '*  It  is  quite  certain  that  if  Monsieur 
Monaco  had  two  hundred  thousand  bayonets  at  his  orders 
he  would  compel  you  to  restore  his  property.  If  this  be 
right,  we  must  do  it  just  as  much  as  if  he  had  the  two 
hundred  thousand  bayonets." 

Nevertheless,  though  the  French  Republic  accepted 
the    free    gift  of  the   principality — which   was   renamed 


Fort  Hercules — the  prince  was  never  paid  the  compensa- 
tion decreed.  On  the  contrary,  the  prince's  wife,  having 
fled  from  France,  her  property,  consisting  principally  of 
a  splendid  mansion  in  the  rue  Saint-Dominique,  was 
confiscated.  It  was  this  house  that  was  made  by  the 
Commune  in  January,  1798,  the  headquarters  of  the  large 
contingent  of  German  volunteers  who  preferred  to  fight 
for  Republican  principles  rather  than  for  their  own  country. 

On  the  25th  September  1793,  at  the  height  of  the 
Terror,  in  spite  of  the  money  he  had  subscribed  for 
patriotic  purposes  and  the  gift  he  had  made  of  his  horses 
to  the  Republican  army,  Prince  Honored  III.  was  arrested 
under  the  "  Law  of  Suspects."  Even  the  voice  of  Carnot 
failed  to  save  him.  All  the  members  of  the  family  in 
France  were  arrested.  The  prince's  eldest  son  (the  Duke 
of  Valentinois,  subsequently  Honore  IV.),  who  had  never 
even  left  Paris,  remained  in  prison  fifteen  months.  At 
that  time  he  was  divorced  from  the  Duchess  of  INIazarin, 
but  she  was  also  arrested  and  taken  to  the  Convent  des 
Aiiglaiscs.  Dr  Desormeaux,  the  family  physician  of  the 
Grimaldis,  at  great  peril,  managed  to  secure  an  order  for 
release  and  to  remove  her  from  the  prison.  He  further 
contrived  to  conceal  her  and  her  son  Florestan. 

Joseph,  the  other  son  of  Honor^  III.,  had  married, 
in  1782,  Fran9oise-Therese  de  Choiseul-Stainville,  who  is 
described  as  a  very  charming  woman.  Early  in  the  Revolu- 
tion they  sought  security  abroad,  having  confided  their 
children  to  a  person  on  whom  they  could  rely.  But 
long  absence  proved  unendurable  to  the  fond  mother,  and 
she  returned  to  France  to  see  her  two  daughters.  At  once 
arrested  as  a  "  suspect,"  she  was  promptly  condemned  to 
death  for  being  a  "  declared  enemy  of  the  people  ;  for 
having  relations  with  the  emigrants  and  communications 
^vith  the  enemies  of  the  Republic ;  for  supplying  them 
with  help  and  preparing,  in  complicity  with  tyrants  of 
all  sorts,  criminal  manoeuvres  having  as  their  object  the 
abolition  of  the  national  representation  and  the  restoration 
of  tyranny. " 





After  her  condemnation  the  princess  announced  that 
she  was  expecting  to  give  birth  to  a  child ;  her  execution 
was  therefore  postponed.  She  then  asked  to  see  Fouquet- 
Tinville,  the  Attorney-General  of  the  Revolutionary 
Tribunal.  Pending  his  reply,  she  cut  off  her  beautiful  fair 
hair  with  a  piece  of  broken  glass,  as  a  keepsake  for  her 
children.  She  then  wrote  to  Fouquet-Tinville  a  second 
letter,  which  I  venture  to  translate  : 

"  I  warn  you,  citizen,  that  I  am  not  enceinte  and 
wished  to  inform  you  of  this  fact  personally.  As  I  no 
longer  hope  you  will  come,  I  write.  I  did  not  befoul  my 
mouth  with  this  lie  because  I  feared  or  wished  to  avoid 
death.  I  only  desired  to  live  one  day  more  so  as  to  have 
time  to  cut  off  my  hair  myself  and  avoid  giving  it  to  the 
executioner.  It  is  the  only  legacy  I  can  leave  to  my 
children  and  this  at  least  must  be  pure. 

"Signed:  Choiseul-Stainviixe,  Joseph  Grimaldi- 
MoNACO,  a  foreign  princess  dying  through  the  injustice  of 
French  judges." 

On  the  same  day  the  order  for  her  execution  reached 
the  prison.  The  princess  asked  for  a  little  rouge,  as  she  did 
not  wish  to  look  pale  during  the  dismal  ride  in  the  tumbril. 
When  guillotined  the  princess  had  not  yet  reached  her 
twenty-seventh  birthday. 

Though  most  of  the  "  suspects "  were  released  after 
Thermidor,  Honored,  as  the  father  of  an  "  emigrant,"  was 
still  detained,  and  did  not  recover  his  liberty  till  the  5th 
of  October  1794.  Broken  with  age,  infirmities  and  the 
hardships  of  his  long  incarceration,  Honore  died  six 
months  later  in  his  house  in  the  rue  de  Varennes. 

While  the  Grimaldis  thus  suffered,  the  people  of 
Monaco  were  enjoying  comparative  quiet  and  peace. 
There  were  no  acts  of  violence,  no  attempts  to  persecute 
"  suspects "  at  Monaco.  But  if  persons  were  respected, 
property  did  not  fare  so  well.  The  prince's  palace  was 
sequestrated,  and  at  first  the  work  proceeded  with  some 


order  and  system,  an  inventory  being  taken  :  but  disorder 
and  pillage  followed,  and  the  sumptuous  furniture  and 
treasures  of  art  were  scattered  about,  or  sold  for  a  trifle. 
At  last  this  havoc  was  stopped  and  what  remained  stored 
in  the  chapel  of  the  palace.  The  building  itself  was 
converted  into  a  hospital,  and  received  the  sick  and 
wounded  from  the  republican  armies  in  Italy.  General 
Bonaparte  had  his  headquarters  for  some  time  at  Nice,  and 
slept  near  Roccabruna  on  his  way  to  Italy.  Still,  though 
war  was  general  over  Europe,  it  was  not  until  the  year 
1800  that  Monaco  was  directly  involved. 

A  large  quantity  of  ammunition  had  been  gathered 
in  the  ancient  fortress,  but  no  troops  were  left  to  guard 
it.  Consequently,  on  the  23rd  of  May  1800,  an  English 
frigate  surprised  the  town.  A  landing  party  proceeded  to 
seize  all  ammunition  and  carried  off  a  few  cannon.  The 
unarmed  townspeople  could  offer  no  resistance,  and  some 
were  even  forced  to  help  in  carrying  powder  casks  to  the 
ship.  So  carelessly  was  this  done  that  a  large  quantity  of 
powder  was  spilt  on  the  road.  But  if  there  were  no  French 
troops  at  Monaco,  there  was  a  garrison  at  La  Turbie, 
which  did  not  fail  to  hasten  down  on  perceiving  an  English 
ship  in  the  harbour.  As  there  were  also  French  garrisons 
at  Nice  and  Villefranche,  the  small  English  landing  party 
could  not  have  held  out  against  them.  It  therefore  retired 
to  the  ship.  Irritated  at  being  interrupted  before  they  had 
collected  all  the  spoils,  the  retreating  English,  it  is  sup- 
posed, set  fire  to  the  train  of  spilt  powder.  We  must 
hope  that  this  was  ignited  by  accident,  and  not  through 
any  unworthy  feeling  of  malice.  However  this  may  be, 
the  flame  followed  the  course  of  the  spilt  powder  and 
reached  the  magazine.  A  frightful  explosion  ensued, 
resulting  in  the  useless,  cruel  death  of  a  number  of  women 
and  children  who  had  been  attracted  by  curiosity  to  the 
spot.  This  was  the  last  act  of  war  taking  place  at  ftlonaco. 
AVhen  the  English  attacked  Bordighera,  in  1813,  the 
National  Guard  of  Monaco  were  mobilised,  but  nothing 
occurred.  The  most  important  event  at  this  period  affecting 


the  fortunes  of  the  principality  was  the  construction  of 
the  celebrated  Corniche  road.  Napoleon  had  insisted  on 
a  good  thoroughfare  to  Italy,  but  the  constructor  had 
a  wholesome  fear  of  English  frigates.  The  road  therefore 
was  built  at  a  great  height  and  some  distance  from  the 
sea.  Villefranche  and  INlonaco  were  left  in  isolation,  the 
way  approaching  the  Mentone  side  of  the  principality. 
The  work  was  begun  in  1808,  and  terminated  in  April 
1812.  A  ledge  on  the  side  of  the  mountains,  sometimes 
cut  in  the  solid  rock,  this  wonderful  and  picturesque 
highway  unites  Nice  with  Genoa.  As  Antoine  I.  had  built 
in  1720  a  road  from  INlonaco  to  Mentone,  the  Monegasque 
road  was  now  joined  to  the  great  international  Corniche 
road  just  above  Cap  JNIartin. 

While  the  principality  enjoyed  comparative  quiet,  the 
Grimaldis  found  themselves  reduced  to  the  greatest  straits. 
In  vain  they  claimed  the  restitution  of  at  least  some  part 
of  their  property  :  it  was  only  after  negotiations  that 
lasted  seven  years  that  some  small  fragments  were  restored 
to  the  Duke  of  Valentinois  and  his  brother  Joseph.  The 
latter  had  succeeded  in  procuring  the  omission  of  his  name 
from  the  list  of  "  einigrants  "  on  the  10th  Fructidor,  year 
X.,  and  under  the  Consulate  and  the  Empire  both  Honore 
and  Joseph  might  have  obtained  good  posts.  Honore, 
however,  was  suffering  from  a  serious  illness  which  com- 
pelled him  to  live  in  the  quietest  manner.  Napoleon,  now 
anxious  to  rally  to  his  new  regime  persons  of  good  family, 
offered  .loseph  Grimaldi  a  commission  in  the  Imperial 
Guard.  Rising  quickly  in  favour,  he  became  chamberlain 
to  the  Empress  Josephine,  and  was  known  at  the  Imperial 
court  as  Monsieur  de  Monaco. 

While  the  Duke  of  Valentinois  was  too  ill  to  partici- 
pate in  current  events,  his  eldest  son,  Honore-Gabriel,  born 
in  1778,  enlisted  at  the  age  of  twenty  in  a  cavalry  regi- 
ment. On  the  13th  Germinal,  year  VIII.,  he  was 
promoted  from  the  ranks  to  the  position  of  sub-lieutenant ; 
thus,  like  a  true  soldier,  working  his  way  up  by  the  force 
of  personal  merit.  Soon  he  was  attached  to  the  staff"  of 


General  Grouchy  and  honourably  mentioned  for  his 
conduct  at  the  brilliant  victory  of  Hohenlinden,  where  he 
was  wounded  in  the  arm.  The  wound  prevented  his  par- 
ticipation in  the  campaign  of  Austerlitz,  but,  attached  to 
Murat's  cavalry  corps,  he  rendered  eminent  service  in 
following  up  the  victories  of  Jena  and  Auestaerdt. 
Grouchy  describes  how  "J/ort  aide-dr-camp  Monaco,"  with 
a  handful  of  cavalry,  forced  an  entire  battalion  to  surrender; 
and  proposes  that  he  should  receive  the  star  of  the  Legion 
of  Honour  and  the  rank  of  Captain.  These  and  many  other 
honours  and  rewards  he  did  receive.  The  uncle  of  Honore, 
Prince  Joseph,  on  his  side  deserves  great  credit,  for  he  re- 
fused to  leave  the  service  of  the  Empress  Josephine.  When 
she  was  divorced  Napoleon  wished  to  attach  him  to  the 
person  of  the  new  empress,  Louise,  but  Prince  Joseph  refused 
the  honour  and  remained  devoted  to  Josephine  till  her  death. 
The  day  of  reaction  was  now  at  hand.  The  White 
Terror,  which  for  cruelty,  injustice,  oppression  was  soon 
to  earn  a  reputation  as  sinister  as  that  of  the  Red  Terror, 
had  begun  ;  but  as  its  victims  were  drawn  from  the  poorer 
section  of  the  community  less  is  said  about  it.  By  the 
White  Terror  the  ci-devant  owners  of  titles  and  privileges 
hoped  to  recover  their  lost  property.  They  did  not  wholly 
succeed,  but  the  Grimaldis  were  restored,  not  to  their 
French  estates,  but  to  the  principality  of  IVlonaco.  When, 
in  1814,  Louis  XVIII.  was  placed  on  the  throne  of 
France  by  foreign  bayonets,  the  powers  assembled  to 
parcel  out  Europe  in  such  a  manner  as  to  efface,  within 
the  limits  of  the  possible,  what  the  French  Revolution  and 
the  Empire  had  done.  In  fear  of  their  lives,  the  people 
began  to  wear  white  cockades :  but  at  Monaco,  where  no 
one  had  been  victimised  by  the  Red  Terror,  the  people 
were  much  more  afraid  of  being  annexed  by  Sardinia. 
Therefore  they  did  not  hesitate  to  add  red  to  their  white 
cockades ;  and  white  and  red  are  the  colours  of  the 
Monegasque  flag.  Now  that  France  was  no  longer  a 
republic  the  people  of  Monaco  demanded  that  their 
ancient  independence  should  be  restored. 


Sardinia  in  the  remodelling  of  the  map  of  Europe 
was  to  receive  the  county  of  Nice,  and  this  would  doubt- 
less have  included  Monaco  but  for  the  fact  tliTjt  Talley- 
rand was  a  personal  friend  of  the  Grimaldis.  Perhaps  for 
this  reason,  perhaps  because  he  thought  Monaco  might 
serve  as  a  wedge  in  the  side  of  Italy,  he  wrote  in  pencil 
on  the  margin  of  a  draft  project,  that  ultimately  became 
the  Treaty  of  Paris,  the  words  "  and  the  Prince  of  Monaco 
will  be  restored  to  his  State  "  {"■renti'e7-a  da?is  ses  Etats"). 
In  the  treaty  signed  in  May  1814  these  words  appear 
in  Paragraph  8  :  "  which  renounces  all  French  authority 
over  or  possession  of  the  county  of  Nice,"  and  ends  by 
saying:  "the  Principality  of  Alonaco  being,  however, 
replaced  in  the  position  and  relationships  in  which  it  foimd 
itself  before  the  1st  of  January  1792."  This  was  equivalent 
to  restoring  the  stipulations  of  the  Treaty  of  Peronne,  and 
now,  after  twenty-two  years  of  exile,  the  Grimaldis  were 
free  to  return  to  their  principality.  But  Honore  IV.  was 
too  old  and  too  ill  to  assume  the  cares  of  state,  so  he 
appointed  his  brother,  Joseph,  to  reign  in  his  stead.  Joseph, 
however,  lingered  in  Paris,  and  M.  de  Millo-Terrazzani 
acted  as  governor  in  his  absence.  In  the  meanwhile  the 
son  of  Honor^  IV.  protested  against  the  appointment  of 
his  uncle.  After  a  family  dispute  Joseph  withdrew,  and 
Honore  IV.  delegated  his  son,  Honore-Gabriel,  who  had 
so  greatly  distinguished  himself  in  the  Imperial  army,  to 
reign  over  the  principality. 

Shortly  after  he  left  Cannes  the  post-chaise  of  the 
hereditary  prince  was  stopped  by  some  soldiers,  among 
whom  Prince  Honore-Gabriel  recognised  General  Cam- 
bronne.  The  prince  was  conducted  to  an  olive  grove,  and 
there  confronted  with  Napoleon,  who  had  just  escaped 
from  the  island  of  Elba.  The  interview  was  cordial. 
"  Where  are  you  going  ? "  inquired  the  Emperor.  "  I  am 
going  home  to  Monaco,"  replied  the  prince.  "  And  so  am 
I,"  said  the  Emperor — "  home  to  the  Tuileries."  They 
went,  but  the  prince  remained  longer  at  home  than  did 


As  Saige  in  his  history  puts  it :  "  The  disaster  of 
Waterloo  followed  and  then  a  new  treaty,  in  virtue  of 
which  France  was  made  to  expiate  by  further  losses 
of  territory  the  heroic  folly  of  the  Hundred  Days." 
Sardinia  of  course  claimed  her  share  of  this  definite  victory 
of  the  Allies.  The  Treaty  of  \^ienna  (20th  November  1815) 
says  in  the  Fourth  Section  of  its  First  Article  :  "  The  rela- 
tions re-established  by  the  Treaty  of  Paris  of  the  30th  of  May 
1814,  between  France  and  the  Principality  of  Monaco,  will 
cease  finally,"  and :  •'  These  same  relations  shall  exist  be- 
tween this  Principality  and  the  King  of  Sardinia."  During 
three  centuries,  the  princes  of  Monaco,  to  maintain  the  inde- 
pendence of  their  state,  had  of  their  own  free  will  invited 
the  protection,  first  of  Spain,  then  of  France.  Now  Europe, 
without  consulting  them,  forced  upon  them  the  protection 
of  their  old  enemy,  Sardinia.  This  put  an  end  to  the  free 
trade  with  France  which  had  been  so  advantageous  to 
the  principality ;  and  its  reigning  princes,  ruined  by  the 
French  Revolution,  could  no  longer  enrich  the  state  by 
their  prodigality. 

Honore-Gabriel  went  to  Turin  in  the  hope  of  obtain- 
ing favourable  commercial  conditions.  He  was  received 
with  great  honour,  but  nothing  else  was  done  for  him. 
On  the  contrary,  he  was  forced  to  promise  the  abolition 
of  the  tobacco  manufactory  which  Honore  HI.  had 
established  in  Monaco.  This  was  an  important  source  of 
local  revenue.  Other  conditions  were  imposed  by  Sardinia, 
all  tending  to  impoverish  the  Monegasques.  Yet  at  the 
same  time  the  prince  claimed  a  civil  list  of  £12,000, 
three  times  as  much  as  Honore  HI.  had  obtained  from 
his  states.  To  produce  this  sum  Honore-Gabriel  imposed 
numerous  taxes,  and  this  in  a  most  reckless  and  injudicious 
manner.  He  created  undesirable  monopolies,  among  them 
a  flour  monopoly,  with  the  result  that  only  very  bad  and 
very  dear  bread  could  be  obtained  in  Monaco.  And  to 
those  who  endeavoured  to  represent  to  him  how  much 
harm  he  was  doing  he  made  himself  so  unpleasant  that 
no  one  ventured  to  tell  him  the  truth. 


In  1819  Honore  IV.  died,  and  Honore-Gabriel — now 
known  as  Honore  V. — continued  in  his  own  name  the 
same  methods  of  gov^ernment  as  he  had  practised  during 
the  previous  four  years  in  his  father's  name.  After 
Waterloo  and  the  Treaty  of  Vienna,  all  that  was  liberal, 
democratic  or  advanced  seemed  to  be  crushed  and  anni- 
hilated. The  cause  of  reaction  appeared  to  triumph  in  all 
directions.  Yet  in  the  most  unlikely  country  demo- 
cratic ideas  suddenly  rose  to  the  surface.  The  example 
was  set  by  the  Cortes  of  Spain,  and  in  Naples  and  in 
Piedmont  were  heard  riotous  demands  for  constitutional 
and  liberal  government.  Ground  down  by  over-taxation, 
the  Monegasques  now  thought  of  revolting.  The  rising, 
however,  was  so  promptly  suppressed  by  the  Sardin- 
ian authorities  that  Honore  V.  was  lulled  into  a  false 

It  would  be  interesting  to  study  in  detail  the  reign  of 
Honore  V.  He  is  one  of  the  best-abused  princes  that  ever 
reigned  over  the  principality.  His  manners  were  against 
him  ;  but  perhaps  his  chief  fault  was  that  of  being  in 
advance  of  his  age.  Practically,  his  policy  consisted  of 
supplementing  the  lack  of  State  revenues  by  the  organisa- 
tion of  State  industries.  He  attempted  to  establish  a  lace 
factory  and  a  workshop  for  straw-plaiting  and  hat-making. 
He  studied  deeply  the  condition  of  the  poor,  recognised 
that  they  had  the  right  to  beg  and  claimed  freedom  for 
the  pauper,  more  sinned  against  than  sinning.  He  urged 
that  begging  must  be  abolished  by  providing  beggars  with 
useful  productive  employment,  and  that,  above  all,  they 
should  be  set  to  work  on  the  land.  It  was  cruel,  he 
thought,  to  imprison  beggars  in  mendicity  depots :  they 
should  be  grouped  in  free  and  fruitful  co-operative  associa- 
tions. In  a  word,  it  strikes  me  forcibly  that  Honored  V. 
was  a  State  socialist,  or  at  any  rate  a  gas-and-water, 
municipal-enterprise  socialist,  and  that  to-day  his  views 
would  have  been  better  appreciated.  He  died  in  1841,  by 
which  time  he  had  become  extremely  unpopular,  and  left 
behind  him  only  the  memory  of  what  are  characterised 


as  tyrannical  institutions.  Yet  Saige  writes  his  epitaph  as 
follows  : — "  Here  lies  one  who  wished  to  do  good."  ^ 

Honor^  V.  had  no  children,  and/  much  against  his 
inclination,  his  brother  Florestan  was  obliged  to  assume 
the  task  of  governing  an  over-taxed  and  dissatisfied  people. 
His  position  was  the  more  difficult  as  he  found  only  passive 
agents :  no  one  was  capable  of  making  a  suggestion.  He 
attempted  to  promote  better  education,  started  higher 
schools  and  founded  asylums  for  the  poor,  endeavouring 
to  provide  free  work  and  free  feeding.  But  he  made 
himself  xmpopular  by  restricting  free  teaching.  With  1848 
the  approach  of  the  revolutionary  movement  increased  his 
alarm,  and  Florestan  sought  the  protection  of  Sardinian 
troops,  thus  sapping  his  own  independence.  As  usual  in 
such  cases,  concessions  were  made  to  popular  clamour 
when  the  agitation  had  become  too  great  to  be  pacified  by 
such  means.  All  this  time  the  Sardinians  were  stimulating 
the  dissatisfaction  in  the  hope  of  ultimately  seizing  the 
principality  for  themselves.  Indeed,  the  Sardinian  troops 
openly  encouraged  the  manifestations  which  it  was  their 
business  to  suppress.  Then,  as  Charles- Albert,  the  new 
King  of  Sardinia,  had  granted  some  liberal  reforms  to  his 
own  people,  the  inhabitants  of  the  principality  began  to 
think  they  might  be  better  off  if  annexed  by  Sardinia. 
Skilful  agents  in  the  principality  fanned  the  discontent 
and  turned  the  minds  of  the  people  towards  Sardinia  as  a 
possible  saviour. 

Florestan,  now  assisted  by  his  son.  Prince  Charles, 
worked,  negotiated,  made  promises,  changed  his  mind, 
contradicted  himself  and,  in  short,  sought  a  solution  in 
all  directions.  Finally,  when  Sardinia  sent  troops  under 
General  Gonnet  to  protect  Florestan  they  were  met  with 
cheers  for  their  country  and  their  king.  Soldiers  and 
people  fraternised.  And  now,  to  make  matters  worse,  the 
Revolution  broke  out  in  Paris.  Charles-Albert  with  his 
constitution  was  perhaps  the  only  popular  king  in  Europe 
at  that  time.  Mentone  and  Roccabruna  formed  a  National 

'  "  Ci  git  qui  voulut  faire  le  bien." 



Guard  ;  hoisted  the  Sardinian  flag ;  claimed  and  obtained 
the  protection  of  Charles- Albert.  The  Sardinian  garrison 
returned.  By  5(58  votes  for  and  none  against  Sardinia 
was  requested  to  annex  jNIentone  and  Roccabruna.  The 
absence  of  any  opposition  suggests  that  the  vote  was  not 
sincere.  Doubtless  Sardinia  would  now  have  annexed  the 
entire  principality  but  for  the  defeat  of  the  Sardinians  by 
the  Austrians  at  the  battle  of  Novare  in  1849.  Besides, 
there  were  some  protests  from  France.  Therefore  Mentone 
and  Roccabruna  were  constituted  free  towns,  and  at 
Monaco  hopes  were  still  entertained  that  they  would 
return  to  their  allegiance  to  the  Grimaldis.  Indeed,  in  1854, 
Prince  Charles  of  Monaco  went  to  Mentone,  in  the 
expectation  that  the  people,  having  by  that  time  acquired 
some  experience  of  Sardinian  protection,  would  rise  in  his 
favour.  Though  at  first  acclaimed,  he  did  not  receive 
sufficient  support,  and  was  arrested. 

Through  French  intervention  Prince  Charles  was 
released,  and  perhaps  more  would  have  been  done  by 
Napoleon  III.  for  Monaco  had  not  Sardinia  joined  the 
Allies  in  the  Crimean  war.  In  April  1856,  at  the 
Congress  of  Paris,  when  M.  de  Cavour  complained 
that  a  part  of  the  Roman  states  was  occupied  by 
Austrian  troops,  M.  de  Hubner  retorted  that  the 
Italians  were  occupying  Mentone  and  Roccabruna.  The 
Sardinian  plenipotentiary  therefore  declared  that  the 
Italians  were  ready  to  withdraw  from  the  Monegasque 
principality.  The  insertion  of  this  statement  in  the  official 
minutes  did  not,  however,  make  any  alteration  in  the 
actual  situation,  and  the  Sardinians  remained  in  virtual 

During  the  same  year  Florestan  I.  died.  He  was 
succeeded  by  his  son,  Charles  III.,  at  that  time  thirty- 
seven  years  old.  He  seems  from  the  first  to  have  governed 
with  a  firmer  hand  and  to  have  kept  the  Sardinians  in 
their  place.  The  whole  question,  however,  was  soon  to 
be  definitely  settled  as  one  of  the  consequences  of  the 
war  waged  by  France  against  Austria  on  behalf  of  Italy. 


By  the  Treaty  of  Turin  (24th  March  1860),  Italy  made 
over  Nice  and  Savoy  to  France.  Thus  Monaco  auto- 
matically returned  to  French  protection.  The  Sardinian 
garrison  was  obliged  to  evacuate  the  principality. 
Negotiations  were  at  once  opened ;  and,  the  population 
of  Mentone  and  Roccabruna  having  voted  by  a  large 
majority  in  favour  of  union  with  France,  Charles  III. 
gave  up  his  rights  over  these  towns  on  the  2nd  of 
February  1861.  The  French  Government  on  its  side 
paid  Prince  Charles  an  indemnity  of  £160,000.  Thus 
the  principality  was  reduced  to  one-fifth  of  its  former  size. 
In  such  circumstances  Prince  Charles  could  not  hope 
to  play  such  a  part  in  European  affairs  as  his  ancestors 
had  done  on  more  than  one  occasion.  Some  other  form  of 
activity  must  be  devised,  and  soon  he  discovered  that  the 
future  of  the  principality  depended  upon  its  development 
as  a  pleasure  and  health  resort.  With  this  ends  the  past 
history  of  the  principality,  and  we  reach  its  modern  life 
and  resources.  But  before  closing  this  page  of  history 
I  would  summarise  the  last  two  reigns  by  translating 
a  scene  from  Victorien  Sardou's  celebrated  play 
Rabagas.  Making  allowance  for  literary  licence  this 
play  is  wonderfully  true  to  life,  and  most  of  the  incidents 
mentioned  historical.  The  humorous  manner  of  their 
presentation  brings  home  the  situation  more  graphically 
than  do  the  solemn  pages  of  ponderous  historical  works. 
The  version  before  me  is  that  of  the  Sixth  Edition, 
published  in  1872  (page  27). 


No ;  on  the  contrary,  let  us  talk  about  it.  Is  it  then 
so  very  complicated,  the  government  of  Monaco  ? 

The  Prince 

Oh,  it  is  on  the  contrary,  simplicity  itself.  No  Ministry, 
no  House  of  Parliament !  AH  the  civil  and  military 
administration  is  in  the  hand  of  a  Governor,  who  is  the 
chief  of  the  Cabinet,  and  indeed  the  Cabinet  itself.  And 

LOSS    OF    MENTONE,    ETC.  109 

above  this  Governor  there  is  myself — that  is  to  say, 
I  am  an  unfortunate  little  sovereign  crushed  between  two 
big  neighbours  wlio  only  hesitate  as  to  the  sauce  with 
which  thejf  shall  devour  me  .  .  .  but  my  safety  being 
thus  guaranteed,  by  this  mutual  gluttony,  I  can  remain 

That's  good. 

The  Prince 

f  Only,  I  am  forced  by  the  treaty  of  1817  to  tolerate 
a  Sardinian  garrison  at  Alentone — which  protects  me  ! 


Well  ? 

The  Prince 

Till  the  first  riot  occurs — then  it  will  support  the 

Oh  !  for  shame  ! 

The  Prince 

That  is  all.  It  is  quite  an  established  order  of  things. 
You  will  see.  I  succeed  my  brother,  Honor^  V.,  and  arrive 
here  bubbling  over  with  ideas  of  liberty,  of  progress,  of 
reforms ! 


The  Prince 

And  I  begin  with  the  monacos.  You  have  doubtless 
heard  about  the  monacos  ? 


Yes  ;  copper  coins. 

The  Prince 
The  pennies. 


Why  yes,  while  I  was  still  a  little  girl,  nobody  would 
have  them. 


The  Prince 

That's  it.  But  please  note  that  these  coins  were  worth 
quite  as  much  as  any  other  coins.  But  the  French  are 
terrible  people.  The  first  Frenchman  asked  to  accept 
Monaco  money  burst  out  laughing,  and  all  the  others 
have  laughed  in  chorus  ever  since.  So  all  our  copper  coins 
are  coming  back  to  us  bearing  a  vague  odour  of  false 
coinage.  You  must  understand  that  such  a 


Yes,  of  course,  it  does  not  add  to  the  prestige  of  the 

The  Prince 

I  suppressed  the  monacos.  Then  came  the  bread 
monopoly,  etc.,  etc.  In  short,  the  more  1  improved  and 
perfected,  the  more  the  people  grumbled. 



The  Prince 

But    I    held   my   ground   till   the   unfortunate   olive 


Olives  ! 

The  Prince 

Yes.  I  ask  your  pardon,  I  am  worrying  you  with  my 
little  troubles. 


Oh  no !  Oh  no !  Please  continue.  This  local  cooking 
and  gossip  is  very  interesting.  We  had  got  to  the  olives. 

The  Prince 

Well,  then,  the  olives  ;  or,  to  speak  more  accurately, 
the  olive  oil,  which  is  the  wealth  of  this  country.  But  we 
make  it  so  badly,  with  such  antique  methods,  that  it  is 
not  as  good  as  the  oil  of  Provence.   So   I   import  two 

AN  OLD  sri<i:i;T  in   month   cahi.o 


admirable  English  oil-mills  and  invite  my  subjects  to 
send  me  their  olives  to  grind.  At  once  I  am  accused  of 
an  arbitrary  proceeding.  Therefore  I  buy  the  olives  and 
convert  them  into  oil  myself.  Then  the  cry  is  raised  that 
I  am  creating  a  monopoly.  I  suppress  the  mills  and 
restore  everything  to  its  pristine  state :  I  am  accused 
of  encouraging  stagnation  and  routine. 

Oh !  Oh ! 

The  Prince 

So  I  give  up  the  idea  of  realising  industrial  reforms. 

I  quite  believe  you. 

The  Pkince  {siandhig) 

And  from  that  day  begins  between  my  subjects  and 
myself  a  sullen  struggle  that  has  slowly  developed  into 
a  state  of  ferocious  hostility. 

Eva  {standing) 
Ferocious  ? 

The  Prince 

You  have  certainly  seen  unhappy  unions  in  which 
whatever  the  one  does  the  other  is  sure  to  find  fault  with. 
^Vell,  the  one  is  myself  and  the  other  is  my  people. 
All  my  acts  are  criticised,  misrepresented  and  travestied 
with  skill  and  art !  Take  a  few  examples.  I  go  for  a 
walk  :  it  is  found  that  I  have  a  lot  of  time  to  idle  away. 
1  do  not  go  for  a  walk  :  then  I  am  afraid  of  sliowing 
myself.  I  give  a  ball :  I  am  accused  of  wild  extravagance. 
1  do  not  give  a  ball :  1  am  meanly  avaricious.  I  hold 
a  review :  I  am  attempting  military  intimidation.  I  do 
not  hold  a  review :  I  am  evidently  afraid,  and  cannot 
trust  the  troops.  Some  fireworks  are  let  off  on  my  birth- 
day :  1  am  wasting  the  people's  money  in  smoke.  I 
suppress    the   fireworks :    then    I    do    nothing    for    the 



amusement  of  the  people.  I  am  in  good  health :  that  is 
because  I  am  so  idle  and  take  so  little  trouble  over  public 
matters.  I  am  in  bad  health :  that  is  the  result  of 
debauchery.  I  build — wastefulness.  I  do  not  build — then 
what  about  the  working  classes  ?  In  fact,  I  am  no  longer 
able  to  eat,  sleep  or  keep  awake  as  I  may  think  fit.  Every- 
thing I  do  must  be  proclaimed  as  detestable,  and  all  that 
I  do  not  do  gives  even  greater  offence. 


But  that  is  not  a  life. 




PRINCE  ALBERT  I.  was  born  on  the  13th  of 
November  1848,  and  is  therefore  old  enough  to  re- 
member something  of  those  dark  days  when  his  family 
had  to  endure  many  Iiardships  and  poverty.  During  the  year 
of  his  birth  INIentone  and  Roccabruna  revolted  against 
Prince  Florestan  I.,  his  grandfather,  and  declared  their  in- 
dependence. Eight  years  later  Florestan  I.  died,  and  Prince 
Albert  I.  has  not  forgotten  the  funeral.  This  fact,  of  no 
particular  importance  in  itself,  I  ascertained  when  an 
occasion  occurred  for  showing  the  prince  the  following 
interesting  extracts  concerning  his  family.  They  are  taken 
from  the  "  Recollections  of  a  Parisian,"  by  Dr  Poumies 
de  la  Siboutie  (John  Murray,  1911) : — 

"June  11th,  1856. — I  spent  a  portion  of  to-day  with 
Florestan  I.,  Prince  of  Monaco,  who  has  been  my 
dear  friend  for  the  past  forty  years.  His  wife  and  mine 
were  at  school  together,  and  have  always  kept  up  their 
old  intimacy. 

"  I  fear  the  poor  prince  is  very  ill,  and  cannot  live  much 
longer.  He  said  to  me : — '  I  loathe  the  title  of  Prince.  I 
have  forbidden  its  use  in  my  household  and  among  my 
friends.  Many  absurd  stories  have  been  told  about  me. 
They  say  I  was  a  "  super  "  at  a  theatre,  which  is  partly 
true  and  partly  false ;  I  had  theatrical  employment  for 
four  years,  but  only  appeared  in  minor  parts.  I  was 
successively  at  the  Theatre  de  la  Cite,  the  Theatre  du 
Mai-ais  and  the  Ai/itjig-u.  We  played  all  kinds  of  pieces ; 
classical,  modern,  melodrama,  light  comedy.   I  used  to 

H  113 



play  young  lovers  and  was  a  favourite  with  audiences ; 
they  liked  my  voice  and  cultured  intonation.  I  could 
make  my  points  good,  and  above  all  I  looked  a  gentleman. 
I  played  under  my  own  name  of  Florestan  ;  you  will  find 
it  in  old  playbills,  also  in  the  newspapers  of  the  day.  I 
had  a  great  many  favourable  notices.  JNIy  passion  for 
theatrical  mattei's  has  never  died  out.  I  would  have  a 
theatre  of  my  own  to-morrow,  but  for  the  determined 
opposition  of  my  family.  I  have  been  brought  into  contact 
with  leading  actors  of  the  day  and  have  enjoyed  familiar 
friendship  with  them.  There  are  no  better  fellows  any- 
where, nor  cheerier  company.  I  have  written  a  great  deal, 
memoirs,  comedies,  verses,  travels,  etc. — but  somehow  I 
have  never  published.  After  my  death  my  successors  may 
do  what  they  like  with  the  stuff.  I  am  quite  indifferent.' 
"  These  things  were  said  at  odd  times  when  the  subjects 
concerned  came  up  in  conversation." 

"  Wednesday,  June  25th. — I  attended  the  funeral  of 
Florestan   I.   to-day.    The  chief  mourners  were  his   son 

Charles  and  a  little  grandson  who  clung  to  his  father's  | 

hand.    People  are  gossiping  because  the  Icttres  de  j'aire  j[ 

pm-t  are  written  in  the  names  of  these  two  only,  ignoring  ^ 

the  three  ladies  of  the  family."  * 

The  little  grandson  who  clung  to  his  father's  hand 
was  the  present  ruling  Prince  of  JNlonaco ;  and  Prince 
Albert  said  he  still  remembered  the  scene,  though  rather 
vaguely.  The  other  details  he  had  no  doubt  were  true,  and 
read  them  Avith  much  interest.  They  were  new  to  him, 
the  prince  explained,  because  in  his  young  days  it  was 
the  fashion  not  to  speak  of  having  to  earn  one's  living. 
It  was  considered  a  humiliation  to  be  forced  to  work. 
Therefore  he  was  never  told  that  his  grandfather  had 
been  an  actor,  but  he  knew  he  had  a  good  deal  to  do  with 
the  stage,  and  the  family  still  possessed  many  portraits 
collected  by  Prince  Florestan  of  great  actors.  Prince 
Albert    remembered   notably   a   fine   picture   of  Talma. 

A    GRBIALDI    ON    THE    STAGE  115 

Though  the  account  of  his  gi-andfather's  acting  was  new 
to  him  he  had  no  doubt  as  to  its  accuracy,  for  when  driven 
out  of  ^lonaco  by  the  Revokition,  and  after  the  confiscation 
of  all  their  estates,  several  members  of  his  family  had  to 
work  for  their  living.  He  was  proud  to  think  they  had  so 
far  succeeded,  so  as  to  be  able  to  give  their  children  a  good 

The  harshness  of  this  past  experience  must  of  course 
have  affected  Prince  Charles  III.  much  more  deeply  than 
Albert  I.,  as  he  lived  nearer  to  the  great  i-evolutionary 
upheaval.  Then,  as  it  all  terminated  in  the  reduction  of 
the  principality  to  one-fifth  its  former  size,  it  may  well 
be  understood  that  Charles  Til.  was  driven  to  accept 
counsels  of  despair.  Now  that  the  greater  part  of  the 
lemon  and  olive  groves  of  the  principality  were  handed 
over  to  France  it  might  well  be  said : 

"   Monaco  io  sono 
lln  scoglio 
Del  raio  non  ho 
Quelle  d'altrui  non  toglio 
Pur  viver  voglio." 

Which  may  be  translated  : 

"   I  am  Monaco,  a  stray  rock. 
I  do  not  produce  anything, 
I  do  not  plunder  the  good  of  others, 
And  yet  I  intend  to  live." 

Never  has  a  determination  been  more  successfully 
accomplished.  Monaco,  with  its  five  square  miles  of 
territory,  had  now  become  the  smallest  of  the  remaining 
very  little,  though  independent,  states.  The  grand  duchy 
of  Luxemburg  has  1000  square  miles ;  the  republic 
of  jVndorra  in  the  Pyrenees  measures  175  square  miles  ; 
Liechtenstein,  which  both  Germany  and  Austria  have 
agreed  to  respect,  covers  90  square  miles ;  and  the 
republic  of  San  Marino,  established  sixteen  hundred 
years    ago    in    the    north-east    of    Italy,    has    only    30 


square  miles.  Tlius  JNIonaco,  with  but  fiv^e  square  miles,  is 
far  and  away  the  smallest  of  them  all.  Nevertheless  it  has 
so  managed  its  affairs  that  it  has  outstepped  every  other 
country,  large  or  small,  in  the  rapid  acquisition  of  wealth. 
In  proportion  to  its  native  population,  no  other  nation 
possesses  such  revenues,  nor  can  any  country  dispense 
with  taxation.  Yet  within  living  memory  great  poverty 
prevailed.  On  the  wild  promontory  of  Spelugnes — a  word 
that  means  caves  used  for  burial  purposes,  but  which  has 
now  been  converted  into  JNIonte  Carlo — shepherds 
conducted  flocks  to  graze  on  wild  herbs.  In  the  Condamine 
flowers  were  grown  principally  for  Mr  Rimmel,  whose 
very  name  smells  sweet  to  the  London  frequenter  of  the 
Strand.  Beautiful  fruits  grew  readily,  but  there  was  no 
direct  carriage  road  to  Nice  and  no  cheap  means  of 
exporting  what  could  be  grown. 

Under  such  circumstances,  it  is  not  surprising  if 
Charles  III.  was  attracted  by  the  increasing  prosperity  of 
the  landgraviate  of  Hesse-Horaburg,  a  small  principality 
like  his  own.  Before  JNlonsieur  Fran(,'ois  Blanc  appeared 
on  the  scene,  members  of  the  court  at  Monaco  had 
marvelled  at  the  untold  gold  that  came  from  all  parts  of 
the  world  to  be  thrown  on  the  tables  at  Wiesbaden  and 
Baden-Baden.  But  there  were  valuable  mineral  springs  at 
Baden-Baden,  Wiesbaden  and  Homburg ;  many  invalids 
derived  benefit  from  them,  and  this  was  a  sufficient 
pretext  to  build  casinos,  with  their  accompaniment  of 
amusements  and  their  source  of  revenue,  the  roulette  and 
trente-et-quarante  tables. 

At  Monaco  there  were  no  valuable  mineral  springs. 
On  the  other  hand  there  was  the  marvellous  climate  and 
most  beautiful  scenery.  Not  far  ofl^,  at  Cannes,  Lord 
Brougham  had  taught  the  highest  classes  of  English 
society  to  appreciate  the  advantages  of  wintering  on  the 
Riviera.  Also  to  escape  the  rigour  of  the  Northern  winter 
was  thought,  in  those  days,  one  of  the  most  efficient 
means  of  checking  the  development  of  pulmonary 
tuberculosis.  But  at  Nice,  Cannes,  Hyeres  and  Mentone 



there  was  no  seaport,  nothing  to  compare  with  the  Port 
of  Hercules  at  Monaco,  wliere  hohday  people  and  patients 
could  bathe  in  all  security.  The  port  terminated  in  a  beauti- 
ful shallow  sandy  beach,  though  very  deep  at  its  entrance. 
Here  in  the  olden  days  the  galley  safely  grounded  on  the 
soft  shore ;  and  it  must  have  been  admirably  suited  lor 
bathing  when  in  the  Condamine  there  were  only  gardens 
and  no  sewers  to  empty  into  the  port. 

Therefore,  in  the  days  of  Charles  HI.,  it  was  thought 
that  such  sea-baths,  combined  with  chalybeate  waters,  to 
be  found  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood,  would  have  an 
excellent  effect  in  the  treatment  of  various  forms  of  bone 
disease.  But  just  as  Homburg  remained,  practically 
speaking,  imknown  and  unfrequented  till  the  enterprise 
of  M.  Francois  Blanc  made  it  a  resort  of  world-wide  fame, 
so  also  INIonaco,  in  spite  of  its  brilliant  sunshine,  might 
contiiuie  to  remain  in  the  shade.  JSl.  Henri  JNletivier,  who 
may  be  described  as  the  Court  Historian,  gives  some 
account  of  the  attitude  of  Prince  Chai'les  at  that  time, 
and  of  the  arguments  which  were  then  considered  accept- 
able. On  page  298,  vol.  ii.,  he  says : 

"  It  seems  therefore  that  Nature  had  herself  indicated 
what  the  principality  of  Monaco  should  henceforth 
become.  This  the  prince  undei'stood.  In  185G  he  gave  a 
concession  to  a  joint  stock  company  granting  to  them  the 
privilege  of  establishing  a  sea-bathing  station  with  all  the 
accessories,  among  which  would  be  a  casino  with  a  lessee 
for  games  analogous  to  those  of  Germany. 

"As  a  matter  of  principle,  we  do  not  approve  of 
gaming  houses,  and  the  governments  who  suppress  them 
act  wisely.  Established  in  large  centres  of  population,  they 
constitute  a  permanent  excitement,  stimulating  the  spirit 
of  cupidity,  and  bring  about  the  demoralisation  and  ruin  of 
the  unfortunate  people  who,  attracted  by  the  false  hope  of 
gain,  press  passionately  round  the  green  baize.  But  when 
such  games  are  established  a  long  way  from  the  large 
towns,  and  when  the  distance  is  such  that  the  cost  of  the 


journey  can  only  be  met  by  rich  foreigners,  one  may 
accord  them  the  benefit  of  extenuating  circumstances,  for 
they  do  bring  an  element  of  prosperity  amid  the  native 
population,  who  are  themselves  severely  excluded  from 
the  gaming  saloons.  Such  are  the  conditions  enforced  at 
Monaco ;  everything  is  so  arranged  as  to  safeguard  the 
morals  and  the  money  of  the  inhabitants,  while  conferring 
on  them  the  material  advantages  resulting  from  the 
sojourn  in  their  midst  of  numerous  tourists." 

Such  already  was  the  frame  of  mind  of  the  Govern- 
ment a  few  years  before  M.  Francois  Blanc  appeared  upon 
the  scene.  It  is  not  surprising  therefore  if  he  readily 
obtained  the  concession  for  which  he  was  prepared  to  pay 
handsomely.  Nor  is  it  strange  that  he  so  improved  the 
place  as  to  render  some  of  the  above  arguments  no  longer 
applicable ;  for  to-day  it  is  the  great  number  of  cheap 
trippers  rather  than  the  few  very  rich  visitors  who  provide 
the  largest  source  of  revenue.  The  improvement,  though 
some  may  challenge  the  word,  was  also  so  rapid  that  it 
may  well  be  compared  with  the  mushroom  growth  of 
cities  in  the  middle  or  far  west  of  the  United  States. 
Thus  the  Rey  family  was  easily  able  to  buy  up  all  the 
Condamine  during  the  Revolution,  and  subsequently  sold 
it  to  a  M.  Arnoux,  wine  merchant  from  Marseilles.  How 
little  value  was  attached  to  this  land  may  be  gathered 
from  the  fact  that  M.  Arnoux  had  much  difficulty  in 
selling  a  villa  and  106,000  square  metres,  or  about  1*27,200 
square  yards,  of  gardens  for  £2520.  In  the  whole  of  the 
Condamine,  and  up  to  the  year  1868,  there  existed  only 
three  or  four  dwellings.  Yet  ten  years  later  we  already 
read  that  a  beautiful  aveiuie  of  trees  had  been  replaced  by 
a  street  of  twenty  houses,  that  there  were  actually  some 
gas  lamps,  and  so  many  villas,  and  even  shops  and  cafes, 
that  people  began  to  talk  of  the  gardens  of  the  Con- 
damine as  a  "  centre,"  or  a  town.  The  land  of  the  whole 
district,  with  its  violets,  which  Rimmel  farmed  out  for 
£1000  a  year,  was   estimated   in    1858   as   worth   about 


c    t 

<    w 


V)     E 

fcj     c 

LAND    VALUES  119 

£20,000.  Twenty  years   later   its  value  had  increased  to 

Of  course  this  great  change  was  brought  about  not 
only  by  M.  Fran9ois  Blanc  and  his  casino,  but  by  the 
building  of  a  main  line  of  railway  which,  running  from 
Marseilles  to  Genoa,  passed  straight  through  the  princi- 
pality. What  this  meant  is  graphically  depicted  in  the 
Animaire  or  official  annual  register  of  the  principality 
for  the  year  1878.  The  passage  appears  on  page  134 : 

"  The  intelligent  barbarians  who  failed  to  respect  the 
beautiful  trees  of  the  Condamine  were  not  likely  to  stop 
even  before  the  vale  of  St  Devote,  this  marvel  of  the 
picturesque.  Over  this  small  but  incomparable  site  the 
railway — another  diabolical  invention — has  built  an  im- 
pertinent viaduct.  Then  a  speculator  came  to  trouble  the 
repose  of  this  asylum.  AVithout  a  tinge  of  remorse  he  has 
bought  a  piece  of  the  rock  and  promptly  built  a  pretty 
villa  on  it  which  he  called  Colomhe  (dove),  probably 
thinking  he  would  thereby  appease  the  saint.  Then  without 
acknowledging  the  necessity  of  any  sort  of  restraint  he 
built  two  cottages  and  a  large  hotel  in  the  immediate 
neighbourhood.  The  ground  on  which  he  raised  all  these 
constructions  had  not  cost  him  more  than  £48,  but  the 
Paris-Lyon  and  Mediterranean  Co.  wanted  a  very  small 
portion  and  he  sold  it  to  them  for  £2800." 

Of  Monte  Carlo  more  wonderful  stories  are  told.  It 
was  in  18G0  that  the  first  attempts  were  made  to  build  a 
casino  on  the  Spdiugnes,  some  land  having  been  bought 
there  by  the  promoters  for  a  very  small  price  from  Count 
Rey.  In  the  hope  of  inducing  people  to  live  on  this  desert, 
free  gifts  of  land  were  offered  to  those  who  undertook  to 
build  on  such  land.  Nevertheless  many  refused  to  take  for 
nothing  land  which  to-day  is  as  valuable  as  that  of  Bond 
Street,  or  of  the  Boulevards  des  Italiens.  In  1863  M. 
Blanc  acquired  the  property  and  rights  of  the  previous 
casino    companies.     M.    Marie    de    Saint-Germain,    who 


established  himself  for  his  health  at  Monaco  in  1860,  and 
was  a  witness  of  the  transformation  scene,  wrote  in  1875  : 

"  That  which  was  most  arid  has  become  fertile,  the 
desert  is  peopled,  the  bare  rock  has  become  an  immense 
bouquet.  Civilisation  with  all  its  luxuries  has  embellished 
this  solitude.  Large  avenues  bordered  with  green  trees 
and  white  houses  stretch  forth  in  all  directions  over  this 
superb  tableland ;  veritablj^  a  green  jewel  held  tightly  in 
a  frame  of  mountains." 

Whether  such  rapid  and  mighty  changes  have  proved 
an  unmixed  blessing  may  well  be  considered  more  than 
doubtful.  Speaking  to  some  of  the  oldest  inhabitants,  I 
found  they  constantly  expressed  regret,  and  were  fond  of 
denouncing  modern  extravagances  and  follies.  Com- 
mandant Castaldi,  who  belonged  to  one  of  the  oldest 
families  of  the  principality,  told  me  how  he  remembered 
when  all  the  country  around  was  devoted  to  the  cultiva- 
tion of  flowers  for  the  scent  factories  and  not  for  ornament. 
Before  that,  lemons  and  olives  were  the  chief  source  of 
revenue.  "  How  beautiful  it  was  in  those  days,"  said  the  old 
Monegasque  ;  "  a  dream  that  no  young  person  can  possibly 
imagine."  In  April  anybody  who  was  not  accustomed  to 
the  place  would  draw  back  if  he  approached  too  near  the 
gardens  of  the  Condamine.  The  odour  of  the  flowers  would 
overcome  him.  There  were  the  orange  blossoms  especially. 
They  were  not  cultivated  for  the  oranges,  but  the  essence 
the  neroli  used  as  scent  or  to  drink  as  orange  flower 
water.  In  the  month  of  May  the  young  girls  and  boys 
went  out  into  the  country  to  collect  vast  quantities  of 
flowers  and  make  hoops  and  garlands  with  them.  Then 
they  danced  and  sang  within  a  framework  of  flowers. 
This  lasted  all  the  month  of  ]\Iay.  It  was  poetical,  pretty ; 
there  was  real  luxury  of  colour,  perfume,  beauty,  yet  it 
did  not  cost  anything  unless  it  were  a  few  pence  to  buy 
string  to  tie  up  the  flowers. 

The  children  had  no  money,  but  each  season  had  its 


games,  and  nature  supplied  the  toys.  There  was  so  much 
fruit  that  everyone  could  make  his  own  jam  and  have 
plenty  of  fruit  remaining  to  feed  even  the  cattle.  Fruits 
only  cost  the  trouble  of  picking  them,  lioatmen  would 
come  from  Nice  and  pay  not  more  than  five  or  six  francs 
to  have  their  boats  filled  with  fruit.  It  was  the  labour  of 
bringing  the  fruit  rather  than  its  value  they  paid  for.  One 
of  the  most  popular  games  for  the  children  was  to  play 
with  fruit  stones  and  almonds.  They  would  shake  the  trees 
and  stamp  on  the  fruit  for  the  sake  of  the  stones.  Even 
luscious  peaches  were  treated  in  this  way.  The  stones  could 
keep,  were  easily  packed  on  mules  or  donkeys,  and  be 
driven  over  to  Nice,  where  they  could  be  sold.  Of  course 
labour  was  cheap,  and  a  man  would  be  very  glad  to  go  to 
Mentone  and  back  for  half-a-franc. 

In  the  Condamine,  on  the  edge  of  the  port,  where  the 
bathing  establishment  was  subsequently  built,  there  were 
sheds  used  by  men  who  worked  at  cleaning  lemons  and 
making  boxes  to  pack  them.  In  the  port  three-mast  sailing 
ships  came  all  the  way  from  America  to  fetch  these 
lemons.  Some  ships  of  course  went  to  Sicily  and  other 
places  also  renowned  for  this  fruit.  In  all  this  it  will  be 
seen  there  was  only  agricultural  labour.  If  a  youth  in  the 
principality  was  gifted  with  more  than  usual  intelligence, 
and  had  acquired  some  education,  he  would  be  obliged  to 
go  to  Toulon  or  some  other  large  town  to  get  suitable 
employment.  Many  JNIonegasques  thus  held  high  positions 
in  Italy  or  in  France. 

It  seems  curious  that  persons  are  still  living  who 
remember  the  time  when  little  could  be  done  here  and 
the  educated  were  obliged  to  seek  positions  abroad.  To-day, 
on  the  contrary,  any  number  of  people  flock  from  France 
and  Italy  to  obtain  work  in  the  principality,  so  great  and 
rapid  has  been  its  development  and  progress.  But  its 
supreme  beauty  has  gone.  Instead  of  an  incomparable 
garden  we  have  a  clustering  crowd  of  villas,  hotels  and 
houses  of  doubtful  architecture.  Where  the  flowers  and 
fruit  trees  cling  lovingly  to  the  rocks,  dynamite  has  blown 


the  romantic  crags  away  to  form  level  terraces  on  which 
box-shaped  dwellings  have  been  built. 

Speaking  on  this  subject  to  another  old  inhabitant,  the 
well-known  professor  of  painting,  an  artist,  M.  Fontain,  I 
asked  him  whether  it  would  be  possible  to  have  a  Minister 
of  Fine  Arts,  whose  mission  would  consist  in  preventing 
ugliness.  M.  Fontain  replied  that  undoubtedly  the  country 
was  no  longer  so  beautiful.  Rich  gardens  and  noble  trees 
were  replaced  by  horrible  buildings ;  but  business  men 
would  crush  anyone  who  attempted  to  prevent  this.  Money 
always  went  first.  No  artistic  plea  could  stand  against 
money.  If  a  building  could  be  made  to  pay,  what  attention 
would  be  given  to  the  lamentations  of  a  few  artists  ?  Such 
masses  of  masonry  give  forth  sewage  and  household  refuse 
where  formerly  we  had  but  the  sweet  scent  of  blossoms 
and  full-flavoured  fruit.  But  this  is  progress.  Large  fortunes 
are  made  amid  the  ruin  of  venerable  plants,  of  luxurious 
vegetation,  the  obliteration  of  the  picturesque  and  the 
effacement  of  many  less  successful  speculators. 



BEFORE  attempting  any  further  description  of  the 
transformation  the  principahty  has  undergone 
during  recent  years,  the  financial  resources  that 
render  such  changes  possible  must  be  described.  In  the 
Treaty  with  France  of  the  2nd  February  1861,  Charles 
III.  had  the  foresight  to  introduce  some  important  stipu- 
lations. He  surrendered  his  claim  on  JMentone  and  Rocca- 
bruna,  which  henceforth  became  French  and  are  now  called 
JVIenton  and  Roquebrune,  communes  in  the  New  French 
Department  of  the  Alpes-INIaritimes.  In  the  same  way 
Nizza  la  Bella  has  become  Nice  la  Belle.  His  territory, 
thus  reduced,  it  was  evident  could  not  suffice  for  the 
sustenance  of  his  subjects.  If  they  were  to  live  at  all,  this 
must  be  through  relations  and  communication  with  outside 
sources  of  revenue.  Therefore  Prince  Charles,  by  Article 
V.  of  the  Treaty,  carefully  stipulated  that  France  should 
maintain,  at  its  own  cost  and  in  good  condition,  the  road 
between  Monaco  and  JNIenton  and  its  junction  with  the 
Corniche  road.  For  the  other  side  of  the  principality  he 
insisted  that  a  carriage  road,  even  at  the  cost  of  cutting 
through  hard  rock,  should  be  built  close  to  the  shore  from 
Monaco  to  Beaulieu,  Villefranche  and  Nice.  The  Franco- 
German  AVar  retarded  the  execution  of  this  clause  of  the 
treaty,  and  the  beautiful,  picturesque  road  from  JNIonaco 
to  Nice  was  only  completed  in  1881.  Of  course  the  opening 
of  railway  communications  would  prove  even  more  useful, 
but  all  these  facilities  might  have  led  to  serious  trouble  if 
a  customs,  postal  and  telegraphic  union  had  not  been 
concluded  with  France.  This  convention  is  dated  the  9th 



November  1865.  Monaco  might  have  become  a  smuggling 
centre.  Now  all  goods  brought  to  Monaco  by  sea  have  to 
pay  the  same  duty  as  if  they  were  landed  in  France,  and 
the  duty  is  collected  by  French  custom-house  officials. 
But  JNlonaco  stands  to  lose  for  what  comes  by  land, 
especially  by  railway.  To  reach  Monaco  all  such  goods 
pass  through  France,  and  there  pay  duty.  Tea,  for  in- 
stance, is  very  heavily  taxed,  and  is  sold  retail  for  twice 
the  price  charged  in  England.  As  this  is  paid  at  the 
French  frontier,  if  we  drink  tea  at  JNlonaco  we  contribute 
to  the  revenue  of  the  French  and  not  to  the  INlonegasque 
Government.  Nevertheless  this  sacrifice  was  preferable  to 
the  establishment  of  an  octroi  or  any  sort  of  local  dues 
which  would  interfere  with  the  freest  access  to  the  princi- 

By  reason  of  their  climate,  their  beautiful  scenery  and 
marvellous  semi-tropical  vegetation,  Nice,  Cannes,  Hyeres 
and  Menton  were  beginning  to  attract  rich  foreigners,  who 
came  to  these  choice  spots  to  escape  the  Northern  winter. 
But  JNlonaco  is  more  beautiful  than  any  of  these  places. 
It  is  as  well  sheltered  and  its  climate  in  some  respects 
superior,  only  there  were  no  suitable  hotels,  and  no  native 
Monegasque  had  the  slightest  idea  of  what  should  be  done 
to  attract  and  cater  for  wealthy  foreign  visitors.  M. 
Francois  Blanc  at  Homburg  had  however  proved  that  he 
was  the  greatest  of  experts  in  this  respect.  On  the  other 
hand,  M.  Giraud,  a  close  friend  of  the  late  Prince  Florestan, 
had  already  suggested  to  Prince  Charles  that  a  casino, 
where  gambling  was  allowed,  would  certainly  attract  many 
people,  and  thus  save  the  country  from  terrible  poverty. 
Not  very  far  off,  Cavour  had  just  prohibited  gambling  at 
Aix-les- Bains  on  the  ground  that  it  was  ruining  the 
Savoyard  nobility.  Perhaps  things  might  be  better  managed 
at  Monaco,and  some  frequenters  of  Aix-les-Bains  attracted. 
In  any  case,  a  casino  might  save  the  country,  and  nothing 
else  seemed  so  likely  to  achieve  this  desirable  end.  It  was 
determined,  however,  and  from  the  very  first,  to  keep  a 
strict  control  over  the  casino  and  make  sure  that  some  of 





THE    HOUSE    OF    WURTEMBERG         125 

the  money  made  was  spent  for  the  public  good  and  not  all 
kept  for  private  profit. 

A  few  foreign  visitors  began  to  arrive,  and  among 
them  tliere  was  Prince  AVilliam  of  Wurtemberg,  who  was 
subsequently  created  Duke  of  Urach.  He  was  a  widower, 
but  his  first  wife,  a  daughter  of  Prince  Eugene  de  Beau- 
harnais,  had  left  him  a  child,  the  Princess  Mary.  For 
several  years  Prince  \\'illiam  wintered  at  JNIonaco,  as  the 
climate  benefited  his  daughter.  An  intimacy  sprang  up 
between  him  and  the  Grimaldi  family,  which  resulted  in 
his  marrying  Princess  Florestine,  the  sister  of  Prince 
Charles  III.  The  wedding  took  place  on  the  15th  February 
1863.  After  the  direct  descendants  of  Prince  Charles,  the 
offspring  of  this  union  would  be  the  next  heirs  to  the 
principality.  The  prospect  that  a  German  prince,  a 
member  of  the  Royal  House  of  Wurtemberg,  should  reign 
at  Monaco  has  caused  no  small  amount  of  trepidation 
and  anxiety  in  France.  This,  however,  is  a  political  and 
not  a  financial  question,  though  the  advent  of  the  Prince 
of  Wurtemberg  was  the  beginning  of  the  flow  of  dis- 
tinguished personages  which  were  soon  to  enrich  the 

Nothing,  however,  could  equal  in  its  immediate  and 
immense  effect  the  opening  of  the  railway  from  Nice  to 
Menton.  The  great  difficulties  of  construction  were  at 
last  overcome,  and  the  railway  was  opened  on  the  25th 
October  1868.  It  soon  became  evident  that  an  era  of 
prosperity  was  commencing.  In  his  youth,  Charles  III. 
had  seen  the  people  of  the  principality  rise  in  rebellion 
against  the  heavy  taxes  they  were  then  compelled  to  pay. 
Nevertheless  he  determined  to  win  back  the  heart  of  his 
people,  and  he  was  also  anxious  to  produce  a  good  effect 
in  Europe.  Consequently,  as  soon  as  the  increased  revenues 
rendered  the  measure  possible,  Charles  III.  abolished  with 
one  stroke  of  the  pen  all  direct  taxation.  The  population 
of  course  was  delighted,  and  Europe  saw  that  the  ancient 
house  of  Grimaldi  was  not  enriching  itself  from  the 
profits  made  at  the  casino.  The  decree  liberating  all  the 


inhabitants  of  the  principaUty  from  taxation  was  signed 
on  the  8th  February  1869. 

Much  depends  on  a  clear  understanding  of  the  situation 
thus  created.  It  is  not  possible  to  estimate,  at  its  true 
value,  what  has  been  done,  unless  we  also  realise  what 
means  Avere  available.  The  Grimaldi  family  were  deprived 
of  their  estates  and  reduced  to  poverty  during  the  great 
Revolution  ;  but  they  ultimately  recovered  a  little  of  their 
former  property,  which  they  administered  with  skill  and 
with  profit.  Then  in  1861,  when  Charles  III.  ceded 
Menton  and  Roquebrune  to  France,  he  received  compen- 
sation to  the  amount  of  £160,000.  This  was  of  service  in 
reconstituting  the  fortunes  of  the  Grimaldis. 

As  for  the  Budget  of  the  principality,  nothing  could 
have  been  more  simple.  The  prince  received  everything, 
paid  for  everything,  and  had  no  account  to  render.  It 
would  be  difficult  to  say  what  was  the  cost  of  government, 
and  even  to-day  we  know  that  much  more  is  spent  for 
the  public  good  than  is  recorded  on  any  balance-sheet. 
Obviously  the  casino  has  now  become  the  chief  source  of 
revenue.  As  alterations  have  been  made  from  time  to 
time  the  share  of  the  public  burdens  borne  by  the  casino 
has  increased,  but  the  principle  being  the  same  throughout, 
it  will  suffice  to  describe  the  actual  situation.  For  the 
monopoly  which  it  enjoys  the  casino  pays  £50,000  yearly 
to  the  reigning  prince.  On  the  first  £1,000,000  of  gross 
receipts  it  further  pays  to  the  prince  3  per  cent.,  or 
£30,000.  On  the  gross  receipts  above  the  first  25,000,000 
francs  it  pays  5  per  cent.  Thus,  to  give  the  position  in 
round  figures,  and  if  we  estimate  the  gross  receipts  of  the 
casino  at  40,000,000  francs,  or  £1,600,000,  it  would  pay 
first  the  annual  fixed  charge  of  £50,000,  then  3  per  cent, 
on  the  first  £1,000,000  of  receipts— i.e.  £30,000;  and 
5  per  cent,  on  the  £600,000  further  receipts,  making 
£30,000  more— in  all,  £110,000.  But,  over  and  above 
these  fixed  contributions,  the  casino  voluntarily  incurs  all 
manner  of  other  expenses  that  are  to  the  public  benefit. 
Thus   it   has  recently  contributed  £24,000  towards  the 

THE    INCOME  127 

construction  of  a  new  thoroughfare,  the  Boulevard  de 
rObservatoire.  By  the  force  of  circumstances  tlie  adminis- 
tration of  the  casino  had  to  take  in  hand  a  number  of 
public  services  which  the  simple  folks  who  then  lived  in 
the  principality  were  quite  incapable  of  understanding. 
Thus,  as  streets  were  built,  where  there  used  to  be  olive 
or  lemon  groves,  the  casino  administration  had  to  organise 
the  scavengering  and  lay  the  first  sewers.  They  had  to 
establish  gas-works,  and  undertook  a  great  part  of  the 
duties  that  should  have  been  perfoi-med  by  a  municipality. 
They  were  like  colonists  opening  up  a  new  country,  and 
had  to  do  everything  themselves,  for  there  were  barely 
any  inhabitants,  except  in  the  old  town  of  JNIonaco.  Thus 
the  casino  pays  more  for  public  purposes  than  appears  on 
the  Budget ;  and  all  that  the  casino  is  credited  with 
giving  is  also  spent  on  the  public. 

The  following  is  the  Budget  for  1912  : — 

A.     Ordinary  Receipts :—  Francs 

Public  Services,  Monopolies  and  Regies      .  1,850,250 

Dues  from  the  Companies          .         .         .  2,2 1 7,900 

Divers  Receipts         .....  646',46'9 

B.     Extraordinary  Receipts  ....  300,000 


This  is  a  total  receipt  of  £200,580.  Of  this  sum  the 
public  pays  about  £35,000  in  the  form  of  custom-house 
dues  and  other  indirect  taxation  imposed  to  prevent 
Monaco  differing  from  France.  The  principality  could  do 
without  this  money,  and  this  form  of  indirect  taxation  is 
imposed  only  for  the  sake  of  keeping  at  peace  with  its 
powerful  neighbour.  Also,  as  this  tax  is  levied  on  articles 
of  consumption,  such  as  tobacco,  sugar,  tea,  coffee,  wheat, 
etc.,  the  visitors  consume  more  than  tlie  inhabitants,  and 
therefore  contribute  the  larger  part  of  the  £35,000. 

Where  the  inhabitants  really  do  pay  is  in  respect  to 



legal  costs,  stamps  and  fees  for  acts,  agreements,  marriages, 
mortgages,  land  transfer,  etc.  These  charges  may  be 
considered  as  a  form  of  direct  taxation,  but  they  only 
affect  those  persons  who  have  need  of  such  transactions. 
As,  however,  there  is  so  much  business  done,  and  pro- 
sperity prevails,  this  form  of  taxation  brings  in  a  good  deal, 
something  like  another  £30,000. 

Now  that  there  is  the  semblance  of  a  Constitution, 
public  account  is  given  as  to  the  receipts  and  expenditure. 
There  has  been  created  from  the  Private  Domain  a  Public 
Domain.  The  latter  is  a  free  gift  from  the  prince  to  his 
subjects,  and  consists  of  the  buildings  devoted  to  nmnici- 
pal  services  and  other  public  buildings  such  as  churches, 
schools,  and  all  that  is  required  for  the  public  administra- 
tion. But  the  prince  keeps  as  his  Private  Domain  the 
squares  and  roads.  This  was  necessary  because  the 
principal  roads  are  international,  and  for  diplomatic 
reasons  must  remain  the  private  property  of  the  prince, 
so  that  he  may  carry  out  the  obligations  which,  as  sole 
ruler,  he  contracted  with  other  nations. 

The  Budget  is  divided  into  two  parts.  First  we  have 
the  "  Consolidated  Services,"  which  comprise  all  the 
expenditure  of  the  prince's  Government,  the  upkeep  of  the 
palace,  the  donations,  the  pensions,  the  cost  of  government, 
of  diplomatic  representation,  of  police,  of  justice,  and  other 
analogous  services.  The  second  half  is  called  the  House  or 
Interior  Services,  and  comprises  municipal  outlay,  public 
works,  public  education  and  fine  arts,  hospitals,  hygiene 
and  poor  rehef.  It  is  this  latter  half  of  the  Budget  to 
which  the  National  Council,  the  newly  constituted 
representative  and  elected  body,  is  invited  to  discuss 
and  criticise. 

In  regard  to  the  ruling  prince,  there  is  of  course  no 
Civil  List.  A  Civil  List  implies  that  the  Chief  of  the  State 
has  not  enough  money  to  govern  the  country,  and  there- 
fore asks  his  subjects  to  make  him  an  allowance.  The  first 
time  this  happened  was  in  England,  at  the  restoration,  in 
1660,  of  Charles  II.  Having  been  deprived  of  all  resources 

HOW   THE    MONEY    IS    SPENT  129 

by  the  English  revolution,  he  had  to  ask  the  English 
Parliament  to  vote  him  a  Civil  List.  Though  also  dethroned 
and  deprived  of  all  their  resources  by  the  French  and 
ISIonegasque  revolutions,  the  Grimaldis  managed  better, 
and  this  even  before  the  casino  came  to  their  aid. 

To-day  in  England,  Italy,  Prussia,  Spain,  Belgium,  the 
republics  of  Switzerland,  France,  the  United  States,  and 
in  many  other  countries,  the  people  pay  taxes,  elect 
Parliaments,  and  these  bodies,  representing  the  taxpayers, 
decide  how  much  shall  be  given  to  the  Chief  of  the  State. 
It  is  the  people  who  pay  for  the  Civil  List  and  decide  what 
the  amount  shall  be.  In  Monaco  the  exact  opposite  is  the 
case.  The  people  are  liberated  from  all  burdens.  They  are 
exempt  from  military  service  and  from  taxation.  Instead 
of  asking  for  a  Civil  List  the  prince  pays  for  everybody, 
and  of  late  allows  a  certain  amount  of  criticism  on  the 
part  of  elected  representatives.  With  the  £50,000  regular 
payment  made  to  him  annually  by  the  casino,  the  prince 
just  manages  to  defray  the  cost  of  government,  including 
all  the  salaries,  from  that  of  the  ]\Iinister  of  State  down 
to  the  humblest  policeman.  Adding  to  this  the  other 
necessary  expenditure,  the  estimate  for  1912  sets  down 
the  total  at  4,650,987  francs,  or  £186,039.  The  biggest 
items  are  the  management  of  the  regies  and  monopolies, 
£21,675;  public  instruction,  £14,111;  hospital  and  poor 
rehef,  £8762. 

From  these  figures  we  may  conclude  that  the  cost  of 
governing  the  principality  is  now  a  little  more  than 
£186,000  per  annum.  The  receipts  slightly  exceed  the 
round  sum  of  £200,000,  and  of  this  rather  more  than 
£110,000  comes  from  the  gaming-tables.  As  the  prince 
is  responsible  for  the  entire  outlay  it  will  be  seen  that 
though  the  casino  is  so  large  a  contributor  other  sources 
of  revenue  are  necessary.  Then  there  is  also  an  Extra- 
ordinary Budget,  which  deals  with  vast  public  works  that 
do  not  bear  strictly  on  the  annual  outlay.  These  are  set 
down  for  the  forthcoming  year  at  £81,733  for  public 
works,  which  with  some  other  small  items  bring  up  the 


total  estimated  expenditure  of  the  Extraordinary  Budget 
to  £83,924,  and  lands  the  principahty  in  a  big  deficit. 
Ah'eady  we  liear  talk  of  loans  and  such  fatal  expedients. 
But  this  is  due  not  to  an  unsound  financial  position,  it 
is  the  result  of  exaggerated  ambition  and  somewhat 
wild  embellishment  schemes.  However,  in  so  far  as  such 
extraordinary  expenditure  is  sanctioned  and  incurred, 
there  is  but  one  source  from  whence  the  money  can  be 
obtained.  This  is  the  private  treasury  of  the  piince,  and 
part  of  his  income  comes  from  resources  that  are  alto- 
gether outside  of  the  principahty. 

When,  on  the  other  hand,  the  income  is  larger  than 
the  expenditure,  as  it  would  be  in  1912,  if  we  set  aside 
the  Extraordinary  Budget,  then  such  surplus  is  employed 
by  the  prince  to  support  enterprises,  or  works  of  scientific 
interest,  which  favour  progress  and  are  likely  to  be  of 
practical  use  to  humanity  at  large.  Thus  the  prince  does 
not  only  give  over  the  money  he  annually  receives  from  the 
casino  to  defray  the  cost  of  administering  the  principality, 
the  cost  of  government  and  the  maintenance  of  the  many 
institutions,  such  as  the  schools,  the  hospital,  the  Courts 
of  Justice,  etc.,  but  he  adds  very  large  sums  which  he 
derives  from  his  estates  in  France  and  other  private 
sources  of  income. 

The  whole  of  the  money  obtained  from  the  casino  is 
spent  in  the  principality  and  for  the  benefit  of  its  inhabit- 
ants. The  money  thus  given  to  them  is  much  larger  than 
what  other  communities  are  able  to  gather  even  by  heavy 
taxation.  In  the  United  Kingdom  of  England  and  Ireland 
the  revenue  is  estimated  at  a  trifle  more  than  £4  a  head 
per  annum.  The  local  expenditure  is  equal  to  £3,  4s.  for 
every  inhabitant,  or  a  total  average  for  national  and  local 
government  of  £7,  4s.  for  every  living  person.  The  princi- 
pality of  M  onaco  has  rather  less  than  20,000  inhabitants. 
It  may  therefore  be  said  that  these  inhabitants  receive 
annually,  and  in  round  figures,  the  sum  of  £6  each  from 
the  casino.  In  other  words,  if  the  casino  stopped  payment 
and  the  government  was  continued  as  at  present,  it  would 


be  necessary  to  tax  the  population  at  the  average  rate  of 
£6  each  person.  In  England  we  pay  £7,  4s.  per  annum ;  at 
Monaco  the  people  receive  £6  per  annum ;  and  this  takes 
no  account  whatsoever  of  all  that  the  prince  also  gives 
them.  Nowhere  could  a  community  be  found  that  is  so 
fortunately  situated,  and  nowhere  else  is  so  much  spent — 
all  proportions  being  kept — on  the  advancement  of  the 
arts  and  sciences. 



PRINCE  ALBERT  I.,  son  of  Charles  III.  and 
Antoinette  Ghislaine,  Comtesse  de  M erode,  in- 
herited the  right  to  reign  as  absolute  and  inde- 
pendent sovereign  of  the  principality  of  Monaco.  But 
he  was  also  heir  to  a  great  number  of  French  titles 
acquired,  as  history  shows,  by  his  forefathers.  When,  in 
1642,  Honore  II.  threw  off  the  Spanish  domination  he 
received  from  Louis  XIII.  several  titles  and  estates,  such 
as  that  of  Duke  of  \'^alentinois,  Marquis  des  Baux,  Count 
of  Carladez,  Baron  du  Buis,  Lord  of  Saint-Remy  in 
Provence.  By  marriage  with  the  Matignon  family  the 
princes  of  ^lonaco  inherited  the  titles  of  Lord  of 
Matignon,  Count  of  Thorigny,  Baron  of  Saint-L6,  etc. 
Finally,  by  marriage  with  the  last  heiress  of  the  powerful 
and  illustrious  families  of  Aumont  and  Mazarin,  Honor^ 
passed  over  to  the  Grimaldis  the  titles  of  Duke  of 
Mazarin,  Duke  of  Mayenne,  Prince  of  Chateau-Porcien, 
Count  of  Ferrette,  of  Belfort,  of  Thann  and  of  Rosemont. 
The  title  of  Grandee  of  Spain  is  also  attached  to  the 
house  of  Grimaldi. 

All  these  titles,  however,  are  only  inherited.  The  title 
the  Prince  of  Monaco  values  most  is  that  which  he  has 
obtained  by  his  own  personal  efforts.  As  Associated 
Member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  and  Member  of 
the  Institut  de  France,  which  is  the  union  of  the  Five 
Academies,  he  has  won  a  name  for  himself.  The  title  of 
Mevibre  de  rinstitvt  is  one  that  cannot  be  inherited,  and 
is  the  highest  reward  of  a  career  devoted  to  art  or  science. 
After  studying  at  the  College  Stanislas  at  Paris,  the 



prince  was  instructed  by  the  renowned  Monseigneur 
Dupauloup.  Loving  the  sea,  Uke  most  of  his  ancestors, 
Prince  Albert  went  to  the  naval  school  at  Lorient,  where 
he  learned  navigation  under  French  naval  officers.  Prince 
Albert  was  not  yet  eighteen  years  old  when  he  entered 
the  Spanish  naval  service.  In  two  years'  time  he  had 
obtained  the  rank  of  Lieutenant,  but  left  the  service  when 
the  Revolution  came  and  Queen  Isabella  was  driven  from 
the  throne  of  Spain.  No  sooner  did  the  Franco-German 
War  break  out  than  Prince  Albert,  imitating  the  example 
set  by  so  many  of  his  ancestors,  offered  to  serve  in 
the  French  navy.  He  was  at  once  attached  to  the  staff 
of  Vice-Admiral  Penhoat,  on  the  Havoie.  This  ship 
belonged  to  the  second  division  of  the  Northern  Fleet ; 
but  when  the  departure  of  the  fleet  was  postponed  Prince 
Albert  was  allowed  to  join  Vice-Admiral  Fournichon, 
who  was  cruising  in  the  North  Sea.  Admiral  Fournichon 
placed  him  on  board  the  Couronne,  with  the  rank  of 
Lieutenant.  The  French,  however,  made  little  use  of  their 
fleet  in  this  war.  The  best  service  the  French  sailors 
rendered  was  in  managing  the  artillery  and  defending  the 
forts  on  the  outskirts  of  Paris.  The  prince  was  therefore 
soon  free  again,  though  his  services  were  so  well 
appreciated  that  the  Government  of  the  French  Republic 
bestowed  upon  him  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honour. 

By  this  time  Prince  Albert  was  no  longer  content 
to  follow  in  the  footprints  of  his  ancestors.  It  occurred 
to  him  that  there  might  be  other  distinctions  than  those 
won  at  the  point  of  the  sword.  He  had  not  yet  become 
a  Pacifist,  but  he  understood  that  science  had  also  its 
victories  and  its  glory.  Then,  being  a  sailor  to  the  core, 
it  was  natural  that  he  should  associate  science  with  the 
sea.  To  use  the  prince's  own  words,  he  soon  learnt  that 
science  spreads  light  and  light  engenders  justice,  and  but 
for  the  sense  of  justice  we  should  drift  to  anarchy  and 
decadence.  He  felt  also  that  to  ensure  progress  it  was 
necessary  to  establish  a  sort  of  equilibrium  between  the 
culture  of  art  and  the  culture  of  science.  Science  must 


dominate  because  it  provides  the  practical  needs  of 
existence,  but  art  gives  warmth  to  works  of  intellect, 
softens  sharp  corners  and  helps  to  make  life  enjoyable. 

Such  ideas  and  much  of  the  prince's  philosophy  may 
be  found  in  "  La  Carriere  d'un  Navigateur,"  written  by 
the  prince  himself  and  published  at  JNIonaco.  This  auto- 
biography describes  the  earlier  portions  of  the  prince's 
career  as  a  scientific  investigator.  It  was  in  the  autumn 
of  1873  that  he  first  succeeded  in  obtaining  possession 
of  a  small  sailing  vessel,  which  he  bought  at  Torquay, 
and  the  name  of  which  he  changed  from  the  Pleiades 
to  the  Hirondelle.  The  description  the  prince  gives  of 
his  emotions  when  he  first  assumed  command  of  the 
ship  is  sure  to  evoke  the  sympathies  of  the  reader,  and  it 
is  to  be  hoped  that  there  will  be  no  further  delay  in 
publishing  the  English  translation  of  this  illuminating 
work.  It  was  in  his  small  ship  that  Prince  Albert  dis- 
covered that  there  did  not  exist  efficient  means,  mechanical 
and  scientific  instruments,  to  study  the  ocean  and  all  that 
appertains  to  the  ocean.  The  princes  greatest  work  in 
life  has  been  to  supply  this  deficiency,  and  hence  the 
creation  of  a  new  science,  the  graphic  study  of  the  ocean, 
or  oceanography. 

On  the  10th  September  1889  Prince  Charles  III. 
died,  and  Prince  Albert  began  his  reign  by  reviving  an 
old  ]Monegasque  custom.  He  invited  the  head  of  every 
Monegasque  family,  and,  when  they  were  all  assembled 
in  the  Court  of  Honour  of  the  palace,  asked  if  they  were 
satisfied  that  he  should  be  their  prince.  Having  been 
enthusiastically  acclaimed,  he  proceeded  to  the  Throne 
Room,  and  his  subjects,  following,  were  each  and  all 
brought  into  personal  contact  with  their  new  sovereign. 
It  was  a  patriarchal  ceremony,  something  which  would 
be  thought  impossible  in  the  nineteenth  century.  But 
it  is  just  these  quaint  and  odd  incidents  that  render 
Monaco  so  interesting  to  the  intelligent  and  appreciative 
visitor.  Monaco  presents  a  happy  combination  of  nmch 
that  is  very  ancient  with  the  most  scientific  and  modern 

OLD    CUSTOI\IS,    MODERN    SCIENCE       135 

aspirations  of  the  present  epoch.  No  sooner  was  the 
prince  in  power  than  lie  sought  to  revive  the  old 
institutions  and  create  new  ones.  The  hospital  was  at 
once  condemned,  and  a  commission  despatched  to  travel, 
inspect  the  best  hospitals,  and  report  upon  them.  It  will 
be  seen  in  another  chapter  that  this  reform  has  been  most 
successfully  carried  out.  M.  Gaston  ]Moch,  former  pupil 
of  the  Polytechnic  School,  where  Napoleon  was  educated, 
was  deputed  to  travel  in  different  countries  to  study  and 
report  on  the  various  methods  of  education.  This  report, 
printed  by  the  Government  at  Monaco,  is  a  valuable 
contribution  to  the  problem  of  education,  and  has  helped 
in  the  carrying  out  of  improvements  in  the  principality. 
But  it  is  not  necessary  to  catalogue  here  the  various 
reforms  and  improvements  initiated  or  encouraged  by  the 
prince.  They  will  become  evident  as  the  various  phases 
of  life  in  the  principality  are  described.  For  the  moment 
I  would  endeavour  to  give  some  idea  of  the  aim,  the 
principles  which  form  the  basis  of  the  prince's  acts  and 
ambitions.  This  I  may  venture  to  attempt  because  I 
have  before  me  the  prince's  book,  and  the  text  of  many 
speeches  he  has  delivered,  though  what  I  value  more  is 
the  vivid  recollection  of  several  lengthy  conversations. 

On  the  occasion  of  my  first  audience  I  had  just  seen 
something  of  the  instructive  collections  which  are  be- 
ginning to  accumulate  at  the  Oceanographic  JNluseum, 
and  this  led  me  to  make  some  remark  about  the  parsi- 
mony of  the  British  Government  when  it  was  a  question 
of  helping  the  advance  of  science.  The  prince,  however, 
replied  that  other  governments  were  equally  wanting 
in  judgment.  For  instance,  at  that  very  moment  Dr 
Charcot  found  it  extremely  difficult  to  persuade  the 
French  Government  to  incur  the  expense  of  publishing 
the  results  of  his  recent  expedition  to  the  South  Pole. 
This  was  a  work  which,  wiiile  honouring  the  French 
nation,  would  prove  of  benefit  to  the  whole  world.  The 
information  gathered  was  much  needed,  and  if  not  pub- 
lished it  would  be  lost.  Such  books  should  be  in  all  public 


libraries  throughout  the  world,  ready  to  the  hand  of 
specialists  requiring  to  consult  them.  If  the  world  were  to 
progress  much  work  must  be  done  from  which  no  com- 
mercial return  could  be  expected.  This  applied  not  only 
to  the  printing  of  books  but  to  many  other  matters,  and 
especially  to  scientific  investigations.  Many  an  undertaking 
or  experiment  gave  promise  of  usefulness  at  some  future 
date,  but  there  was  not  sufficient  prospect  of  immediate 
profit  to  attract  private  enterprise.  It  was  in  such  cases 
that  governments  should  take  the  lead,  doing  for  the 
public  what  no  individual  member  of  the  public  was 
disposed  to  undertake.  This  was  the  prince's  conception 
of  the  mission  and  duty  of  governments. 

In  regard  to  the  principality  there  was  yet  another 
duty.  From  all  parts  of  the  world  people  came  to  Monte 
Carlo.  They  enriched  the  principality  by  the  money  they 
lost  in  gambling;  and  it  was  the  duty  of  the  prince,  as 
representing  the  principality,  to  endeavour  to  render  in 
exchange  some  international  service.  To  the  best  of  his 
knowledge,  of  all  the  higher  pursuits  none  was  so 
universal  in  the  advantages  it  conferred,  the  discoveries 
it  made,  as  the  study  of  science.  Therefore  the  prince  has 
given  £560,000  for  scientific  purposes  of  a  purely  inter- 
national character.  By  the  side  of  all  the  gaieties  and 
frivolities  of  Monte  Carlo  the  prince  has  attempted  to 
create  at  Monaco  a  centre  where  some  of  the  principal 
problems  affecting  the  peace  and  welfare  of  the  whole 
world  are  studied  and  a  beneficent  infiuence  exercised. 
Indeed,  the  follies  and  dissipations  of  Monte  Carlo  have 
to  some  extent  paved  with  gold  the  way  to  higher  and 
better  things.  Gamblers  may  be  despicable,  just  as  dirt  is 
obnoxious  ;  but  dirt  is  useful  matter  in  the  wrong  place, 
and  gambling  has  served  as  manure  to  fertilise  the  princi- 
pality and  to  increase  the  prosperity  of  the  whole  lliviera. 
Funds  have  been  liberated,  and  are  now  devoted  to  re- 
searches or  enterprises  that  all  acknowledge  must  contribute 
to  the  greater  knowledge  and  happiness  of  peoples  and  of 

THE    GOOD    THAT    IS    DONE  137 

Whenever  there  is  any  scientific  work  or  research  that 
needs  help,  "  I  shall  be  there"  ("  J e  serais  la  ")  exclaimed  the 
prince,  and  past  achievements  testify  that  this  is  no  empty 
boast.  By  its  museums,  its  archives,  among  the  richest  in 
Europe,  its  Peace  Institute,  its  costly  and  elaborate  publi- 
cations, by  the  encouragement  given  to  music  and  the 
arts,  by  all  that  is  done — not  for  profit,  but  to  promote 
knowledge  and  progress — Monaco  should  attract  the 
thoughtful  and  the  studious.  The  palace  has  become  a 
haven  where  the  aristocracy  of  intellect  is  ever  welcome. 
Very  emphatically  the  prince  declared  that  the  world  had 
no  need  of  counts  and  dukes  or  princes,  but  wanted 
men  with  brains  and  knowledge.  He  then  expressed 
apprehension  with  regard  to  the  action  of  demagogy 
because  it  could  not  appreciate  intellect,  and  a  movement 
without  intellect  meant  a  disastrous  levelling  downwards. 
This  allusion  was  entirely  spontaneous.  I  had  said  nothing 
leading  up  to  the  subject.  It  seemed  to  be  weighing  on 
his  mind,  but  what  was  the  prince's  precise  meaning  when 
he  spoke  of  the  overflow  of  demagogy  {le  debordement 
demagogique)  ?  This  was  a  very  graphic  and  threatening 
sentence.  Was  he  thinking  about  syndicalism,  sabotage 
and  the  general  strike  ?  Who  had  inspired  his  fears  ?  From 
what  class  of  the  community  did  they  spring  ?  ^Vould 
that  advisers  could  see  with  other  eyes  than  those  lumin- 
ated  onl)''  by  interested  motives.  In  the  placid  domain  of 
science,  how  easy  it  is  to  differ  over  the  origin  and  history 
of  a  rare  specimen  of  fauna  or  flora.  Nobody's  future  or 
social  position  is  at  stake.  But  in  politics  or  in  economics 
how  are  we  to  see  clearly  before  us  and  reach  the  pure  light 
of  truth  through  tlie  brambles  of  personal  interest  ? 

Whatever  the  prince's  views  may  be  with  regard  to 
the  great  economic  problems  of  the  day,  he  has  lost  no 
opportunity  of  developing  the  economic  resources  of  the 
principality.  The  most  notable  step  in  tiiis  direction  is 
the  conversion  of  the  natural  port  of  Hercules  into  a 
modern  harbour  with  quays,  railway,  breakwaters  and 
all  the  most  I'ecent  improvements.  Again,  at  the  princes 


own  cost  land  is  reclaimed  from  the  sea  so  as  to  increase 
the  industrial  and  manufacturing  part  of  the  principality. 
But  while  commercial  and  industrial  enterprise  has  been 
thus  encouraged,  the  law  applying  to  joint  stock  or 
limited  companies  has  been  stiffened  so  as  to  keep  a 
firmer  grip  upon  such  ventures,  and  render  nefarious 
transactions  more  difficult.  At  the  same  time  the  prince 
also  fought,  though  not  always  with  success,  to  save 
gardens,  plants  and  the  natural  beauty  of  the  principality 
from  destruction  at  the  hands  of  speculating  builders. 
Further,  to  encourage  commercial  relations,  JNIonaco  has 
as  numerous  a  consular  representation  abroad  as  if  it  were  a 
large  country.  These  consuls  must  have  an  easy  time,  but 
when  goods  trains  passing  through  the  new  tunnel  come 
alongside  steamers  moored  to  the  quays  of  the  port  there 
may  be  more  international  mercantile  traffic  than  there  is 
at  present.  No  important  international  exhibition  has  been 
held,  but  the  Monegasque  pavilion,  by  its  elegance  and 
originality,  has  constituted  one  of  the  attractions.  This  was 
especially  the  case  at  the  great  centenary  celebration  held  in 
Paris  in  1900,  and  also  at  the  Brussels  Exhibition  of  1910. 
It  is  well  known  that  the  prince  is  deeply  attached 
to  the  cause  of  peace.  In  spite  of  the  bellicose  character 
of  many  among  his  most  distinguished  ancestors,  his  ideal 
is  to  sustain  "  without  bitterness  and  without  hatred  the 
struggle  for  life."  Then  and  then  only  will  the  human 
conscience  enjoy  "  inviolable  tranquillity."  In  the  Preface 
to  "  La  Carriere  d'un  Navigateur "  the  prince  says  that 
"  an  ideal  formed  by  the  conception  of  future  progress 
visits  the  enlightened  spirit  of  the  wise,  as  the  distant 
pi'omise  of  a  true  civilisation.  The  prestige  of  this  ideal 
will  banish  the  influence  of  particularism  and  disperse  the 
shadow  which  divides  the  children  of  the  human  family 
when  they  are  intoxicated  with  pride  or  cupidity  and 
when  they  are  deceived  by  cruel  lies  about  military 
glory."  The  present  condition  of  Europe,  converted  into 
an  armed  camp,  does  not  encourage  these  hopes,  but 
nevertheless  a  force  is  born  of  progress  to   unite   con- 


sciences ;  a  public  conscience  is  asserting  itself,  and  it 
condemns  all  abuse  of  power,  whether  it  be  to  crush  a 
man  or  to  plunder  a  people ;  it  is  the  vague,  undefined 
aurora  of  a  new  day  rising  on  the  horizon  of  time  to  guide 
living  ci'eatures  in  their  continual  evolution.  "  My  con- 
victions will  certainly  shock  conservative  and  timorous 
minds,  who  conceal  their  fear  of  the  unknown  by  mystic 
illusions,  mundane  frivolities  or  the  inertia  of  habit.  But 
the  conscience  of  princes,  for  long  subjugated  by  anti- 
progressive  traditions,  may  now  be  awakened  by  the 
lessons  of  Nature  and  of  Science ;  it  will  then  despise 
a  policy  guided  by  the  antagonism  of  nations,  the  rights 
of  the  strongest  and  the  fiction  of  frontiers ;  it  will 
combat  the  atavic  hatred  engendered  by  religion,  race 
and  caste  and  will  aspire  only  towards  a  future  when 
Human  Solidarity  shall  realise  Justice." 

Such,  in  a  few  words,  is  the  prince's  programme,  and 
it  remains  to  record  some  of  the  steps  he  has  taken 
towards  its  realisation.  Obviously  one  of  the  best  means 
of  breaking  down  barriers  and  of  bringing  together  the 
populations  of  the  world  is  to  invite  the  elite  of  the 
different  nations  to  meet  in  friendly  intercourse.  For  this 
purpose  international  congresses  are  most  useful.  There- 
fore the  prince  is  ever  ready  to  offer  a  large  hospitality 
to  such  congresses  when  they  meet  in  the  principality. 
Thus  in  1897  the  International  Congress  of  the  I^iterary 
and  Artistic  Association  was  held  at  Alonaco.  In  1901  the 
first  congress  of  the  International  Marine  Association  was 
held  here.  In  1902  took  place  the  great  International  I*eace 
Congress  and  the  Conference  of  the  International  Associa- 
tion of  the  Medical  Press.  The  International  Congress 
of  Anthropology  and  Prehistoric  Archjtology  assembled 
at  Monaco  in  190G,  and  the  International  Congress  of 
Zoology  in  1912.  After  the  Peace  Congress  of  1902  the 
prince  founded  an  International  Institute  of  Peace  at 
Monaco,  as  a  centre  of  propaganda,  while  personally  he 
has  constantly  travelled  to  visit  those  whom  he  might  hope 
to  influence  in  favour  of  the  cause  of  science  and  of  peace. 



GIVEN  the  opportunity  and  the  man,  there  are  no 
limits  to  the  possibiUties  of  human  achievements. 
In  Monaco  we  have  the  man,  in  Europe  the 
opportunity.  Only  there  are  deeds  that  dye  the  pages  of 
history  with  letters  of  blood,  while  other  acts  are  so 
modestly  performed  that  their  record  does  not  stand 
forth  self-revealed.  Indeed  many  of  the  best  actions  could 
not  be  accomplished  if  there  were  much  talk  about  them 
at  the  time.  Discretion  in  diplomacy  is  indispensable.  To 
claim,  however,  that  anyone  in  Monaco  could  influence 
the  destinies  of  Europe  may  seem  somewhat  absurd, 
considering  the  diminutive  size  of  the  principality.  Yet, 
in  certain  circumstances,  it  was  precisely  the  smallness  of 
the  principality  that  became  an  element  of  strength,  and 
the  best  of  recommendations.  Such  a  little  state  could 
not  be  suspected  of  entertaining  sinister  designs  on  other 
countries,  and  its  representative  could  therefore  speak 
without  exciting  mistrust  of  his  motives.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  fact  that  the  state  was  so  small  deprived  its 
chief  of  the  right  of  being  heard  in  the  councils  of  Europe. 

What  could  the  opinion  of  JNIonaco  matter  to  the 
great  powers  ?  Therefore  we  have  to  fall  back  upon  the 
man  rather  than  the  prince. 

To  exercise  an  influence  in  the  councils  of  nations 
many  qualities  are  required.  First  of  all,  a  position  is 
needed  that  will  serve  as  an  introduction.  In  this  respect, 
even  in  these  democratic  days,  the  question  of  family,  of 
pedigree,  is  still  of  importance. 



Now,  if  there  be  any  virtue  in  a  long  lineage  of  rulers 
the  Prince  of  Monaco  holds  indisputably  the  first  place 
in  Europe.  Whether  the  present  prince  is  descended 
from  the  Grimaldi  who  is  said  to  have  received  Monaco 
at  the  hands  of  the  Emperor  Otho  I.,  in  a.d.  968,  or 
from  Grimaldi,  who  was  Consul  of  CJenoa  in  1162,  the 
Grimaldis  are  obviously  the  oldest  reigning  family  in 
Europe.  With  but  temporary  interruptions,  they  have 
governed  Monaco  during  six  centuries.  For  those  who 
believe  in  "  blue  blood,"  ancient  descent,  the  Divine 
Right  of  Kings,  the  house  of  Grimaldi  should  hold  the 
first  place  among  the  sovereign  families  of  Europe.  None 
of  them  is  as  old,  for  it  was  not  till  1273  that  Rudolphe 
of  Hapsburg  was  elected  Emperor  of  Germany,  and  sub- 
sequently delegated  one  of  his  sons  to  govern  Austria. 

Such  considerations  are,  however,  of  but  little  account 
in  our  days,  unless  the  possessor  of  a  long  pedigree  has 
also  inherited  the  wealth  or  the  capacities  for  which  his 
ancestors  were  distinguished.  This  is  precisely  the  case 
with  regard  to  the  present  Prince  of  Monaco.  He  is  not 
only  blessed  with  an  ample  share  of  this  world's  goods, 
for  he  possesses  extensive  and  valuable  estates  in  France, 
but  he  has  also  inherited  some  of  the  most  precious 
characteristics  of  his  ancestors.  During  a  life  of  adventure 
and  danger,  he  has  given  hostages  to  fortune,  and  none 
can  doubt  his  powers  of  endurance,  his  presence  of  mind 
and  courage.  Whether  exploring  in  the  Arctic  seas  or 
the  tropical  regions,  in  weather  fair  or  foul,  the  prince 
has  always  shown  himself  a  true  sea  captain,  sharing  with 
his  crew  every  danger  and  every  hardship.  But  the  prince 
has  inherited  from  his  long  line  of  ancestors  another  and 
a  greater  quality,  which  is  not  so  easily  recognised  by  the 
general  public.  It  needs  but  a  moment's  reflection  to 
realise  that  no  amount  of  physical  courage  would  have 
sufficed  to  enable  the  Grimaldis  to  keep  their  hold  on 
Monaco  for  so  many  centuries.  Even  though  the  princi- 
pality was  much  larger  than  it  is  now,  it  was  always  a 
comparatively  small  country,  and  therefore  in  danger  of 


being  absorbed  by  its  powerful  neighbours — Genoa,  Savoy 
and    Provence,  to  say  nothing  of  France  and  Aragon, 
which,  if  at  a  greater  distance,  were  as  aggi-essive  and  still 
more   powerful.    Though  the  princes   of   Monaco   often 
fought,  and  fought  very  gallantly,  tliey  could  only  save 
the  principality  from  annexation  by  forming  advantageous 
alliances.  In  a  word,  it  was  by  diplomacy,  rather  than  by 
hard    fighting,    that    the    independence    of    Monaco   was 
preserved    during  so    many  centuries,  and    the   reigning 
prince  has   inherited   not  only  the  courage  but  also  the 
diplomatic  tact  that  distinguished  many  of  his  ancestors. 
All  this,  however,  is  merely  the  prince's  good  fortune, 
the    happy    accident   of   his    birth ;    but   to    such    initial 
advantage  he  has  added  the  real  and  personal  glory  of 
becoming  himself  an  ancestor.  During  the  Great  Revolu- 
tion, when  the  most  extraordinary  galaxy  of  renowned 
geniuses  sprang  from  the  ranks,  and  saved  France  from 
the  attacks  of  all  Europe,  Royalists  often  sneered  at  the 
principal  Republican  leaders  because  they  had  no  pedigree, 
no  ancestors.  On  one  such  occasion,  a  proud  answer  was 
made — "  Yes,  it  is  true  we  have  no  ancestors,  but  then 
we  are  ourselves  ancestors." 

In  spite  of  the  dimness  of  the  future  we  may  rest 
assured  that  coming  generations,  in  the  long  vista  of 
years,  will  gratefully  recall  the  memory  of  the  present 
Prince  of  Monaco  as  the  Father  of  Oceanographic 
Science.  As  this  science  renders  more  and  more  service 
to  humanity,  so  Avill  the  prince  become  an  ancestor  from 
whom  all  would  be  pi'oud  to  claim  descent.  To  have  so 
largely  contributed  to  create  a  new  and  fruitful  science 
is  a  victory  which,  when  the  world  becomes  more  en- 
lightened and  less  barbaric,  will  be  recognised  as  a  far 
better  title  to  glory  and  gratitude  than  victories  won  on 
the  fields  of  battle.  Thus  any  court  would  be  honoured 
in  receiving  a  prince  who  represents  the  oldest  reigning 
family,  who  is  personally  endowed  with  courage,  diplo- 
matic tact,  and  possesses  a  large  fortune.  But  the  honour 
of  entertaining  such  a  guest  is  greatly  intensified  when  it 


is  known  that  the  prince  devotes  his  private  means  to 
promoting  scientific  research  for  the  pubUc  good ;  and,  in 
so  doing,  lias  himself  attained  eminence  as  a  scientific 
authority.  A  royal  prince  has  become  a  member  of  the 
Aristocracy  of  Intellect — a  title  that  can  never  be  inherited. 
The  Republic  of  Letters  and  Science,  a  republic  which 
has  long  since  abolished  frontier  demarcations,  is  proud 
to  claim  the  Prince  of  Monaco  as  a  colleague  and  a 
fellow-citizen.  Thus  it  has  come  about  that  the  prince  is 
equally  at  home  at  Potsdam  or  at  the  Palais  de  I'Elysee. 

Naturally,  for  it  is  a  matter  of  paramount  interest, 
wild  attempts  have  been  made  to  discover  to  what  use 
the  prince  has  put  his  exceptional  opportunities,  and  much 
has  been  said  and  printed  which  is  the  result  of  mere 
guessing.  On  one  occasion,  when  alluding  to  this  subject, 
Professor  Charles  Richet  told  me  that  he  had  been 
invited  for  a  two  months'  cruise  on  board  the  Princesse 
Alice,  when  the  prince  was  pursuing  his  oceanographic 
researches.  These  were,  the  eminent  professor  enthusi- 
astically added,  the  two  most  pleasant  months  of  his  life. 
They  were  seven  boon  companions,  and  nothing  could 
exceed  the  fascinating  interest  and  the  friendly  character 
of  the  conversations  on  board,  more  especially  at  meal- 
times. It  was  in  the  course  of  these  discussions  that 
Professor  Richet  was  able  to  expatiate  on  the  object  and 
meaning  of  the  Pacifist  policy.  He  insisted,  of  course, 
on  the  good  that  had  already  been  accomplished,  the 
ti'eaties  in  favour  of  arbitration  between  different  powers 
which  were  already  signed,  and  the  hope  that,  in  time, 
arbitration  would  always  be  accepted  as  the  only  just 
solution  of  differences  between  nations.  The  prince  then 
agreed  to  organise  the  next  International  Peace  Congress 
at  Monaco,  where  it  was  held  in  the  spring  of  1902. 

Apart  from  the  reasons  given  above,  Prince  ^Vlbert  I. 
has  easy  access  to  the  Imperial  Court  of  Berlin  because 
he  is  a  near  relation  of  the  reigning  house  of  Wurtem- 
berg.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  I'rince  of  Monaco's 
great  strength  rests  in  the  fact  that  he  can  speak  to  the 


Kaiser  on  equal  terms,  and  this  he  utihses  for  the  sake 
of  telHng  him  the  truth.  The  Emperor  of  Germany, 
in  spite  of  all  the  power  he  exercises,  and  the  heavy 
responsibilities  that  weigh  upon  him,  does  not  always 
know  the  truth.  However  desirous  he  may  be  of  judging 
impartially  all  questions  at  issue,  he  is  surrounded  by 
persons  whose  interest  it  is  to  conceal  the  truth  ;  and  who, 
at  times,  even  endeavour  to  produce  an  absolutely  false 
impression.  In  such  circumstances,  it  is  not  surprising 
that  the  German  Emperor  should  welcome  the  visit  of 
a  friend  who  can  have  no  possible  interest  to  serve  by 
making  false  representations.  Apart  from  the  fact  that  he 
is  an  ardent  member  of  the  Peace  Society,  the  Prince 
of  Monaco  and  the  principality  have  everything  to  lose 
from  the  outbreak  of  war,  especially  if  it  were  a  war 
between  France  and  Germany.  Therefore  the  Kaiser  can 
listen  with  confidence  to  the  information  and  advice  given 
by  the  Prince  of  Monaco ;  and  thus,  on  more  than  one 
occasion,  have  the  scales  been  removed  from  the  eyes 
of  those  who  had  been  deceived.  A  king  or  the  chief 
of  a  state  rarely  knows  the  truth.  The  fact  that  the  prince 
was  received  in  the  Kaiser's  intimate  councils  naturally 
made  the  President  of  the  French  Republic  anxious  to 
hear  what  he  might  have  to  say ;  thus,  in  France  as  in 
Germany,  Prince  Albert  has  been  able  to  give  weighty 
words  of  advice  when  difficult  and  dangerous  incidents 

There  were  moments  when  the  official  diplomatic 
relations  between  France  and  Germany  had  reached  such 
a  point  of  tension  that  neither  party  dared  say  anything 
further,  lest,  being  misunderstood,  an  open  rupture  should 
result.  On  such  occasions,  the  Prince  of  Monaco,  who  was 
recognised  on  both  sides  as  having  no  personal  interest 
to  serve  beyond  the  general  desire  to  prevent  war,  could 
travel  between  the  court  of  Berlin  and  the  Quai  d'Orsay 
or  the  Palais  de  I'Elysee  with  arguments,  explanations, 
suggestions  or  plans  for  new  combinations.  If  these  were 
badly  received  it  did  not  matter.   The  prince   was  not 

THE    PRINCE    AND    THE    KAISER        145 

officially  an  ambassador  or  a  diplomatic  agent,  he  was 
not  even  a  simple  subject  of  either  of  the  countries 
concerned,  so  that  Avhatever  he  said,  and  however  he 
might  be  treated,  he  could  not  become  a  casus  belli.  This 
enabled  him  to  speak  of  many  things  which  an  official 
or  an  ambassador  could  not  have  mooted.  On  the  other 
hand,  such  informal,  unofficial  conversations  were  much 
better  calculated  to  result  in  the  discovery  of  a  solution. 
Then,  when  it  was  ascertained  quite  informally  that  such 
a  solution  would  be  acceptable  to  both  parties,  it  could 
be  brought  forward  through  official  channels  without  fear 
of  provoking  any  untoward  incident.  Thus  the  prince 
was  of  great  help  in  preventing  war  over  the  Morocco 
difficulty,  and  in  bringing  about  the  peaceful  solution  that 
took  the  form  of  the  Algeciras  Treaty.  During  that  great 
crisis,  when  M.  Delcasse,  the  French  Minister  of  Foreign 
Affairs,  was  sacrificed  to  appease  German  anger,  there 
was  a  moment  when  the  relations  between  the  two 
countries  were  practically  broken  off.  The  prince  then 
undertook  to  represent  the  views  of  the  French  Premier, 
M.  Rouvier,  to  the  Kaiser,  and  succeeded  in  so  composing 
matters  that  official  diplomatic  relations  were  reopened. 
In  this,  as  in  all  other  questions,  the  prince's  action 
is  always  absolutely  pacific. 

At  the  most  critical  moment,  however,  it  seemed  as 
if  these  efforts  would  prove  futile.  The  prince  had  just 
arrived  in  Paris  from  Berlin.  He  was  brimming  over  with 
hope  and  happy  anticipation.  At  Berlin  he  had  held 
promising  conversations  with  the  Kaiser,  and  was  squeezing 
a  portfoho  fondly  under  his  arm,  for  it  contained,  he 
imagined,  terms  of  suggestions  that  would  bridge  over 
all  the  difficulties.  These  proposals  seemed  so  important 
that,  instead  of  going  home  to  his  Paris  residence  after 
his  long  journey,  the  prince  drove  straight  from  the 
station  to  the  Foreign  Office  and  asked  to  see  M.  Rouvier 
on  a  matter  of  the  utmost  urgency.  This,  he  was  told, 
was  impossible,  the  Premier  being  at  the  Chambers.  The 
prince  thereupon  insisted  on  telephoning  to  the  Chambers, 



and  soon  received  the  disconcerting  reply  that  the  Govern- 
ment had  just  been  defeated  and  was  about  to  resign.  The 
hopes  of  peace  had  now  to  be  deferred  till  after  the  forma- 
tion of  a  new  ministry,  and  the  terms  of  agreement  with 
the  German  Government  the  prince  thought  INI.  Rouvier 
would  approve  might  not  seem  equally  acceptable  to  his 
successor  at  the  Foreign  Office.  Fortunately  M.  Bourgeois, 
who  succeeded  JNI.  Rouvier,  was  just  as  desirous  of  main- 
taining peace,  and  the  new  Government  availed  themselves 
of  the  explanations,  suggestions  and  facilities  the  prince 
secured  during  his  friendly  and  unofficial  chats  with  the 
Kaiser.  It  was  in  this  manner  that  the  prince  very 
effisctively  helped  to  bring  about  the  Conference  and 
Treaty  of  Algeciras. 

In  regard  to  the  more  recent  crisis,  when  in  1911 
affairs  in  Morocco  seemed  once  more  likely  to  disturb  the 
peace  of  Europe,  the  prince  did  not  take  any  part  in  the 
negotiations.  In  answer  to  my  questions  on  the  subject, 
Prince  Albert  said  it  was  merely  a  game  of  grab,  in  which 
he  had  no  sympathy  and  was  not  desirous  of  being 
concerned.  It  would  be  a  source  of  great  happiness  to  him 
to  contribute  in  any  way  possible  to  the  prevention  of 
war,  but  he  had  no  desire  to  have  a  voice  in  the  sharing 
of  the  spoils. 

It  is  obvious  that  in  speaking  of  the  relations  between 
governments  precise  details  cannot  be  given.  The  influence  4 

of  the  Prince  of  Monaco  and  of  others  who  may  have  * 

attempted  a  similar  role  must  of  necessity  depend  on  its 
anonymous  character.  Discretion,  therefore,  is  the  condition 
of  existence,  and  the  prince  himself  is  more  anxious  to 
place  those  with  whom  he  is  associated  in  a  favourable 
light  than  to  speak  of  his  own  efforts.  Thus  the  prince 
does  not  hesitate,  on  all  propitious  occasions,  to  protest 
against  the  false  and  mischievous  opinions  prevailing  with 
regard  to  the  Kaiser.  He  insists  that,  in  spite  of  appearances 
to  the  contrary,  the  Emperor  of  Germany  is  in  favour 
of  peace.  His  apparent  militarism,  his  praises  of  the  army, 
are  due  to  the  belief  the  emperor  entertains  that  military 




service  is  a  great  educational  influence,  and  is  necessary 
quite  independently  of  purposes  of  warfare.  This  being  the 
case,  Prince  Albert  was  better  able  to  promote  the  cause 
of  peace  in  diff'erent  directions,  and  rendered,  for  instance, 
great  service  at  Bergen  in  July  1899,  when  the  French 
training-ship  Iphigenic  came  in  contact  with  the  Hohen- 
zollern.  The  French  Government  had  given  no  instructions 
to  the  captain  of  the  Ij)higenie.  He  was  told  to  go  to 
Bergen  and  do  the  best  he  could,  but  on  his  own  respon- 
sibility. It  was  an  awkward  position.  What  could  the 
captain  of  a  French  naval  training-ship  say  to  the  German 
Emperor  ?  Fortunately  the  Prince  of  Monaco,  who  was 
at  that  time  busily  occupied  with  his  oceanographic 
researches,  steered  for  Bergen  in  the  hope  of  meeting  the 
Kaiser,  who  is  also  much  interested  in  deep-sea  explora- 
tions. The  prince  at  once  grasped  the  situation,  and  from 
his  own  yacht,  the  Princesse  Alice,  he  rowed  rapidly 
backward  and  forward  between  the  HohenzoUern  and 
the  Iphigenie. 

The  French  Commander  had  accomplished  all  the  acts 
of  courtesy  towards  the  German  Emperor  which  are  the 
rule  under  such  circumstances,  and  was  invited  on  board 
the  Imperial  yacht.  Here  he  was  most  amicably  received. 
But  then,  as  the  prince  ruefully  remarked  when  he  de- 
scribed the  incident  to  me,  it  was  not  quite  so  easy  a  matter 
to  arrange  for  the  return  visit.  It  was  all  very  well 
receiving  a  French  officer  on  a  German  pleasure  yacht, 
but  to  invite  the  German  War  Lord  on  board  a  French 
war  training-ship  was  a  much  more  delicate  affair.  The 
prince,  however,  ultimately  overcame  all  the  difficulties, 
and  he  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  German  Emperor 
step  on  the  deck  of  the  French  ship,  where  he  was 
courteously  received  and  all  the  honours  rendered. 
This  was  a  most  important  event,  for  it  constituted  the 
first  step  toward  friendly  dealings  between  France  and 
Germany.  But  for  the  prince's  presence  at  Bergen,  his 
diplomatic  tact  and  personal  influence  with  the  Kaiser,  this 
rapprochement  might  have  been  deferred  for  several  years. 


The  staff  and  the  pupils  of  the  Iphigenie  were  subse- 
quently invited  on  board  the  Hohenzollern,  and  for  the 
most  part  responded  to  the  invitation.  Here  they  met 
some  German  cadets,  for  a  German  training-ship  had  now 
also  arriv^ed  at  Bergen.  The  Prince  of  Monaco,  after  helping 
to  bring  about  this  interesting  but  delicate  meeting,  had 
the  great  satisfaction  of  seeing  the  young  sailors  of  both 
nations  fraternise  in  the  presence  of  the  emperor.  Before 
his  officers  and  his  guests,  the  Kaiser  bestow^ed  a  decora- 
tion on  the  Commandant  of  the  Iphigenie,  informing  him, 
at  the  same  time,  that  he  had  asked  the  French  Govern- 
ment to  allow  him  to  accept  this  honour.  To  the  Prince 
of  Monaco,  who  is  so  profoundly  attached  to  the  modern 
conceptions  that  seek  to  efface  old  antagonism  and  replace 
violence  and  war  by  arbitration,  this  friendly  meeting  of 
French  and  Germans  at  Bergen  was  a  most  auspicious 
event.  On  several  other  and  analogous  occasions  the 
prince  has  been  able  to  bring  about  similar  results  ;  thus 
ever  seeking  to  conciliate  and  to  pacify,  and  making  full 
use  of  his  social  position  and  personal  prestige  to  promote 
this  good  cause. 

In  the  days  of  the  Dreyfus  affair  the  prince  played 
a  very  useful  part.  Not  only  did  he  assist  some  of  the 
victims,  but  he  was  able  to  give  the  French  Government 
very  positive  assurances  of  the  innocence  of  Dreyfus. 
Indeed,  it  is  said  that  these  assurances  were  so  conclusive 
that  they  helped  to  hasten  the  untimely  end  of  the  late 
President,  M.  Felix  Faure.  Certainly  M.  Felix  Faure 
was  in  a  painful  position.  He  was  tied  to  the  Clerical  and 
Nationalist  Party,  whose  very  existence  depended  on 
preventing  a  revision  of  the  Dreyfus  trial.  An  hour  and 
a  quarter  before  M.  Felix  Faure's  death,  the  Archbishop 
of  Paris  came  to  see  him,  and  probably  insisted  on  the 
need  of  continued  resistance  to  the  demand,  daily  growing 
in  strength,  for  the  revision  of  the  Dreyfus  case.  At  five 
in  the  afternoon,  an  hour  before  the  fatal  attack,  the 
Prince  of  Monaco  called.  It  would  not  have  been  in 
keeping   with   their   sense   of   dignity   for    the    German 


AT    THE    DEATH    OF    M.    FAURE         149 

Government,  unsolicited,  to  have  volunteered  evidence 
with  regard  to  Dreyfus.  But  the  German  Emperor  could, 
in  private  conversation,  assure  his  friend,  the  Prince  of 
Monaco,  that  the  German  Government  had  never  enter- 
tained any  relations  whatever  with  Captain  Alfred 
Dreyfus,  and  knew  nothing  about  him.  Of  course  the 
prince  would  communicate  this  to  President  Faure,  and 
the  theory  is  that  the  anxiety  and  irritation  caused  by 
such  news  hastened  on  the  fatal  attack.  But  the  prince, 
in  conversation,  has  explained  that,  when  he  saw  the 
president  for  the  last  time,  he  found  him  distracted  and 
absent-minded.  So  much  was  this  the  case  that,  whatever 
may  have  been  the  object  the  prince  had  in  view  on  that 
particular  afternoon,  he  gave  it  up,  seeing  that  the 
president  was  not  listening  to  him,  and  that,  in  his  state 
of  mind,  it  was  no  use  attempting  to  explain  matters. 

The  prince  left  the  president  at  twenty  minutes  past 
five  o'clock,  and  M.  Faure  was  then  looking  forward  to 
the  visit  of  the  fascinating  lady  who  subsequently  became 
the  chief  figure  of  a  sensational  cmise  ceUhrc.  Perhaps 
such  pleasing  anticipations  made  it  difficult  for  the 
president  to  listen  with  due  attention  to  the  Prince  of 
Monaco's  grave  admonitions.  More  probably,  the  fact 
that  the  president  had  not  full  control  of  his  mind  may 
be  taken  as  a  premonitory  symptom  of  the  approaching 
attack.  It  was  six  o'clock  when  the  president  suddenly 
became  unconscious,  just  forty  minutes  after  the  Prince 
of  Monaco's  departure.  A  doctor,  whom  M.  Faure  had 
met  during  a  shooting  expedition,  happened  to  be  calling 
at  the  Elys^e  at  that  moment.  Being  the  nearest  medical 
man  to  hand,  his  services  were  at  once  requisitioned.  He 
was  taken,  not  upstairs,  but  downstairs  to  the  room  of 
M.  Faure's  secretary.  It  was  not  in  his  own  room,  but 
in  his  secretary's  office,  that  M.  Faure  was  in  the  habit 
of  receiving  the  lady  in  question,  nor  was  she  his  only 
lady  visitor.  Seeing  what  occurred,  the  opinion  naturally 
arose  that  the  president  had  been  more  gallant  than  was 
prudent    at    his    age.    When    the    doctor    entered    the 


secretary's  office  he  found  the  lady  still  there.  She  was 
so  terrified  at  the  president's  condition  and  excited  by 
the  occurrence  that  she  was  unable  to  attend  to  her 
toilet.  On  the  other  hand,  it  was  most  urgent  to  get 
rid  of  her  with  the  utmost  speed.  Therefore  her  cloak 
was  bundled  round  her  anyhow,  and  she  was  given  over 
to  a  policeman,  who  had  to  put  her  swiftly  in  a  cab  and 
see  her  home.  M.  Faure's  family  was  then  summoned, 
and  the  world  was  startled  by  the  news  of  the  sudden 
death  of  the  President  of  the  French  Republic. 

One  of  the  principal  obstacles  to  the  revision  of 
the  Dreyfus  trial  was  thus  removed.  M.  Emile  Loubet, 
who  succeeded  M.  Felix  Faure  in  the  presidency  of 
the  republic,  was  not  an  agent  of  the  Clerical  Party.  He 
had,  therefore,  no  objection  to  the  revision.  Thus  the 
truth  was  at  last  known  and  the  ends  of  justice  attained. 
But  in  this  struggle  there  had  been  many  victims.  Among 
others  there  was  I'Abbe  Pichon,  who  lost  his  chair  as 
Professor  of  Mathematics  because  he  had  ventured  to 
speak  in  favour  of  Dreyfus.  The  prince,  however,  came 
to  his  rescue  and  gave  him  the  living  of  the  little  church 
of  St  Dt^vote  in  the  romantic  ravine  between  the 
Condamine  and  Monte  Carlo.  Other  princely  acts  of 
kindness  helped  to  soften  the  asperities  of  that  great 
struggle  which  brought  France  to  the  verge  of  civil  war. 

As  an  after-consequence  of  the  Dreyfus  affair  there 
followed  what  has  erroneously  been  called  the  separation 
of  the  Church  and  State  in  France.  It  was  by  the  Decree 
of  the  2nd  December  1789,  when  Louis  XVL  was  king, 
that  the  State  nationalised  all  Church  property  and  under- 
took to  maintain  the  churches  and  the  hospitals.  In  those 
days,  as  again  to-day,  the  clergy  refused  to  be  controlled 
by  the  State.  During  the  revolution  that  followed,  the 
Church  was  swept  away.  It  was  gradually  restored  when 
the  reaction  came,  and  finally  rested  on  the  Concordat 
concluded  between  the  Pope  and  Napoleon  in  1801.  It  is 
the  Concordat  which,  as  one  of  the  results  of  the  Dreyfus 
affair,  has  now  been  destroyed.   It  will  be  remembered 


that  when  President  Loubet  went  to  Rome  he  did  not  call 
on  the  Pope.  The  latter  at  once  despatched  a  protest  to  all 
the  governments  containing  a  sentence  which  had  been 
carefully  omitted  from  the  protest  sent  to  the  French 
Government.  This  sentence  consisted  of  the  statement 
that,  if  relations  with  France  were  not  broken  off,  it  was 
only  because  the  Pope  hoped  the  actual  French  Govern- 
ment would  soon  be  out  of  office !  With  surprising 
rapidity.  M.  Jaures  heard  of  this  and  brought  the  matter 
before  the  French  National  Assembly.  It  produced  the 
long-expected  climax.  All  connection  between  the  French 
Government  and  the  Papal  See  was  severed,  the 
Concordat  destroyed,  and  the  State  resumed  the  owner- 
ship of  the  property  the  Church  had  controlled  under 

The  indiscretion  which  brought  about  this  tremendous 
revolution  was  attributed  to  the  Prince  of  Monaco.  The 
prince  was  believed  to  be  on  friendly  terms  with  M. 
Jaures  and  several  of  M.  Jaures'  friends.  The  prince  had 
befriended  victims  of  the  clerical  persecutions  directed 
against  those  who  asked  for  justice  on  behalf  of  Dreyfus. 
As  an  independent  sovereign,  the  prince  had  received  the 
papal  circular,  and  had  doubtless  called  attention  to  the 
discrepancy  in  the  text,  thus  rendering  the  very  greatest 
service  to  the  cause  of  freedom.  The  prince,  however, 
energetically  repudiates  .any  such  honour.  Judged  from 
the  moral  standard  established  in  diplomatic  relations,  it 
would,  on  the  contrary,  be  a  dishonourable  action  to  give 
such  information.  When  I  had  an  opportunity  of  ques- 
tioning the  prince  on  this  matter  he  very  emphatically 
declared  that  nothing  would  induce  him  to  show  a  secret 
document.  How  a  document  can  be  secret  when  it  is 
addressed  to  every  government,  and  must  be  read  by 
several  civil  servants  in  the  employ  of  those  governments, 
is  another  matter.  In  any  case,  the  Prince  of  Monaco  can 
meet  the  accusation  levelled  against  him  by  a  very  good 
alibi.  It  so  happened  that  at  the  time  the  incident  occurred 
the  prince  was  away  on  one  of  his  oceanographic  expedi- 


tions.  He  was  out  of  reach  on  the  distant  seas.  The  prince  ; 

thought  the  accusation  of  a  diplomatic  breach  of  faith  f 

circulated  against  him  could  be  attributed  to  the  spirit  of  | 

revenge  engendered  by  the  fact  that  he  had  taken  the  part  ■' 

of  Dreyfus  against  his  clerical  persecutors. 

Needless  to  say,  when  I  had  the  privilege  of  being 
received  in  audience  by  the  Prince  of  Monaco,  I  asked 
for  intimate  details  concerning  what  part  the  prince 
had  taken  in  seeking  to  preserve  the  peace  of  Europe. 
The  prince  replied  that  this  was  a  delicate  question. 
Undoubtedly  he  had  done  his  best.  To  him  it  was  incom- 
prehensible that,  in  the  face  of  modern  scientific  progi'ess 
and  the  immense  development  of  intellectual  work,  there 
should  still  be  persons  suffering  from  such  mental  aberra- 
tion as  to  believe  in  the  righteousness  of  force  and  to 
think  that  might  meant  right.  Speaking  with  an  easy  flow 
of  language  and  with  great  earnestness,  the  prince 
assured  me  that  he  did  not  believe  such  people  were  very 
numerous.  Very  few  persons,  after  all,  cared  to  incur  the 
awful  responsibility  of  war.  It  was  a  great  mistake,  he 
insisted,  to  give  credence  to  the  firebrand  theory.  It 
might  be  difficult  to  realise,  but  it  was  nevertheless  a 
fact  that  those  who  were  accused  of  militarist  tendencies, 
of  sanguinary  ambition,  were  in  reality  most  anxious  to 
preserve  the  peace.  If  a  quarrel  arose,  the  prince  added, 
it  was  not  a  national  quarrel ;  it  was  not  even  a  govern- 
mental quarrel.  It  was  only  due  to  two  or  three  indi- 
viduals who  pursued  a  personal  and  not  a  national  interest. 
When  such  a  contingency  occurred,  it  was  comparatively 
easy  for  an  outsider  who  was  obviously  disinterested  to 
unmask  such  machinations.  This  was  the  part  the  prince 
had  occasionally  been  able  to  play,  and  he  laughed 
heartily  when  I  suggested  that,  after  all,  no  one  would 
suspect  him  of  an  annexionist  policy.  The  prince  several 
times  insisted  on  the  general  pacific  disposition  of  all 
politicians  and  statesmen.  But  here  and  there,  he  repeated, 
a  few  individuals  got  up  a  scare,  created  a  grievance,  and 
deliberately  fomented  trouble.  Behind  such  action,  there 

THE    PRINCE    AND    PEACE  153 

was  always  some  selfish,  personal  interest  to  serve.  It 
sufficed  to  discover  and  to  denounce  these  intrigues  to 
prevent  war.  When,  and  this  was  usually  the  case,  it 
could  be  shown  that  the  patriotic  outcry  was  started  by 
those  who  hoped  to  fill  their  pockets  if  war  ensued,  the 
scare  created  generally  collapsed.  It  had  been  the  prince's 
object  to  unravel  these  sordid  conspiracies  against  the 
public  peace,  and,  by  exposing  their  ti-ue  character  to  the 
rulers  most  concerned,  to  prevent  the  mischief  that,  in 
the  absence  of  such  explanations,  might  have  ensued. 
Thus  he  had  endeavoured  to  work  for  the  cause  of  peace. 
It  was  not  for  him  to  say  with  what  measure  of  success, 
but  he  did  not  hesitate  to  declare  that  he  had  done  his 



WHILE  following  the  development  of  current 
politics  and  keeping  a  keen  watch  for  an 
opportunity  of  intervening  in  favour  of  peace, 
Prince  Albert  never  ceased  the  pursuit  of  his  scientific 
studies  and  researches.  On  his  little  schooner  of  200  tons, 
and  with  a  crew  of  only  fifteen  sailors,  he  succeeded  in 
collecting  specimens  from  a  depth  of  9000  feet.  It  required 
three  hours  and  a  quarter  of  manual  labour  to  lower  the 
special  sort  of  net  constructed  for  this  purpose,  and  nine 
and  a  half  hours  to  bring  it  up  again.  A  donkey  engine 
would  have  saved  much  wearisome  toil.  Nevertheless  from 
1885  to  1888  the  prince  made  four  expeditions  on  the 
Hirondelle.  In  1891,  Messrs  Green,  shipbuilders,  London, 
constructed  a  yacht  of  600  tons  for  the  prince,  which  was 
called  the  Princesse  Alice  I.  It  had  an  auxiliary  engine  of 
350  horse-power  and  a  small  scientific  laboratory  on  board. 
With  this  ship  very  fruitful  expeditions  were  made  from 
1892  to  1897.  South-west  of  Madeira  the  sea  was 
explored  to  a  depth  of  close  upon  1800  feet;  but  now  a 
still  larger  vessel  of  1373  tons  was  built  for  the  prince  at 
Laird's  yards,  Birkenhead.  This  was  the  Princesse  Alice  II., 
and  she  had  triple  expansion  engines  of  1000  horse-power, 
and  could  travel  13  knots  an  hour.  Captain  H.  Carr,  of  the 
English  navy,  was  second  in  command  of  this  ship  from 
1891  to  1906.  Oceanography  consists  in  part  of  engineer- 
ing and  mechanical  arts,  for  a  new  study  requires  new 
instruments.  A  few  years  ago,  if  we  stood  on  the  deck 
of  a  ship,  we  had  no  means,  no  methods  existed,  by  which 
we  might  investigate  what  existed  at  any  great  depth  in 


IN    DEEP    WATERS  155 

the  ocean  underneath.  There  was  no  rope  that  could  be 
sunk  to  the  necessary  depth  with  an  apparatus  that  would 
bring  up,  in  an  unspoilt  condition,  specimens  of  what  lies 
at  the  bottom  of  the  sea.  On  board  the  Princcsse  Alice  II. 
a  specially  constructed  cable  was  placed.  It  was  made 
with  numerous  galvanised  steel  threads  cunningly  inter- 
twined to  give  the  maximum  of  strength  with  the  minimum 
of  bulk  and  of  weight.  Though  this  wonderful  metallic 
rope  could  pan  out  to  the  total  length  of  39,000  feet,  it 
could  drag  a  weight  of  seven  tons  without  snapping. 
Some  people  imagine  that  oceanography  means  an 
aquarium  and  the  preserving  of  a  few  fish  in  bottles  of 
alcohol ;  it  means,  among  a  hundred  other  technical, 
mechanical  and  scientific  attainments,  the  construction  of 
such  a  cable  as  I  have  just  described.  Then  there  is  the 
fitting  out  of  ships  with  elaborate  physiological,  bacterio- 
logical and  chemical  laboratories  on  board.  There  must  of 
course  be  swinging  tables  that  will  remain  steady  while 
the  ship  rolls,  so  that  the  chemical  experiments  may  not 
be  disturbed.  There  must  be  the  necessary  scientific 
reference  library  on  board.  Then,  and  though  difficult  to 
secure  against  breakage,  there  is  need  of  a  large  amount 
of  chemical  apparatus,  mostly  of  fragile  glass  and  alcohol, 
for  the  preservation  of  specimens.  Though  an  exceptional 
amount  of  light  is  necessary  in  the  laboratories,  especially 
for  dissection,  a  dark  room  for  photography  is  also 
required.  Thus,  and  taken  altogether,  the  fitting  out  of 
a  ship  for  exploring  the  ocean  is  a  technique  in  itself,  and 
an  absolutely  new  technique.  This  is  one  of  the  reasons 
why  oceanography  is  a  novel  science  and  is  not  to  be 
confused  with  natural  history. 

Finally  in  1911  the  Hirondelle  II.  was  built  by  the 
Societe  des  Forges  et  Chanticrs  de  Id  Mcditerranee,  and  the 
prince  has  already  made  one  expedition  in  this,  his  newest 
ship.  It  differs  from  the  Princcsse  Alice  II.,  mainly  because 
it  is  larger — namely,  1650  tons,  with  2000  horse-power  and 
a  speed  of  15  knots.  Of  course  the  scientific  installation 
on  board  comprises  the  latest  improvements,  including  not 


merely  wireless  telegraphy  but  also  wireless  telephony, 
by  which  sounds  made  at  a  great  distance  can  be  registered. 
Some  experiments  were  attempted  in  telephony  on  board 
the  Hirondelle  II.  off  Toulon,  and  hopes  are  entertained 
that  they  will  lead  to  a  great  simplification  of  the  trans- 
mitting and  receiving  apparatus.  In  the  meanwhile,  the 
"  Marseillaise  "  played  at  Algiers  was  heard  and  registered 
on  board  the  HirotideUe  II.  off  Toulon. 

During  this,  the  first  expedition  with  the  new  ship, 
a  very  remarkable  species  of  octopus  was  discovered.  Its 
body,  like  that  of  a  jelly-fish,  was  so  transparent  that  the 
internal  organs  could  be  clearly  seen,  but  the  most 
wonderful  feature  is  the  one  large  eye  this  fish  possesses. 
The  eye  is  divided  into  two  parts,  one  for  seeing  and 
the  other  for  projecting  a  phosphorescent  light.  Indeed, 
luminous  fish  with  eyes  that  are  lanterns  abound  in  those 
lower  depths  about  which  we  knew  so  little  but  a  few 
years  ago.  Professor  Charles  Richet,  notably,  described 
to  me  a  fish  that  seemed  the  very  pei'sonification  of 
prudence.  This  animal  has  only  a  very  small  body  to  feed, 
but  an  enormous  mouth  wherewith  to  capture  the  food. 
Then  at  the  back  of  this  huge  mouth  there  is  a  luminous 
eye.  Therefore,  when  it  has  secured  a  good  mouthful,  it 
turns  on  the  light  and  has  a  careful  look  at  Avhat  it  is 
about  to  swallow.  Would  that  we  were  always  as  well 
informed  before  taking  to  ourselves  the  alimentary 
products  that  modern  industrialism  throws  on  to  the 
mai'ket.  The  fish  that  gives  this  example  of  prudence  is 
known  as  the  eurypharynx. 

During  his  expeditions  the  prince  assumes  the  supreme 
command.  At  present  Commandant  d'Arodes,  who  at- 
tained the  rank  of  captain  of  a  frigate  in  the  French 
navy,  and  Lieutenant  Bouree  assist  in  the  command. 
Dr  Jules  Richard,  who  has  worked  in  the  laboratory  since 
1888,  is  entrusted  with  the  zoological  researches,  and  is 
assisted  by  the  prince's  private  secretary,  ]\L  Fuhrmeister. 
On  each  cruise  different  professors  and  scientific  authorities 
are   selected,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  researches 

L'lllKOMir.l.l.K   Il"'Kr.Al>V  to  bk   launcmei 


about  to  be  made,  and  invited  to  accompany  the  prince. 
Then  an  able  artist,  M.  L.  Tinayre,  also  forms  part  of  the 
staff,  so  as  to  paint  pictures  of  the  specimens  captured 
before  their  coloms  fade.  To  further  ensure  that  no  ex- 
perience shall  be  lost,  Lieutenant  Bouree  has  now  become 
an  expert  in  colour  photography,  and  thus  we  ha^e  the 
evidence  of  photography  as  well  as  that  gi\en  bj^  the 
artist's  brush.  The  crew,  for  the  most  part,  are  recruited 
from  the  fishing  population  of  the  coasts  of  Brittany,  for 
the  work  is  often  extremely  arduous  and  a  very  hardy, 
reliable  set  of  men  is  needed. 

Tlie  oceanographic  researches,  conducted  by  the 
prince  in  person,  extend  from  81°  north  of  Spitzberg 
to  12"05''  south  of  the  Cape  Vert  archipelago.  ]\Ieasured, 
in  the  vertical  sense,  these  investigations,  Mith  the  aid 
of  balloons,  have  reached  to  a  height  of  43,400  feet ;  and, 
with  the  special  apparatus  invented  for  the  purpose,  tlie 
sea  has  been  studied  down  to  a  depth  of  nearly  20,000  feet. 
The  first  studies  were  devoted  to  the  superficial  currents 
of  the  Northern  Atlantic,  notably  the  Gulf  Stream,  but 
the  Azores  present  conditions  that  are  specially  favoura])le 
from  the  biological  and  bathymetrical  point  of  view.  The 
latter  terin  means  the  life  existing  at  different  depths. 
How  can  animals  be  collected  that  live  at  a  certain  depth 
without  capturing,  at  the  same  time,  animals  that  live 
above  or  below  this  zone.  The  science  of  oceanography 
consists,  among  other  things,  of  inventing  instruments 
to  sohe  this  problem. 

Altogether,  and  up  to  the  beginning  of  1912,  the  prince 
has  made  twenty-four  different  maritime  oceanographic 
explorations.  The  separate  operations  performed  during 
these  expeditions  amount  to  not  less  than  3160.  But  of 
supreme  interest  are  the  measures  taken  to  ensure  that 
this  labour  of  giants  shall  not  be  lost  to  humanity.  Above 
all  it  is  necessary  that  with  the  disappearance  of  its  prime 
promoter,  the  work  shall  still  continue.  For  this  reason 
the  prince  has  founded  and,  above  all,  endowed  the 
Museum  and  Institute  of  Oceanography.  Then  no  trouble 


or  money  has  been  spared  to  print  with  beautiful,  artistic 
and  coloured  illustrations  a  lengthy  record  of  what  has 
been  done.  These  publications  are  issued  by  the  Govern- 
ment Printing  Works  of  Monaco  in  the  handsome ybr/«a/ 
known  as  "  grand  jesus  quarto,"  on  beautiful  special 
paper,  and  no  less  than  thirty-seven  large  volumes  have 
now  been  published.  In  themselves  they  constitute  a 
lasting  monument,  and  will  be  consulted  during  ages 
to  come  by  students  of  nature.  ]\Iany  of  the  volumes  deal 
each  with  a  different  category  of  fish.  For  instance, 
Vol.  II.  treats  of  the  sponge-dwellers  of  the  North 
Atlantic ;  Vol.  III.  shell-fish;  Vol.  VII.  crabs;  Vol.  IX. 
the  octopus  species  ;  Vol.  XII.  the  star-fish,  and  Vol.  XVI. 
the  amphipodes  or  shrimp-like  creatures.  On  the  other 
hand,  V^ol.  XXII.  is  not  concerned  with  fish,  but  with 
the  water  in  which  they  live  and  its  chemical  composition. 
The  pictures  depict  the  apparatus  for  analyses  and  for 
taking  photographs  under  water,  ^^ol.  XXI V^  is  very 
important  and  interesting,  for  it  deals  with  the  normal 
existence  of  arsenic  in  organisms. 

The  first  researches  in  regard  to  arsenic  were  made  by 
Gabriel  Bertrand  to  prove  cases  of  poisoning.  In  1836 
the  Marsh  method  of  analysis  overcame  the  principal 
difficulty,  as  with  its  aid  the  presence  of  a  milligram 
could  be  detected,  even  when  in  combination  with  organic 
tissues.  But  the  question  arose  whether  the  presence  of 
some  arsenic  was  not  a  normal  condition.  After  many 
experiments,  this  was  denied,  till  Gautier  rediscovered 
arsenic  in  the  tissues.  Considering  that  while  arsenic  is 
so  often  used  for  criminal  purposes  its  beneficent  effects 
in  the  treatment  of  certain  diseases  are  becoming  more 
and  more  evident,  the  arsenic  problem  becomes  a  matter 
of  great  practical  importance.  Therefore  it  is  interesting 
to  see  if  oceanography  can  throw  a  new  light  on  the 
question.  Vol.  XXIV.  confirms  the  existence  of  arsenic 
in  the  normal  tissues  of  man  and  animals.  The  illustrations 
give  the  apparatus  employed,  and  the  methods  of  research 
are  explained.  Many  animals  were  captured  in  the  Atlantic 


and  at  once  examined  for  arsenic.  In  examining  sea-birds, 
only  the  feathers  were  used,  as  the  flesh  might  be  in- 
fluenced by  the  abundance  of  the  arsenic  in  the  shot  with 
which  they  were  killed.  From  sponge-like  growth  to  the 
vertebrae,  all  specimens  examined  were  found  to  contain 
arsenic  in  the  system,  and  this  independently  of  the  time 
or  place  of  their  capture.  It  seems,  therefore,  clear  that 
arsenic  has  a  part  to  play  in  our  being,  that  it  is  an 
element  of  the  living  cellulla,  and  is  present  just  as  we 
find  carbon,  nitrogenous  matter,  sulphur  and  phosphorus. 

Vol.  XXIX.  gives  some  account  of  the  presence 
of  sulphuric  acid  in  various  parts  of  the  sea.  It  deals 
with  the  means  of  estimating  the  varying  transparency 
of  water  and  its  colorisation,  the  floating  apparatus  for 
measuring  the  rapidity  of  currents,  and  gives  intei'csting 
pictures  of  the  crystals  that  compose  sand  ;  so  it  will  be 
seen  that  there  are  many  other  things  to  be  considered 
besides  fish  in  the  study  of  oceanography.  No  one  should 
go  to  Monaco  without  including  in  his  programme  a  visit 
to  the  Municipal  Library.  However  ignorant  of  science 
and  technicalities,  the  pictures,  in  any  case,  are  so  beauti- 
fully coloured,  so  strange  and  wonderful,  that  they  cannot 
fail  to  interest.  Let  the  visitor  ask  for  the  thirty-seven 
volumes,  or  Fascicules,  as  they  are  called,  on  Oceanog- 
raphy and  he  will  get  just  a  glimmer  of  what  that  term 
means  and  of  the  tremendous  amount  of  labour  done 
in  Monaco  to  endow  the  world  with  a  new  and  useful 

It  was  on  the  25th  of  April  1899  that  the  foundation 
stone  of  the  Oceanographic  Museum  was  laid.  On 
this  occasion,  at  any  rate,  the  nobler  aspirations  of 
the  human  mind  were  manifest ;  petty  rivalries  were 
laid  aside,  and  for  once  even  active,  practical  politicians 
allowed  themselves  to  dream  of  the  great  things  peace 
allied  with  science  might  achieve.  To  show  his  apprecia- 
tion and  interest  the  Kaiser  instructed  the  German 
Ambassador  in  Paris,  Count  von  Munster,  to  proceed  to 
Monaco.  At  the  ceremony  of  laying  the  foundation  stone, 


Count  von  Munster  Avas  very  emphatic  in  expressing  the 
German  Emperor's  sympathy  and  interest.  He  concluded 
his  speech  with  these  words : 

"  This  monument  about  to  be  built  in  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  spots  of  Europe  will  crown  worthily  the  work 
of  Your  Highness,  and  I  admire  the  thought  of  making 
this  a  rallying  centre  for  all  who  take  interest  in  the 

"  By  offering  so  noble  a  hospitality  to  the  learned  of 
all  countries,  Your  Highness  will  contribute  to  the  good- 
fellowship  and  closer  relations  of  all  nations." 

The  French  Government  was  not  behind  the  Kaiser 
in  expressing  its  sympathy  and  admiration.  They  des- 
patched Admiral  Brown  de  Colstoun,  who  likewise 
congratulated  the  prince. 

Considering  that  Great  Britain  is  in  the  first  rank 
among  maritime  nations,  and,  with  the  cruise  of  the 
Challenger  and  other  explorations,  can  claim  to  have 
actively  contributed  to  the  development  of  oceanographic 
knowledge,  it  is  difficult  to  understand  why  no  spokesman 
on  behalf  of  the  British  Government  was  present  to  take 
part  in  the  felicitations  offered  by  the  governments  of 
France  and  Germany.  As  it  was,  the  Prince  of  Monaco 
found  himself  alone  to  face  the  representatives  of 
the  two  rival  countries.  Undoubtedly  it  was  a  diffi- 
cult situation,  well  calculated  to  tax  to  the  utmost 
the  diplomatic  skill  which  so  many  members  of  the 
house  of  Grimaldi  fortunately  have  possessed.  In  dealing 
with  the  endeavours  of  the  prince  to  maintain  peace, 
especially  between  Germany  and  France,  I  have  alluded 
to  his  disbelief  in  the  supposed  warlike  proclivities  of 
certain  chiefs  of  states  and  governments.  The  speech 
delivered  by  the  prince  in  reply  to  the  German  and 
French  representatives  supports  this  statement.  The 
prince  said: 

"  The  Emperor  William  at  a  moment  when  Europe  is 
endeavouring  to  dissipate  menacing  dangers,  gives  evidence 
of  reassuring  feelings,  since  he  sends  one  of  his  most  vener- 


ated    representatives    to   take    part   in    consolidating    a 
scientific  mission. 

"  Yes,  the  emperor  who  sets  the  example  of  intellectual 
efforts,  who  grants  a  cordial  reception  to  a  -working-class 
deputation,  who  sends  even  to  the  simple  pioneers  of 
Ij  HirondeUe  and  ha  Princesse  Alice  testimony  of  esteem, 
this  emperor  is  acting  like  a  true  friend  of  peace." 

Then  turning  to  Admiral  Brown  de  Colstoun,  the 
prince  continued : 

"  And  you,  Admiral,  representing  the  nation  which 
breathed  upon  the  world  the  warm  breath  of  its  genius  ; 
you  who  have  been  sent  by  a  president  who  has  become 
great  by  reason  of  the  clearness  of  his  acts,  the  firmness 
of  his  soul,  and  the  suffrage  of  the  French  people ;  you 
who  received  me  in  a  day  of  storm  and  wreck,  tell  the 
French  sailors,  tell  the  companions  of  my  youth,  that  my 
sailors  are  still  at  work,  and  that  my  old  affection  will 
last  so  long  as  I  exist. 

"Now,  when  I  see  the  delegates  of  the  emperor  and 
of  the  president  unite  round  this  stone,  which  summarises 
the  alliance  of  labour  and  of  thought,  of  that  which  is 
greatest  in  human  nature,  I  wonder  what  is  the  new  force 
appearing  in  the  hearts  of  men  to  dominate  the  older 
instincts,  and  I  foresee  a  light  which  science  will  kindle, 
and  which  will  more  evenly  balance  souls  by  directing 
their  passions  towards  nobler  objects. 

"  A  stone  will  be  laid  by  hands  that  will  be  joined 
together  in  friendship.  May  the  movement  of  which  this 
is  the  foundation  throw  towards  the  sea  spread  before  us, 
like  the  infinite,  and  towards  the  sky,  suspended  above 
us  like  hope  without  limits  stretching  to  the  generations 
the  future  awaits,  a  ray  of  that  serenity  which  emperors, 
kings,  princes  and  chiefs  of  states  must  all  find  in  their 
own  consciences,  so  as  similarly  to  influence  the  men 
whose  destinies  they  have  to  guide." 

Thus,  while  paying  the  greatest  homage  to  the  German 
Emperor,  the  prince  seeks  to  tar  him  with  the  I'acifist 
brush.  Then  he  turns  to  compliment  France  of  the  Great 



Revolution  by  alluding  to  the  universal  influence  of 
French  genius,  and  finally  recalls  the  fact  that  he  joined 
the  French  navy  during  the  Franco-German  War;  and  all 
this  is  done  in  so  delicate  and  poetical  a  manner  that 
everybody  is  happy  and  satisfied.  Indeed,  so  successful 
was  the  prince,  that  both  emperor  and  president,  not 
contented  with  having  deputed  special  ambassadors,  also 
sent  personal  telegrams. 

Such  was  the  nature  of  the  encouragement  the  prince 
received  when  the  foundation  stone  of  the  museum  was 
laid  with  befitting  ceremony.  Probably  when  all  the  other 
leading  nations  have  fallen  into  line  in  recognising  the 
service  this  institution  will  render  to  humanity,  the 
British  Government  may  also  wake  up  to  the  conscious- 
ness that  something  ought  to  be  done.  This  is  the  more 
necessary  as  the  museum  is  not  a  fancy  structure  erected 
to  satisfy  the  special  taste  of  a  wealthy  prince.  It  is  not 
even  a  museum  provided  as  a  resort  for  the  inhabitants 
of  the  principality.  It  is  part  of  a  permanent  and  well- 
endowed  international  institution,  placed  at  the  disposal 
of  men  of  science  of  all  nations,  and  managed  by  an 
international  committee.  Further,  as  Monaco  is  at  some 
distance  from  the  great  universities  and  centres  of  study, 
a  corresponding  Institute  of  Oceanography  has  been 
founded  in  Paris.  The  museum  at  Monaco  becomes  a 
demonstrating  centre,  an  all-important  annexe  or  branch 
of  the  institute  established  at  the  Paris  University.  What 
concerns  the  museum  is  therefore  of  more  than  mere  local 

Certainly  at  first,  as  far  back  as  1885,  the  prince  did 
think  of  building  at  Monaco  a  museum  in  which  he 
could  place  the  specimens  he  brought  back  from  his 
scientific  explorations.  But  it  soon  became  apparent  that 
this  would  be  altogether  too  exclusive.  Such  a  museum 
must  contain  in  a  general  manner  all  that  relates  to  the 
science  it  is  meant  to  illustrate.  As  the  building  progressed, 
in  1903,  the  prince  arranged  for  the  delivery  of  lectures  in 
Paris,  notably  at  the  Conservatoire  National  des  Arts  et 

THE    FIRST    STEPS  163 

Metiers.  These  lectures  proved  so  successful  that  they  were 
transferred  to  the  Sorbonne,  and  finally  in  1906  the 
prince  determined  to  found  an  Oceanographic  Institute. 
Mr  H.  Villiers  Barnett,  the  editor  of  Tlic  Continental 
Weekly,  than  whom  no  one  is  better  informed  concerning 
the  pleasure  and  health  resorts  of  the  Riviera,  obtained 
a  copy  of  the  letter  in  which  the  prince  explains  to  the 
French  Government  his  position  and  his  intentions  with 
regard  to  this  proposed  institute.  The  letter  is  addressed 
to  the  French  Minister  of  Public  Instruction,  and  Mr 
Barnett  translated  it  into  English  for  his  paper : 

"  Monsieur  i.e  Ministue, —  Having  devoted  my  life 
to  the  study  of  the  Oceanographic  Sciences  I  have  been 
struck  by  the  importance  of  their  action  on  several 
branches  of  human  activity,  and  I  have  striven  to  obtain 
for  them  that  place  which  they  should  occupy  in  the 
solicitude  of  governments  not  less  than  in  the  preoccupa- 
tions of  the  learned. 

"  Several  States  have  already  organised  scientific  cruises 
in  all  the  seas  of  the  globe  and  have  established  a  solid 
basis  for  the  development  of  Oceanography  ;  but  France, 
notwithstanding  that  the  science  of  the  sea  presents  for 
her  a  special  interest,  has  not  treated  it  with  the  same 
liberality  as  she  has  treated  other  branches  of  Science. 
Nevertheless,  for  some  years  past  I  have  caused  to  be 
given  in  Paris  a  series  of  lectures  which  have  been  followed 
by  audiences  each  time  more  numerous  and  more  attentive, 
while  the  public  powers,  in  the  persons  of  President 
I^oubet  and  members  of  the  Government,  have  shown 
a  certain  interest  in  them  by  their  presence. 

"  I  then  wished  to  fill  a  gap  by  myself  creating  and 
establishing  in  Paris  a  centre  of  Oceanographic  Study 
closely  connected  with  the  laboratories  and  collections 
of  the  Oceanographic  Museum  at  Monaco,  where  for  the 
last  twenty  years  I  have  gathered  the  results  of  my 
personal  labours  and  those  of  eminent  collaborators  who 
have  come  to  me  from  all  the  countries  of  Europe. 


"  Informed  by  the  friends  of  the  University  [of  Paris] 
that  a  scheme  of  enlargement,  necessary  to  the  prosperity 
of  that  illustrious  body,  had  met  with  difficulties  and 
delays  in  its  realisation,  I  thought  that  the  combination 
of  the  two  plans  would  be  beneficial  to  both ;  and  I 
offered  to  the  Vice- Rector  my  collaboration  therein. 
Subsequently  it  became  possible  for  me  to  take  my  part 
in  raising  the  capital  necessary  to  acquire  the  land  which 
the  Sorbonne  needed,  and  in  return,  the  University 
granted  me  a  site,  on  part  of  this  new  estate,  on  which 
I  wish  to  erect  the  Oceanographic  Institute  whose  Statutes 
I  now  communicate  to  you. 

"It  is  a  great  pleasure  to  me  thus  to  acknowledge 
the  hospitality  which  Paris  and  France  accord  to  all 
thought-workers  ;  I  add  that  I  do  not  limit  the  patrimony 
of  the  new  Institute  to  the  building  which  will  be  erected 
in  Paris :  the  Oceanographic  Museum  at  Monaco,  with 
its  laboratories,  collections,  aquariums  and  dependences 
are,  from  now  on,  the  property  of  the  Oceanographic 
Institute,  to  which  I  have  given  a  working  capital  of  four 
milUons  [of  francs]. 

"  Desirous  that  this  institution  shall  survive  me  under 
the  conditions  which  have  appeared  to  me  likely  to  assure  "%■ 

the  services  which  I  expect  from  it  for  the  progress  of  J 

Science,  I  beg  the  French  Government  to  recognise  it  as 
of  public  utility  and  to  approve  its  Statutes. 

"  Will  you  accept,  JMonsieur  le  Ministre,  the  assurance 
of  my  high  consideration. 

"  (Signed)  Albert,  Prince  of  Monaco. 

"April  25,  1906. 
"  Palais  de  Monaco." 

The  land  acquired  by  the  Paris  University  is 
higher  than  the  old  Sorbonne  and  the  Pantheon.  It 
is  farther  up  the  rue  St  Jacques,  and  here  a  large 
clearance  has  been  made.  On  the  vacant  space  thus 
created  the  first  structure  to  be  raised  was  the  Oceano- 


graphic  Institute.  But  there  has  been  a  good  deal  of 
misrepresentation  with  regard  to  the  legal  standing  of 
the  institute  and  the  museum.  This,  however,  is  clearly 
explained  in  the  official  organ  of  the  principality,  the 
Journal  de  Monaco  ;  and,  like  that  which  appears  in  the 
London  Gazette  or  the  Paris  Journal  Officiel,  may  be 
considered  legally  correct.  The  Jotirnal  de  3Ionaco 
recognises  that  the  letter  to  the  Minister  of  Public 
Instruction,  dated  the  25th  April  1 906,  and  quoted  above, 
may  be  taken  as  the  basis  of  the  whole  question.  To 
ensure  that  the  work  to  which  the  prince  has  consecrated 
the  greater  part  of  his  life  shall  continue  indefinitely,  he 
has  created  an  institute  for  the  study  of  the  geography, 
geology,  hydrology,  biology,  zoology,  bacteriology,  etc., 
of  the  sea.  This  institution  must  continue  to  collect 
specimens,  to  organise  classes  and  lectures,  to  direct  and 
provide  financial  means  for  scientific  missions,  and  to 
publish  the  results  of  its  researches. 

To  realise  such  a  programme  it  was  necessary  to  find 
a  town  frequented  by  students  from  all  nations,  who  were 
willing  to  follow  special  courses  of  study,  and  to  whom 
such  teaching  would  be  a  novelty,  not  likely  to  clash 
with  any  existing  school.  These  conditions  were  found  in 
Paris,  and  there  was  further  the  appropriate  circumstance 
that  the  university  was  extending  its  buildings.  This 
provided  an  opportunity  to  secure  land  for  the  proposed 
Oceanographic  Institute  close  to  the  Faculty  of  Sciences. 
The  letter  in  question  was  written,  therefore,  in  the 
spring  of  1906,  but  it  did  not,  as  sometimes  supposed,  offer 
as  a  free  gift  to  the  French  Government  the  institute 
and  the  endowment  of  4,000,000  francs.  The  letter 
simply  points  out  the  advantage  that  students  of  the 
University  of  Paris  would  derive  from  such  an  institute, 
and  asks  the  Government  to  approve  its  statutes  and  re- 
cognise it  as  an  institution  of"  public  utility."  Accordingly, 
a  decree  to  that  effect  was  issued  by  the  French  Govern- 
ment on  the  16th  May  1906.  In  virtue  of  this  Act  the 
institute  is  governed,  with  regard  to  its   administration 


and  finances,  by  a  Council  of  Administration  ;  and  from 
the  technical  and  scientific  point  of  view  by  an  Inter- 
national Improvements  Committee  {Corn it e  intei'natio7ial 
de  perfectioimement).  It  is  an  autonomous  and  indepen- 
dent establishment,  possessing  a  legal  and  civil  existence. 
The  only  provision  made  for  the  very  unlikely  event  of 
the  disestablishment  of  this  institute  is  that,  supposing 
the  authorisation  were  withdrawn,  and  the  councils  and 
committees  dissolved,  the  endowment  and  the  building 
belonging  to  the  institute  would  be  handed  over  to  the 
University  of  Paris,  but  under  the  clearly  stipulated 
condition  that  the  object  held  in  view  by  the  donors  and 
testators  should  be  carried  out.  If  this  were  not  done  the 
donors  and  testators,  or  their  heirs  and  assigns,  would 
have  the  right  to  claim  their  share  of  the  property. 

The  Oceanographic  Museum  at  Monaco,  as  has  been 
explained,  is  part  of  the  patrimony  of  the  institute.  It  is 
the  private  property  of  the  institute  which,  in  virtue  of 
the  Decree  of  the  16th  May  1906,  enjoys  all  civil  rights, 
and  may  therefore  own  property.  The  museum  no  more  A 

belongs  to  a  foreign  government  than  the  institute  itself.  ■ 

Its   management   is   bound    to    respect   the   will   of  its  ^ 

founder,  and  to  continue  to  conduct  it  for  the  purpose  of  T 

the  collection  and  study  of  all  that  relates  to  the  ocean 
and  its  contents. 

The  museum  also  remains  an  integral  part  of  the 
principality.  By  handing  it  over  to  the  Oceanographic 
Institute  the  museum  is  withdrawn  from  the  private 
domains  of  the  prince ;  but,  like  the  rest  of  the  princi- 
pality, it  remains  under  his  rule  and  sovereignty.  The 
museum  is  in  the  same  position  as  all  other  property 
in  the  principality,  whether  such  property  be  owned  by 
a  native  Monegasque  or  by  a  foreigner.  Therefore,  the 
prince  still  exercises  civil  and  criminal  jurisdiction  over 
the  museum.  Any  infraction  of  the  law  taking  place  in  the 
museum  would  be  dealt  with  as  if  it  had  occurred  in  any 
other  part  of  the  principality.  Should  it  be  necessarj^  at 
any  future  time  to  impose  taxes  on  house  and   landed 


property,  the  museum  would  be  taxed  as  all  similar 
property.  Being  no  longer  a  part  of  the  prince's  domain 
or  private  property,  it  could  only  be  exempted  from 
taxation  by  a  special  order,  which  could  at  any  time  be 
rescinded.  So  also  all  objects  brought  to  the  museum  are 
liable  to  custom  duties  as  if  taken  to  any  other  part  of 
the  principality.  The  State,  of  course,  retains  the  right  of 
requisition  and  of  occupation.  Thus  the  museum  is  the 
private  property  of  a  scientific  institute  which  has  its 
headquarters  at  Paris,  but  this  does  not  mean  that  it  is  a 
French  institution.  Its  headquarters  might  just  as  well  be 
in  Rome  or  any  other  town.  Like  all  other  property 
in  the  principality,  the  museum  is  subject  to  the  laws  of 
the  principality. 

The  Journal  de  Monaco  explains  that  if  Prince 
Albert  desired  to  give  what  he  had  created  as  international 
a  character  as  possible,  it  was  necessary,  first  of  all,  to 
place  it  above  the  fluctuations  of  politics,  and  to  protect  it 
against  individual  enterprises.  The  study  of  the  ocean  is 
so  wide  a  subject  that  it  soon  oversteps  the  narrow 
boundaries  of  any  one  nation.  Further,  the  prince 
realises  that  the  conquests  of  science  should  form  the 
philosophical  patrimony  of  all  mankind.  Therefore  the 
institute,  the  museum,  and  the  studies  and  researches 
they  are  to  facilitate  will  not  be  French  or  Monegasque, 
or  the  property  of  one  particular  nation  ;  on  the  contrary, 
they  will  provide  a  means  of  uniting  men  from  every 
nation  in  the  accomplishment  of  a  work  destined  to  benefit 
all  humanity. 



E LEADEN  years  were  required  to  build  the  museum, 
and  it  will  contain  the  results  of  researches  spread 
over  a  quarter  of  a  century.  Now  at  last  the  time 
had  arrived  when  its  doors  might  be  opened  and  the  public 
at  large  invited  to  see  for  themselves  what  oceanography 
means.  For  this  purpose  a  great  ceremony  and  fete  were 
to  be  organised.  The  need  was  felt  for  a  sort  of  apotheosis 
as  a  well-merited  expression  of  gratitude  for  what  had 
been  done,  and  also  as  a  demonstration  that  would  attract 
and  instruct  those  who  did  not  yet  realise  the  importance 
of  the  progress  science  had  achieved.  It  was  on  5londay, 
the  28th  of  March  1910,  that  the  museum  was  solemnly 
inaugurated.  Among  the  many  distinguished  persons 
present  on  this  joyful  occasion  was  JVI.  Emile  Loubet, 
former  President  of  the  French  Republic,  and  now  Vice- 
President  of  the  Administrative  Council  of  the  Oceano- 
graphic  Institute.  The  French,  German,  Italian,  Spanish 
and  Portuguese  governments  sent  official  representatives. 
From  Great  Britain  came  Professor  J.  Y.  Buchanan, 
delegate  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  Mr  Scott  Keltic  of  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society  ;  but,  taking  into  account 
the  benefits  maritime  countries  derive  from  oceanography, 
the  British  Government  should  assume  a  leading  part  on 
such  occasions.  In  any  case  it  might  be  expected  that 
Great  Britain  would  send  as  influential  and  important  a 
deputation  as  Germany,  Italy  or  France.  To  what  extent 
it  may  be  necessary  to  compete  with  Germany  in  the 
building  of  Dreadnoughts  is  a  matter  on  which  opinions 




are  divided,  but  there  can  be  no  two  opinions  as  to  the 
utility  of  oceanographic  science.  The  German  Govern- 
ment is  accused  of  pursuing  a  belHcose  naval  policy  ; 
yet  Great  Britain  allows  itself  to  be  almost  effaced  when, 
as  on  this  occasion,  it  is  a  question  of  encouraging  a 
purely  pacific  and  truly  humanitarian  undertaking.  There 
was  no  special  envoy  from  the  British  Government 
or  from  the  British  fleet,  no  one  to  stand  by  the 
side  of  the  Cabinet  Ministers,  the  Admirals  and  the 
Ambassadors  sent  by  other  countries.  It  is  hardly  neces- 
sary to  say  that  the  schools,  academies  and  institutes  of 
different  countries  were  fully  represented.  The  orchestra, 
under  M.  Jehin,  rendered  with  the  perfection  of  execution 
for  which  it  is  renowned,  the  Ouverture  de  Fete.  This  is 
a  symphony  which  Saint-Saons  had  composed  expressly 
for  the  occasion,  and  it  was  enthusiastically  received.  The 
prince  now  rose  and  delivered  a  remarkable  speech.  He 
pointed  out  that  oceanographic  science,  though  young, 
had  already  its  place  in  the  world's  intellectual  domain. 
To-day  the  science  of  the  sea  was  entering  the  palace  an 
architect  had  built  as  the  home  of  the  two  directing 
forces  in  the  civilisation  of  the  world — Art  and  Science. 
Men,  ships,  governments,  all  were  helping.  The  German 
Emperor  had  sent  ships  to  study  the  Indian  Ocean,  and 
had  raised  a  meteorological  and  atmospheric  observatory 
on  one  of  the  highest  points  dominating  the  sea,  the  rock 
of  TenerifFe.  The  late  King  Carlos  of  Portugal  consecrated 
all  his  leisure  time  to  oceanographic  study  till  he  was 
struck  down  by  a  kind  of  return  current  which  brings 
back  some  of  the  savage  characteristics  we  hoped  to  have 
outgrown : 

"  But  atavism,  the  force  that  prolongs  through  suc- 
cessive states  of  being  the  influence  of  anterior  genera- 
tions, only  yields  very  slowly  to  another  force  that  is 
eternal  in  the  universe,  the  force  of  evolution,  which 
carries  men  towards  a  future  Time  veils  from  our  sight. 

"  When  we  speak  of  science  we  must  congratulate 
Germany  and  the  Scandinavian  countries,  where  both  the 


nation  and  the  state  have  felt  that  scientific  culture  is 
the  secret  of  civilisation,  where  so  inany  citizens  constitute 
centres  of  intellectual  development,  where  culture  presides 
over  the  orientation  of  ideas." 

Then,  although  great  Britain  was  so  poorly  represented 
at  the  ceremony,  the  prince  proceeded  to  pay  homage  to 
what  Englishmen  had  done  : 

"  On  such  an  occasion  all  present  will  not  fail  to  think 
of  those  learned  men  whom  we  cannot  forget,  those 
Englishmen  who  were  the  first  to  efface  the  general 
ignorance  concerning  the  inhabitable  character  of  deep 
water.  We  recall  the  early  and  glorious  cruises  of 
Carpenter  and  Wyville  Thompson,  of  John  Murray  and 
Buchanan.  We  remember  the  services  rendered  by  Milne 
Edwards,  a  master  in  the  science,  and  of  ^Nlagnaghi, 
whose  work  opened  the  way  in  Italy  for  the  science  of 
the  sea." 

After  enumerating  the  scientists  of  other  nations  who 
had  given  much  help  to  the  cause,  the  prince  expatiated 
on  the  wonderful  fact  that  oceanographic  science  showed 
more  and  more  clearly  how  the  origin  of  life  was  to  be 
found  in  the  sea.  This  had  greatly  intensified  the  interest 
felt  in  such  researches.  Also  it  had  now  been  demon- 
strated that  deep  water,  instead  of  being  uninhabited, 
contained  a  far  more  numerous  population  than  could 
possibly  exist  on  land,  where  every  creature  had  to  live 
on  the  same  level.  Then  it  was  to  the  sea  that  everything 
belonging  to  the  land  ultimately  flowed,  and  might  there 
be  converted  into  an  organism.  The  sea  was  the  cradle 
of  the  first  living  cell.  "  Having  reached  this  point,"  the 
prince  exclaimed,  "we  may  be  led  to  believe  that  as 
beings  living  on  the  earth  we  are  renegades  who  have 
escaped  from  the  ocean,  thanks  to  the  energy  we  have 
distilled  from  the  bosom  of  the  waters,  which  supplies  to 
our  flesh  the  forces  of  life  and  of  reproduction. 

"  But  are  we  more  happy  under  the  brilliant  sunshine 
than  we  were  in  the  phosphorescences  of  the  deep  waters  ? 
Are  we  happier  in  the  subtle  and  changing  atmospheric 

MOTHERHOOD    OF    THE    SEA  171 

centres  than  in  the  immovable  spaces  where  centuries 
preside  over  the  transformation  of  living  matter  ?  If  joy 
is  to  be  measured  by  the  intensity  of  the  sensations  which 
are  derived  from  the  spectacle  of  the  universe  in  its  march, 
assuredly  we  are  favoured  beings.  But  perhaps  true  happi- 
ness resides  in  the  quiet  depths  where  vaguely  defined 
shadows  pass  silently  through  the  glow  of  phosphorescent 

The  prince  then  described  the  object  of  the  institute 
and  the  museum,  and  expressed  his  confidence  in  the 
honour  of  men  of  science  to  continue  after  him  the  work 
he  had  began. 

"  I  desire  that  this  monument  shall  shelter  without 
favour  the  labour  of  scientists ;  I  hope  it  will  never 
become  any  one  person's  particular  vanity." 

In  conclusion  the  prince  thanked  all  those  who  h^d 
helped  him  to  create  a  new  branch  of  modern  science, 
"  which  has  so  much  power  in  altering  the  conditions  of 
life,  the  mentality  of  men,  and  the  relations  of  peoples." 
Nor  did  he  forget  the  workmen  who  during  eleven  years 
had  placed  stone  upon  stone  till  the  final  conclusion  of 
the  building.  Not  only  did  the  prince  speak  gratefully  of 
their  services,  but  was  careful  to  see  that  they  were 
included  among  the  guests  who  were  invited  to  partici- 
pate in  the  inauguration  ceremony.  After  the  prince  had 
duly  declared  the  museum  to  be  open,  M.  Pichon, 
Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  French  Republic,  was 
the  first  to  speak.  The  French  Government  had  two 
reasons  for  participating  in  the  fete,  its  interest  in  the 
science,  and  its  gratitude  to  the  prince  for  having 
established  the  Oceanographic  Institute  in  Paris. 

"  As  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  of  a  government 
whose  constant  concern  it  is  to  maintain  peace  among 
nations,  I  hail  in  this  work  of  education,  of  study,  of 
progress,  an  act  of  disinterestedness  and  of  clairvoyance 
which  merits  universal  gratitude,  because,  while  endeavour- 
ing to  increase  our  knowledge,  it  serves  the  cause  of 


The  Grand  Admiral  Von  Koester,  speaking  in  French, 
said  that  H.M.  the  Emperor  of  Germany  had  since  the 
laying  of  the  foundation  stone  followed  with  the  greatest 
interest  the  development  of  the  museum,  and  now  sent 
his  warmest  congratulations.  In  conclusion  the  Grand 
Admiral  said : 

"  While  thus  carrying  out  the  order  of  my  Sovereign, 
I  beg  Your  Serene  Highness  to  be  so  good  as  to  believe 
how  proud  and  happy  I  am  to  have  been  selected  for  so 
flattering  and  agreeable  a  mission. 

"  The  Oceanographic  Museum  which  your  Serene 
Highness  has  graciously  placed  under  the  high  patronage 
of  my  august  Sovereign  is  unique  in  the  universe.  Being 
the  outcome  of  the  noble  initiative  taken  by  Your  Serene 
Highness  this  magnificent  monument  will  for  ever  be 
a  witness  of  the  learned  and  laborious  researches  to  which 
your  Serene  Highness  has  so  faithfully  devoted  your  life, 
and  will  lend  precious  assistance  in  the  evolution  of  the 
sciences  and  the  progress  of  mankind." 

Vice- Admiral  Grenet  for  the  Italian,  and  Count  de 
Souza  Rosa  for  the  Portuguese  governments,  spoke  in 
equally  enthusiastic  terms.  After  a  few  words  on  behalf 
of  Spain  from  Senator  Odon  de  Buen,  some  verses 
entitled  "  Nef  Triomphale,"  written  by  INI.  Jean  Aicaro, 
of  the  French  Academy,  and  set  to  music  by  M. 
Massenet,  were  rendered  by  the  chorus  and  orchestra 
of  the  Monte  Carlo  Opera.  Now  three  short  papers  were 
read  by  professors  of  the  Oceanographic  Institute.  M. 
Berget  described  the  extent  and  the  limits  of  oceano- 
graphic science ;  M.  Portier  dealt  with  the  life  found 
in  the  ocean  depths;  and  M.  Joubin  examined  the 
programme  and  purport  of  the  institute. 

The  "  Inaugural  March,"  composed  expressly  for  this 
occasion  by  INI.  Leon  J  chin,  in  which  he  very  happily 
introduced  the  Monegasque  Hymn,  was  then  played,  and 
the  prince  rose  to  coiftuct  his  guests  through  the  museum. 
At  the  end  of  this  ceremony,  M.  Pichon,  on  behalf  of  the 
French  Government,  presented  the  cross  of  the  Legion 


of  Honour  to  M.  Delefortrie,  the  architect  of  the  museum. 
There  now  only  remained  an  exchange  of  congratulatory 
telegrams  between  the  Emperor  of  Germany,  the  President 
of  the  French  Republic,  the  King  of  Italy,  the  King  of 
Spain,  the  King  of  Portugal,  and  the  Prince  of  Monaco. 

Though  tiie  museum  was  now  open  to  the  public  and 
the  inauguration  terminated,  there  were  other  fetes  and 
demonstrations  to  follow.  In  the  evening  there  was  a 
gala  performance  at  the  opera.  M.  Raoul  Gunsbourg  had 
composed  for  the  occasion  an  Ode  a  la  Pensce,  which,  when 
the  prince  and  the  foreign  missions  had  entered,  was 
read  by  Madame  Bartet,  of  the  Comedie  j'run^ahe. 

On  the  morrow,  AVednesday,  the  Mediterranean 
Commission  held  a  sitting  in  the  meeting-hall  of  the 
museum,  where  lunch  was  served.  Selections  were  given 
by  the  orchestra  and  chorus  of  the  Monte  Carlo  Opera ; 
these  included  a  cantata  which  had  been  composed  speci- 
ally for  the  occasion  by  M.  Bellini,  formerly  chief  of  the 
choir  at  the  Monaco  Cathedral,  entitled  "  Ode  to  Oceanog- 
raphy." There  now  followed  the  long  series  of  speeches. 
M.  Emile  Loubetwas  the  first  to  rise,  not,  however,  as  the 
former  President  of  the  French  Republic,  but  as  Vice- 
President  of  the  Council  of  Administration  of  the  Oceano- 
graphic  Institute.  M.  Loubet  congratulated  the  prince 
upon  "  the  incredible  tenacity  with  which,  even  at  the  peril 
of  his  life,  he  had  persevered  during  twenty-five  years,  till 
he  had  succeeded  in  giving  us  samples  of  the  life  that 
exists  in  all  depths,  even  so  far  below  the  surface  as 
18,000  feet." 

M.  Emile  Picard,  of  the  French  Academy  of  Sciences, 
expressed  gratitude  on  behalf  of  the  University  of  I'aris, 
of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  the  Accademia  del  Lincei 
di  Roi/ia,  the  Academies  of  Science  of  Berlin,  Vienna, 
Madrid  and  St  Petersburg.  The  learned  professor  pointed 
out  that  to  be  a  proficient  oceanographist  it  was  necessary 
to  possess  extensive  knowledge  of  geometry,  physics, 
chemistry,  biology  and  geology.  It  was  not  a  ship,  there- 
fore, that  was  required,  but  a  floating  laboratory.  For  this 


laboratory  all  manner  of  new  instruments  and  appliances 
were  indispensable,  and  had  to  be  invented  as  the  need 
arose.  Thus  and  thus  only  could  marine  biology  be 
developed  to  the  extent  of  peopling  the  new  museum 
with  so  many  interesting  and  beautiful  specimens  of  life 
below  the  waves. 

M.  Roujon,  secretary  of  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts, 
read  the  speech  of  M.  Massenet,  the  operatic  composer, 
recalling  the  services  the  prince  has  rendered  to  the 
cause  of  the  fine  arts,  and  congratulating  him  upon  his 
achievements  in  the  domain  of  the  precise  sciences.  Then 
followed  M.  Perrier,  in  the  name  of  the  Paris  Museum  of 
Natural  History,  Professor  Peuck  for  the  Oceanographic 
Institute  of  Berlin,  M.  Deslandres  for  the  Bureau  of 
Longitudes  of  France,  and  M.  Gabriel  Bertrand  of  the 
Pasteur  Institute.  The  latter  explained  what  practical 
service  the  study  of  the  living  organisms  of  the  sea 
rendered  to  the  science  of  bacteriology.  Mr  Scott  Keltic, 
delegate  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  London, 
spoke  in  English  of  the  great  and  stimulating  effects  the 
prince's  investigations  had  produced  among  students  of 
geography  in  all  parts  of  the  world.  M.  Girard,  in  the 
name  of  the  Portuguese  Maritime  League,  recalled  how 
deeply  the  late  King  Charles  of  Portugal  was  devoted 
to  oceanography.  There  remained  more  speeches,  but 
it  was  now  so  late  that  they  were  taken  as  read  and 
subsequently  printed.  One  was  from  Professor  Gerhard 
Schott,  in  the  name  of  the  German  Maritime  Observatory 
of  Hamburg ;  another  from  M.  VioUe,  of  the  Institute 
of  France,  written  in  the  name  of  the  Conserimtoire  des- 
Ai-fs  et  Metiers,  and  another  from  M.  E.  Levasseur, 
Administrator  of  the  College  de  France.  In  spite  of  the 
guillotine  process  applied  to  the  last  three  speeches 
the  epoch-making  breakfast  was  prolonged  till  three  in 
the  afternoon. 

The  festivities  and  celebrations  were  not,  however, 
terminated.  In  the  evening  there  was  a  magnificent 
nautical  fete  organised  by  M.  Raoul  Gunsbourg,  Director 


of  the  Monte  Carlo  Opera.  Needless  to  say,  an  enormous 
crowd  lined  the  shore.  Never  in  the  history  of  the  princi- 
pality have  so  many  visitors  been  received.  When  the  opera 
orcliestra  had  played  M.  Leon  Jehin's  "  Inaugural  March," 
an  antique  galley  was  seen  approaching.  It  was  bearing 
Hercules  in  his  course  round  the  world.  The  god  pauses 
in  his  journey,  overwhelmed  by  the  splendour  of  the  sight, 
and  sings  a  hymn  bestowing  his  own  light,  his  eternal 
spring,  on  this  beautiful  spot.  Now  Hercules  comes  still 
nearer  and  takes  possession  of  the  rock,  which  he  names 
INIonaco.  Thereupon  two  other  galleys  appear,  the  one 
bearing  tlie  Sciences,  the  other  the  Arts ;  they  approach, 
chanting  praises  of  culture  and  learning.  Hercules  replies 
by  a  stirring  song  glorifying  the  sea  and  its  mysteries, 
which  man  with  the  aid  of  science  will  one  day  master 
and  penetrate.  Then,  followed  by  the  galleys,  Hercules 
advances  farther  into  the  port  so  as  definitely  to  install 
the  Arts  and  Sciences  at  Monaco.  But  there  are  opponents, 
the  primitive  inhabitants,  half  animals,  half  men,  rebels 
against  civilisation.  They  forthwith  attack  the  galleys.  A 
battle  follows,  ending  in  tlie  destruction  of  obscurantism, 
and  the  triumph  of  enlightenment.  The  powerful  baritone, 
M.  Titta-Kuffo,  sang  the  part  of  Hercules,  and  his  voice 
was  heard  even  over  the  broad  expanse  of  the  waters. 
After  the  pageant  there  followed  illuminations,  more 
singing,  and  a  magnificent  display  of  fireworks.  Thus, 
with  fitting  brilliancy  and  manifestations  of  joyful 
appreciation,  the  monumental  Museum  of  Oceanography 
was  successfully  inaugurated.  It  has  been  seen  that  some 
of  the  principal  governments,  universities  and  academies 
of  Europe  sent  special  representatives  and  spared  no 
pains  to  show  that  they  understood  the  importance  of  the 
work  done. 

There  now  only  remained  to  open  the  permanent  home 
of  the  institute  itself  This  was  completed  nine  months 
later,  and  inaugurated  on  the  23rd  of  January  1911,  at 
nine  o'clock  in  the  evening.  The  President  of  the  French 
Republic,  M.  Fallieres,  sought  by  his  presence  to  give  the 


highest  sanction  and  mark  of  approval  it  was  possible  for 
the  French  nation  to  render.  The  Oceanographic  Institute 
had  been  built  by  a  French  architect,  M.  Nenot,  Membre 
de  tinstitut,  on  ground  secured  by  the  university  in  the 
higher  portion  of  the  rue  St  Jacques.  Lower  down  in  the 
same  street  is  the  church  of  the  Sorbonne,  the  new 
Sorbonne  buildings  on  one  side,  and  the  College  de  France 
just  opposite.  It  is  indeed  classic  ground.  The  Sorbonne, 
as  everyone  knows,  is  one  of  the  most  renowned  seats  of 
learning  in  the  world.  It  was  founded  by  Robert  de 
Sorbon,  confessor  of  St  Louis,  in  the  thirteenth  century, 
the  object  being  to  assist  poor  students  to  study  theology. 
The  church,  the  library  and  the  main  building  were, 
however,  erected  by  Richelieu,  and  it  was  merged  into 
the  university  by  Napoleon  I.  Thus  to-day,  in  rough 
parlance,  the  word  Sorbonne  is  accepted  as  meaning  the 
Paris  University,  though  some  portions  of  the  university, 
notably  the  schools  of  jurisprudence  and  of  medicine,  are 
in  other  than  the  Sorbonne  buildings.  The  Oceanographic 
Institute,  while  so  close  a  neighbour,  is  absolutely  in- 
dependent of  the  University  of  Paris.  The  building  itself 
is  Florentine  in  style,  with  a  square  tower  which  recalls 
the  palace  of  the  Grimaldis  at  Monaco.  M.  Falli^res 
did  not  fail  to  praise  the  architect,  M.  Nenot,  and  M.  Louis 
Tinayre,  who  is  responsible  for  the  mural  paintings.  These 
represent  some  of  the  operations  carried  on  in  mid-ocean 
for  the  collection  of  specimens  from  the  lower  depths. 

At  the  inauguration  the  celebrated  band  of  the  Re- 
publican Guard  was  present  to  play  the  "  Marseillaise  "  and 
the  Monegasque  Hymn.  The  President  of  the  Republic 
was  accompanied  by  M.  Pichon,  Minister  of  Foreign 
Affairs,  M.  Jean  Dupuy,  Minister  of  Commerce,  General 
Florentin,  Grand  Chancellor  of  the  Legion  of  Honour, 
M.  A.  Dubost,  President  of  the  Senate,  M.  de  Schoen, 
German  Ambassador,  M.  Tittoni,  Italian  Ambassador, 
and  Madame  Tittoni. 

The  prince  and  the  president  led  the  procession,  and 
the  guard  of  honour  presented  arms  as  they  entered  the 






building.  They  were  followed  by  the  Hereditary  Prince 
of  Monaco,  who  gave  his  arm  to  H.R.H.  Princess  Mary 
of  Greece.  Then  came  H.R.H.  Prince  George  of  Greece, 
M.  Maurice  Faure,  Minister  of  Public  Instruction, 
officially  representing  the  French  Government,  the  Council 
of  Administration  of  the  Oceanographic  Institute,  and 
many  notabilities.  Altogether  some  six  hundred  persons 
were  present,  and  when  they  had  assembled  in  the  largest 
lecture-room  of  the  institute  the  prince  delivered  the 
inaugural  address.  He  thanked  the  President  of  the 
Republic,  the  representatives  of  the  State,  the  Parliament, 
the  Town,  the  Army  and  the  Navy  for  uniting  to  confer 
the  lustre  of  their  presence  on  the  inauguration  of  a  new 
school  now  opened  in  the  capital  of  France.  After  refer- 
ring by  name  to  several  of  those  present,  the  prince 
said : 

"  Finally  I  find  among  you  three  men  whose  names  I 
pronounce  with  feelings  of  deep  affection  and  admiration. 
There  is  Sir  John  Murray,  who  will  ever  remain  one  of 
the  loftiest  figures  of  oceanography,  since  he  played  so 
important  a  part  in  the  British  expedition  of  the  C/ia/Zenger, 
the  first  that  was  consecrated  to  the  science  of  the  sea. 
Then  there  is  Nenot,  the  author  of  this  monument,  the 
•architect  whose  masterpieces  will  always  testify  to  the 
persistent  progress  of  the  Paris  schools.  Finally,  there  is 
Charcot,  the  audacious  explorer  who  has  just  returned 
from  the  Antarctic  regions,  where,  to  the  honour  of  the 
French  flag,  he  conducted  a  crew  of  sailors  and  of 
oceanographers. " 

The  prince  went  on  to  describe  the  purely  scientific 
and  international  mission  of  the  institute.  ISI.  Maurice 
Faure,  Minister  of  Public  Instruction,  spoke  and  pro- 
claimed that  it  was  the  duty  of  the  Government  to 
encourage  so  excellent  a  work.  After  alluding  to  the 
prince's  desire  to  maintain  the  international  character  of 
the  institute,  the  minister  added  : 

"  But  you  also  thought  that  the  most  certain  means 
of  increasing  its  vitality,  of  facilitating  its  action,  would 


be  to  place  the  institute  under  the  protection  of  French 
laws  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  that  illustrious  Uni- 
versity of  Paris  whose  doors  are  so  widely  open  to  new 
ideas ;  to  place  it  in  that  noble  capital  which  you  love 
and  which  loves  you.  You  were  anxious  to  raise  this 
palace  in  the  centre  of  the  old  Latin  quarter,  the  glorious 
cradle  of  so  many  discoveries,  and  you  convoke  the 
studious  youths  of  all  nations  to  come  and  listen  to  the 
renowned  masters  whose  lessons  will  popularise  the  science 
of  oceanography  which  you  so  justly  and  passionately 
love.  In  the  name  of  France  and  of  the  University  I 
congratulate  you  and  I  thank  you." 

M.  Armand  Gautier,  President  of  the  Academy  of 
Science,  delivered  himself  of  a  lengthy  dissertation  on 
the  earlier  efforts  and  gradual  development  of  oceano- 
graphic  science  for  the  purpose  of  proving  that  the 
Academy  of  Science  was  bound  to  support  the  Oceano- 
graphic  Institute.  After  this  M.  Liard,  the  Dean  of  the 
Paris  University,  spoke,  and  concluded  by  an  allusion  to 
the  financial  services  the  prince  had  rendered  : 

"  The  University  of  Paris  is  also  aware  that  you  are 
a  neighbour  from  whom  only  good  services  are  to  be 
expected.  Already  you  have  given  proofs  of  your  liberality. 
The  University  cannot  forget  that  at  the  moment  when 
it  was  negotiating  for  the  purchase  of  the  vast  expanse 
of  land  where  the  Institute  of  Chemistry,  the  Institute 
of  Radium,  and  later,  parallel  with  your  Ocean ographic 
Institute,  the  Institute  of  Geography,  will  be  built,  your 
intervention  was  decisive ;  and  that  without  a  donation 
from  you  this  fine  combination  would  have  been  wrecked 
within  sight  of  port.  Therefore  the  University  is  glad  to 
hail  in  you  a  benefactor." 

Finally  M.  Perrier,  Director  of  the  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  made  a  learned  speech  on  the  unifying  influence 
of  the  sea.  He  spoke  of  the  life  that  sprung  from  the  sea 
and  the  light  that  descended  into  its  depth.  But  the  fish 
went  down  deeper  than  the  light  could  penetrate,  and 
then  they  generated  a  light  of  their  own  and  thus  im- 


ported  a  little  sunshine  into  those  dark  regions.  Unlimited 
by  space  or  time,  the  science  of  oceanography  needs  the 
aid  of  the  learned  of  all  nations,  of  all  languages,  of  all 
races : 

"  The  profound  sentiment  of  universal  solidarity  which 
such  a  work  engenders  is  the  best  guarantee  that  the 
wishes  Your  Highness  have  so  often  and  eloquently 
expressed  will  be  realised.  The  rainbow  symbol  of  uni- 
versal peace  whose  first  faint  colours  move  with  uncertain 
light  across  the  sky  has  already  served  to  blunt  many 
bayonets,  and  will  one  day  shine  resplendent  over  the 

When  these  speeches  were  concluded  the  band  played 
INIeyerbeer's  third  "  March  aux  Flambeaux."  Then  the 
prince's  aide-de-camp,  Naval-I^ieutenant  Bouree,  showed 
on  a  screen  some  of  the  marvellous  colour-photographs 
he  had  been  able  to  take  of  the  rare  animals  captured 
during  the  most  recent  expeditions.  After  these  interest- 
ing exhibits,  there  was  a  cinematograph  reproduction  of 
the  ceremony  at  the  inauguration  of  the  Monaco  Oceano- 
graphic  Museum.  This  concluded  the  evening's  programme. 
The  band  played  the  "  Inaugural  March  "  specially  com- 
posed by  M.  Leon  Jehin,  the  guests  visited  the  various 
classrooms  and  laboratories,  not  forgetting  the  buffet, 
where  champagne  and  light  refreshments  were  served,  and 
then  the  distinguished  assembly  dispersed.  Thus  by  three 
great  ceremonies,  in  which  many  nations  and  their  govern- 
ments participated,  have  the  Institute  and  the  Museum  of 
Oceanography  been  officially  brought  into  existence.  First, 
the  foundation  stone  of  the  museum  at  Monaco  was  laid 
on  the  2.5th  of  April  1899.  Then,  eleven  years  later,  on 
the  28th  of  March  1910,  the  museum  was  solemnly  in- 
augurated amid  public  rejoicings  throughout  the  princi- 
pality. Finally,  on  the  23rd  of  February  1911,  the 
Oceanographic  Institute,  built  in  Paris  close  to  the 
Sorbonne,  was  opened  by  the  prince  and  M.  Fallieres. 
Now  the  work  is  completed.  A  permanent  school  is 
established   and   endowed.   It  only  remains  for   scholars 


and  students  to  make  good  use  of  the  opportunities  offered 
by  the  Oceanographic  Institute,  and  it  cannot  be  said  that 
they  have  failed  to  appreciate  these  advantages. 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  institute  cannot 
give  a  degree.  There  is  no  degree  in  oceanography 
as  in  medicine,  in  law,  and  other  branches  of  learning. 
Therefore  only  a  small  number  of  students  were  expected. 
An  attendance  of  thirty  to  forty  would  have  been 
considered  satisfactory.  To  the  great  surprise  of  all 
concerned,  there  were  before  the  close  of  the  first  year 
from  seventy  to  eighty  pupils.  As  these  students  cannot 
hope  to  obtain  any  grade  or  title  to  put  to  their  names, 
they  come  to  acquire  knowledge  and  knowledge  alone ; 
there  is  absolutely  no  other  inducement. 

The  pupils  have  a  choice  of  these  professors.  On  the 
ground  floor  there  is  a  classroom,  and  the  laboratories  are 
upstairs.  Here  each  professor  has  a  separate  apartment. 
First,  there  is  a  large  laboratory  for  his  pupils,  where  all 
the  apparatus  and  materials  necessary  are  provided, 
together  with  a  carefully  diffused  electric  light.  No  money 
has  been  spared,  and  everything  is  done  to  encourage  and 
facilitate  study.  Then  beyond  the  laboratory  there  is  the 
professor's  private  study,  and  on  the  other  side  his  private 
laboratory.  There  are  three  such  series  of  laboratories.  In 
the  first,  and  assisted  by  M.  Germain,  Professor  M.  Joubin 
teaches  Oceanographic  Biology.  In  the  second  Professor 
M.  Berget,  assisted  by  M.  Klein,  deals  with  the  Physics  of 
Oceanography,  and  in  the  third  the  Physiology  of  Marine 
Animals  is  taught  by  Professor  M.  Portier,  assisted  by 
M.  O.  Cassas.  The  latter  gentleman  is  also  the  Secretary  of 
the  Institute  and,  if  the  visitor  has  the  good  fortune  to 
meet  him,  he  may  hope  to  be  shown  many  things  of  great 
interest.  Though  there  is  no  museum  here,  in  the  broad 
passage  upstairs  there  are  unpretending  cupboards  that 
contain  specimens  to  show  pupils,  and  which  ordinary 
visitors  would  be  glad  to  see  ;  notably  some  wonderful 
sponges  and  a  few  cephalopodes,  the  octopus  type  of 


In  the  basement  there  are  tanks  for  small  aquariums, 
not  for  show  but  experimentation.  Already  one  very 
interesting  demonstration  has  been  made.  It  is  known 
that  fish  have  the  power  of  changing  their  colour  to  match 
that  of  their  surroundings  and  thus  render  themselves  less 
visible  and  less  likely  to  be  captured.  An  ordinary  eel, 
almost  black  in  colour,  was  placed  in  a  light  grey  tank. 
In  less  than  a  year  the  eel  had  become  identically  the 
same  colour  as  the  cement  with  which  the  tank  is  made. 
It  was  the  first  time  I  had  seen  a  grey,  almost  white,  eel. 
There  is  also  provision  here  for  sea- water,  but  as  yet  little 
or  nothing  has  been  done  with  live  fish.  Then  we  have  a 
mechanical  engineering  workshop.  This  is  very  important, 
for  many  things  required  for  oceanographic  researches, 
expeditions,  experiments  and  demonstrations  do  not  exist 
as  marketable  articles.  Those  who  want  them  must  make 
them.  Here  all  the  machinery,  the  saws,  etc.,  are  worked 
by  electricity.  At  the  time  of  my  visit  the  engineers  were 
making  a  special  kind  of  tubs  for  the  collection  of  plankton, 
that  fine  dust  which,  floating  on  the  ocean,  is  supposed  to 
be  the  first  manifestation  of  life.  Finally  there  are  big 
boilers  to  provide  heat  and  hot  water  for  all  parts  of  the 

Of  course  there  is  a  library,  offices  and  committee 
rooms,  but  the  most  encouraging  feature  of  all  is  the 
Public  I^ecture  Hall.  This  fine  structure  will  hold  800 
people,  and  there  is  an  endowment  of  £240  a  year  so  that 
popular  lectures  may  be  given  on  Saturday  evenings.  In 
response  to  a  written  application,  an  admittance  card  for 
the  whole  season  is  sent  gratuitously.  The  applications  are 
so  numerous  that  the  hall  is  not  large  enough  to  hold  the 
audience.  The  practice  is  to  open  the  door  as  soon  as  some 
ten  persons  have  gathered  outside.  So  eager  is  the  general 
public  to  hear  these  lectures  that  they  commence  to  arrive 
two  hours  before  the  lecture,  and  it  is  often  necessary  to 
close  the  door  an  hour  before  time,  as  the  hall  is  already 
full.  As  far  as  possible,  technicalities  are  avoided,  the 
object  being  to  interest  the  general  public  in  oceanographic 


science,  and  the  intelligent  population  of  Paris  has 
enthusiastically  responded  to  this  invitation.  On  hearing 
of  this  success,  it  was  impossible  not  to  feel  the  contrast 
between  the  idle  rich,  who  waste  their  time  at  Monte 
Carlo,  and  the  industrious  Parisian  population.  How  many 
people  go  to  jMonte  Carlo  without  learning  anything 
whatever  about  oceanography,  or,  for  the  matter  of  that, 
about  anything  else  of  real  use. 

Tlie  working  expenses  of  the  institute  in  Paris  amount 
to  £2480  a  year,  all  paid  for  by  the  prince.  The  pupils  are 
not  charged  any  fees.  They  need  only  make  a  written 
application  to  the  professor  under  whom  they  wish  to 
study ;  and,  if  the  professor  has  no  personal  objection  to 
the  pupil,  he  is  admitted  to  follow  the  lessons  and  lectures 
given.  The  institute  also  publishes  annually  four  to  six 
issues  of  reports  of  its  proceedings,  which  are  well  illus- 
trated, and  distributed  to  public  libraries  in  different 
countries.  Thus  is  the  work  of  instruction  carried  forward 
to  the  advantage  of  the  community  and  at  the  cost  of  the 
Prince  of  Monaco. 



OX  one  occasion  when  I  was  speaking  to  a  high 
functionary  at  the  casino  he  chanced  to  come 
upon  a  photograph  of  the  Oceanographic  Museum. 
During  a  pause  in  the  conversation  he  took  the  photograph 
in  his  Iiand  and  said  : 

"  Here  is  a  monument  that  will  last.  When  the  casino 
has  disappeared  and  is  forgotten  this  museum  will  still 
stand  forth  as  a  beacon  of  light,  attracting  the  learned 
from  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  receiving  the  grateful 
homage  of  mankind." 

Coming  from  one  of  the  principal  administrators  of 
the  casino,  during  the  height  of  the  season,  when  JMonte 
Carlo  was  thronged  with  visitors  and  robed  in  all  its 
glory,  these  words  impressed  me  deeply.  That  anyone 
thinking  over  the  matter  would  in  all  probability  make 
the  same  prognostication  did  not  lessen  its  effect,  for  I 
was  impressed  not  so  much  by  what  was  said,  but  by  the 
fact  that  the  superiority  of  the  museum  over  the  casino 
was  acknowledged  at  the  casino  itself.  Of  course  it  is 
quite  possible  that  Monte  Carlo  will  go  the  way  of  Baden- 
IJaden,  Wiesbaden  or  Homburg,  and  who  to-day  re- 
members these  places  ?  Only  a  few  old  men  and  women  ; 
to  the  modern  generation  they  are  known  merely  as  health 
resorts,  the  mineral  waters  of  which  benefit  certain  diseases. 
The  four  walls  of  the  casinos  of  these  towns  still  exist ; 
they  have  not  been  pulled  down,  but  their  glory  has 
departed ;  who  ever  hears  anything  about  the  casino  of 
Homburg  nowadays?  But  the  Oceanographic  Museum 
is  a  magnificent  and  substantial  building,  so  constructed 



as  to  be  the  permanent  home  of  a  new  science.  So  new 
is  the  science  that  even  to-day  there  are  many  who  do  not 
understand  what  it  is,  and  it  will  be  some  years  before 
anything  like  adequate  acknowledgment  is  made  of  the 
service  rendered.  Fortunately  the  museum  constitutes  an 
object-lesson.  A  man's  brain  must  be  singularly  devoid  of 
imagination  if  he  fails  to  grasp,  be  it  but  in  a  very  incom- 
plete manner,  the  wide-reaching  importance  of  the  new 

Nevertheless  it  must  be  confessed  that  the  museum 
has  not  yet  acquired  the  popularity  it  deserves.  There 
does  not  seem  to  be  anyone  whose  business  it  is  to  make 
it  popular.  People  cannot  be  expected  to  understand 
unless  some  sort  of  explanation  is  given.  A  teclmical 
guide-book  only  increases  the  weariness  of  the  visitor, 
as  he  fails  to  understand  the  meaning  of  the  most  im- 
portant words.  During  the  season,  at  least,  there  should 
be  present  at  fixed  hours,  if  not  a  professor,  then  a  student 
of  oceanography,  so  as  to  conduct  parties  round  and 
awaken  their  interest.  As  one  instance  out  of  many, 
preserved  in  alcohol  there  is  a  dingy-looking  fish  called 
the  Halosauropsis  Man'ochir.  Not  one  person  in  a  thousand 
among  the  general  and  ignorant  public  would  stop  to 
examine  this  specimen  unless  someone  were  present 
to  explain  that  it  was  a  luminous  fish.  Down  its  side 
there  is  a  black  band  which,  it  appears,  is  luminous,  and 
shines  like  the  port-holes  of  a  ship  at  night.  Altogether 
this  fish  possesses  sixty-four  luminous  scales,  and  can  light 
these  up  at  will,  in  whole  or  in  part.  Thus  as  it  passes  along 
it  throws  a  light  on  objects  to  its  left  or  to  its  right.  What 
a  problem  these  luminous  fish  open  out.  A  few  years  ago 
people  marvelled  because  they  found  animals  of  beautiful 
colours,  possessing  powerful  eyes  and  yet  living  where 
we  imagined  there  was  absolutely  no  light.  The  deep-sea 
nets  were  expected  to  catch  blind  fish,  whereas  they 
brought  up  fish  with  larger  and  more  powerful  eyes  than 
any  seen  before.  Apparently  they  could  perceive  things 
where   to  us  all  is  darkness.   Many  shone  brightly,  and 



drops  of  luminous  water  fell  from  them.  It  is  where  the 
gorgons  and  irises  flourish  that  a  great  crowd  of  luminous 
beings  circulates. 

The  GorgotiocephaUus  Agassizi  in  its  ramifications 
is  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  creatures  preserved  in 
the  museum.  It  is  reduced  to  about  one-third  its  natural 
size  in  the  accompanying  photographic  reproduction. 
Originally  it  was  of  a  brick-red  and  orange  colour  that 
the  alcohol  has  not  preserved.  Another  specimen  remark- 
able for  its  vivid  red  colour  is  the  NeoUtltodes  Grimaldi, 
so  named  because  it  was  discovered  by  the  Prince  of 
Monaco.  This  animal  should  be  able  to  defend  itself,  to 
judge  from  the  number  of  spikes  with  which  it  is  armed. 
It  is  some  consolation  to  know  that  this  NeoUthodes  was 
caught  far  away  on  the  coasts  of  Newfoundland  and  at 
a  depth  of  4100  feet,  for  it  is  not  the  sort  of  creature 
persons  fond  of  bathing  would  care  to  tread  upon.  Its 
claws  are  three  times  the  length  of  its  body.  The  photo- 
graphic reproduction  given  of  this  crab-like  creature 
is  a  little  smaller  than  its  natural  size.  Some  controversy 
arose  as  to  the  species  with  which  it  should  be  classified. 
Ultimately  it  was  decided  that  it  belonged  to  a  separate 
species,  and  was  thereupon  named  after  the  Grimaldifamily. 

It  would  be  a  great  error  to  imagine  that  the  museum 
is  a  natural  history  museum  such  as  exists  in  almost  all 
the  large  towns  of  the  world  because  it  contains  some 
specimens  of  animals.  In  this  respect  I  was  told  an 
amusing  story  of  an  American  who,  having  gone  round 
in  the  blind  manner  in  which  most  visitors  stroll  through 
this  building,  said  he  did  not  think  much  of  it.  The 
museum  at  Washington  was  much  finer !  Needless  to  say, 
there  is  no  museum  of  oceanography  at  Washington,  nor 
in  Paris,  nor  in  London  or  anywhere  else.  The  only  town 
where  a  small  attempt  has  been  made  to  establish  such 
a  museum  is  Berlin.  The  Oceanographic  Museum  of 
Monaco  is  unique  ;  nowhere  else  in  the  world  does  such 
a  museum  exist,  and  it  is  about  time  that  this  fact  should 
be  better  known  and  appreciated. 


The  majestic  proportions  of  the  home  built  for  this 
science  are  in  themselves  imposing,  though,  short  of  tres- 
passing upon  the  beautiful  gardens  of  St  JNIartin,  it  was 
not  easy  to  find,  on  the  historic  rock  of  Monaco,  a  site 
extensive  enough  for  the  museum.  Finally  it  was  decided 
to  sacrifice  for  this  great  work  of  peace  the  old  powder 
magazines  which  stood  at  the  eastern  extremity  of  these 
gardens.  Here  the  ground  sloping  seawards  a  little  distance 
ceases  abruptly  where  the  rock  stands  perpendicularly  over 
the  waters.  There  was  no  even  ground  for  the  foundations. 
Piles  had  to  be  employed  to  carry  the  museum  across 
the  declivity  so  that  its  outer  or  farther  wall  should 
rest  on  the  lower  part  of  the  rock  before  it  rises  vertically 
from  the  sea.  These  difficulties  are  best  appreciated  when 
the  building  is  viewed  from  the  sea.  The  great  arches  of 
solid  masonry  with  the  wild  irregular  rocks  showing 
under  them  afford  a  wonderful  contrast  between  the 
geometrical  symmetry  of  the  architectvu'e  and  the  glorious 
freedom  from  discipline  that  characterises  nature's  rude 
work.  By  building  over  the  sloping  ground,  land  which 
had  been  useless  was  now  employed.  The  entrance  to  the 
museum  is  on  a  level  with  the  summit  or  normal  plan 
of  the  rock,  and  faces  the  old  town.  The  width  of  the 
museum  covers  the  space  reaching  to  the  extreme  end 
of  the  declivity  over  which  the  piles  are  built.  Between 
these  piles,  and  below  the  main  building  of  the  museum, 
descending  therefore  nearer  to  the  sea,  room  has  been 
found  for  two  basement  floors.  They  have  good  windows 
overlooking  the  sea  on  one  side  but  on  the  other  side 
there  is  only  the  hard  rock.  The  lower  basement,  being 
nearest  to  the  supply  of  sea  water,  is  well  suited  for  the 
aquarium.  There  is  also  ample  space  for  numerous  labora- 
tories where  scientists  work,  and  cool  rooms  built  close  to 
the  rock  which  serve  to  stow  away  the  hundreds  of 
specimens  that  have  not  yet  been  studied  and  classified. 

The  calcareous  stone  from  the  neighbouring  heights 
of  La  Turbie  has  been  employed  for  the  building.  It  is 
exceptionally  hard   and  durable,  very  similar  indeed  to 



the  stone  used  for  lithography.  Some  of  the  larger  blocks 
selected  for  ornamental  purposes,  such  as  the  columns  of 
the  frontage,  come  from  Brescia,  they  also  are  very  hard 
and  durable.  Indeed  the  first  impression  produced  is  that 
of  something  massive,  substantial,  evidently  intended  to 
last  for  ages.  The  central  part  of  the  museum  is  square, 
65  feet  6  inches  by  65  feet  6  inches ;  on  each  side  there 
are  wings  identical  in  size,  and  measuring  131  feet  in 
length,  and  49  feet  in  width.  The  total  length  of  the 
building  is  100  metres,  or  328  feet.  Still  more  emphatic, 
as  indicating  that  the  museum  is  meant  to  resist  in- 
definitely the  assaults  of  time,  is  the  fact  that  the  principal 
walls  are  from  8^  to  9f  feet  thick.  This  circumstance  is 
worth  noting,  for  it  characterises  the  whole  enterprise. 
It  is  not  an  undertaking  that  is  going  to  live  and  die 
with  the  Prince  of  Monaco,  as  if  it  were  only  a  personal 
hobby.  This  museum  is  a  temple  raised  to  a  wondrous 
science,  on  the  spot  specially  favoured  by  the  great  sun 
and  sea  god,  Herakles,  Melkarth  or  Hercules.  The  rock 
that  shelters  the  port  of  Hercules  now  serves  as  the 
foundation  for  the  new  temple.  Where  the  god  personify- 
ing the  Phoenicians  who  travelled  on  the  sea  used  to 
be  worshipped,  to-day  a  new  divinity  who  will  conduct 
man  above  and  below  the  sea  is  adored  in  the  manner  of 
modern  science. 

The  principal  entrance  is  from  the  Avenue  Saint- 
Martin.  There  is  a  wide  space  in  front.  This,  while  serving 
the  practical  purpose  of  giving  carriages  room  to  turn  and 
to  wait,  enables  the  visitor  to  stand  away  far  enough  to 
obtain  a  good  view  of  the  building,  and  to  observe  the 
harmony  of  its  architectural  proportions.  The  chief 
decorative  features  are  tiie  monolithic  columns,  and  like 
the  rest  of  the  structure  they  suggest  strength  and 
durability.  It  would  seem  as  if  the  spirit  of  Hercules 
still  inspired  the  dwellers  on  the  rock  that  bore  his  temple 
for  several  centuries.  If  the  walls  are  thick  and  strong,  the 
columns  that  ornament  them  consist  of  huge  stones, 
26  feet  high,  and  weighing  16  tons  each.  They  form  the 


frontage  of  the  first  floor,  not  the  ground  floor,  which  is 
less  lofty.  The  first  floor  is  36  feet  high ;  its  interior  is 
surrounded  by  a  gallery. 

The  sculpture  of  the  facade  is  as  original  as  it  is 
appropriate.  The  usual  conventional  designs  are  absent, 
their  place  being  taken  by  decorations  akin  to  the  object 
of  the  museum.  Instead  of  flowers,  arabesques  or  other 
commonplace  ornamentation,  we  find  sculptures  of 
animals  discovered  in  the  deep  waters  such  as  the  gcryon, 
the  fish  named  after  the  monster  with  three  bodies  which 
Hercules  killed,  the  polyvlicles,  captured  at  a  depth  of 
6000  feet,  and  many  other  strange  creatures.  The  frontage, 
bears  the  arms  of  Monaco,  and  this  is  more  conventional, 
but  then  they  are  surmounted  by  a  gigantic  albatross 
and  a  sea  eagle.  Other  portions  of  the  frontage  are  the 
work  of  JM.  Dussart,  the  sculptor,  who,  in  a  series  of 
allegorical  groups  endeavours  to  represent  Truth  unveiling 
to  Science  the  Forces  of  Nature,  and  Progress  advancing 
to  the  assistance  of  Humanity.  Above  these  sculptures 
are  the  names  of  the  ships  which  have  most  contributed 
to  the  new  science,  such  as  the  TaUsvian,  the  Challenger, 
the  Valdi'oia,  the  Hirundelle  and  the  Pi'incesse  Alice. 

The  broad  and  raised  foot  space  before  the  main 
entrance  numbers  thirteen  steps.  The  visitor  then  reaches 
the  beautiful  wrought-iron  door  designed  by  M.  Delefortrie 
and  penetrates  into  the  vestibule.  Here  are  the  turnstiles 
where  a  franc  is  generally  charged  for  entrance,  and  here 
also  useful  purchases  may  be  made  of  books  about  the 
museum,  and  the  autobiography  of  a  portion  of  the 
prince's  life  entitled  "  La  Carriere  dun  Navigateur."  This 
most  captivating  story  has  been  admirably  translated  into 
English  by  Mr  H.  Villiers  Barnett,  and  should  be  read 
by  all  who  are  interested  in  the  sea,  in  travels,  in  ad- 
ventures, in  Monaco,  and  in  its  prince.  Photographs  and 
post  cards  are  also  on  sale.  Some  of  the  latter  are  decorated 
with  seaweeds  pasted  on  the  card  and  touched  up  with 
paint  to  render  the  picture  complete.  But  unfortunately 
the  name  of  the  seaweed  is  not  given.  A  few  words  of 


simple  explanation  would  render  the  cards  much  more 
interesting  and  valuable.  Inside  the  building,  as  outside, 
all  the  ornamentation  recalls  the  purpose  of  the  museum. 
It  is  ships,  fish,  ropes,  pulleys.  Even  the  knobs  of  the 
balustrade  that  protects  the  monumental  stairs  are  in  the 
form  of  sea-shells.  The  great  lustre  in  the  central  hall  or 
reception  saloon  represents  a  Medusa.  This  is  a  noble  hall 
measuring  23  feet  in  height,  and  forming  a  perfect  square 
of  59  feet  on  each  side.  The  smaller  lustres  in  the  four 
corners  have  been  supposed  to  imitate  sea-urchins,  but 
in  reality  they  are  intended  to  represent  microscopic 
marine  organisms  belonging  to  the  radiate  group.  Both 
were  designed  by  M.  Constant  Roux,  who  won  the  Grand 
Prix  dc  Rome,  and  both  depict  gelatinous,  transparent 
fish  capable  of  emitting  light.  They  may  suggest  an 
abundance  of  romantic  symbolism,  for  was  not  the  Medusa 
one  of  the  three  Gorgon  sisters  who  turned  to  stone  all 
on  whom  they  fixed  their  eyes  ?  Loved  by  Neptune,  slain 
by  Perseus,  the  head  of  Medusa,  when  affixed  to  Minerva's 
shield,  still  preserved  its  hypnotic  powers,  just  as  water 
petrifies  that  over  which  it  flows.  To-day  the  strange 
maritime  creature  of  whom  the  sea  god  was  enamoured 
serves  as  the  design  of  the  central  lustre  at  the  Oceano- 
graphic  Museum. 

Pushing  through  the  first  glass  doors,  the  visitor  is 
confronted  with  a  white  marble  statue  of  H.S.H.  Prince 
Albert  I.  of  Monaco,  which  was  offered  to  the  prince  by 
his  admirers,  who  commissioned  for  the  work  the  well- 
known  member  of  the  Iiistitut,  Monsieur  D.  Puech.  It 
now  constitutes  one  of  the  most  popular  portraits  of 
the  prince  extant.  On  the  wall  immediately  behind  the 
statue  are  two  tablets.  One  gives  the  names  of  the 
Monegasques  who  subscribed  for  this  gift  to  their 
prince.  The  other  bears  the  names  of  the  foreigners 
who  were  also  anxious,  by  contributing,  to  show  that 
they  shared  in  the  admiration  felt  for  the  prince  and  his 
scientific  achievements.  First  on  this  list  comes  H.I.M. 
William    II.,    Emperor   of  Germany,   followed    by   the 


names  of  their  INIajesties  Carlos  I.  of  Portugal,  Alfonso 
XII.  of  Spain,  William  II.  of  Wiirtemberg,  H.R.H. 
the  Duke  of  Oporto,  H.I.H.  Prince  William  of  Hohen- 
zollern,  H.S.H.  Prince  Charles  of  Wiirtemberg,  H.S.H. 
Prince  de  Radolin,  the  Royal  Geographical  Society  of 
Great  Britain,  a  very  long  list  of  senators,  deputies, 
medical  men,  artists  (notably  M.  Henri  Neuville), 
scientists  (notably  Professor  J.  Y.  Buchanan  of  Christ 
College,  Cambridge),  and  financiers  (notably  the  Baron 
Heni'i  de  Rothschild). 

Beyond  what  has  been  described  there  is  not  much 
to  be  seen  in  the  central  or  reception  hall.  The  western 
wing  of  the  museum  is  devoted  to  the  conference  hall 
especially  destined  to  accommodate  Congresses,  and  for 
the  holding  of  meetings  and  the  delivery  of  lectures.  Here 
there  is  some  fine  wood-work,  and  the  ceiling  is  richly 
decorated  by  M.  Cavaillie-CoU.  Some  admirable  paintings 
by  M.  Hippolyte  Lucas  represent  episodes  in  the  Arctic 
Seas  illustrating  the  exciting  adventures  attendant  upon 
oceanographic  research.  At  the  far  end  of  the  conference 
hall,  above  the  platform,  hangs  a  large  canvas  by 
M.  Monchablon.  This  presents  the  graceful  white  shape 
of  the  Prhicesse  Alice  floating  on  a  sea  so  serene,  so 
shining,  so  cerulean,  that  the  spectator  cannot  repress 
a  longing  to  be  on  board. 

It  may  be  noticed  that  black  as  well  as  white  blinds 
are  fitted  to  the  windows,  so  that  complete  darkness  can 
be  produced  when  lantern  slides  are  to  be  shown.  A 
special  system  of  electricity  is  installed,  which,  under 
110  to  120  volts,  gives  from  90  to  100  amperes.  Thus  all 
that  is  necessary  for  scientific  demonstration  is  amply 
provided  and  ready  to  hand.  This  illuminating  force  can 
be  conveyed  to  whatever  part  of  the  hall  it  may  be 
desirable  to  place  the  lantern.  If  it  is  night,  after  or  before 
the  slides  have  been  shown,  six  handsome  bronze  lustres 
can  be  used  for  illumination. 

It  is,  however,  only  on  entering  the  eastern  apartment 
or  hall  of  the  ground  floor  that  the  visitor  will  obtain  the 

MONSTERS    OF    THE    DEEP  191 

first  clear  indications  of  what  oceanography  means.  At 
each  side  of  the  door  there  are  revolving  globes.  These 
show  the  world,  one  from  the  South  Pole,  the  other  from 
the  Equator,  the  latter  dividing  the  seas  into  three 
catagories.  The  oceanographer  studies  the  relationship 
between  these  seas.  There  are  first  the  seas  entirely 
bordered  by  land,  the  Caspian,  for  instance ;  secondly  the 
seas,  like  the  Mediterranean,  that  are  nearly  surrounded 
by  earth  ;  thirdly,  the  free  unrestrained  oceans.  But  before 
we  observe  such  smaller  exhibits,  very  large  objects  in 
the  centre  will  first  attract  the  eye,  particularly  the  giant 
skeleton  of  the  whale  captured  by  the  prince.  These  bones 
measure  no  less  than  70  feet  in  length,  and  therefore  can 
scarcely  escape  notice.  Just  outside  there  are  grounds 
where  bones  can  be  dried  and  bleached  by  the  sun,  for 
this  is  no  mere  show  museum,  but  a  great  workshop  for 
the  naturalist,  where  every  facility  is  afforded  for  research 
and  experiment.  Close  by  are  other  smaller  skeletons,  and 
well-mounted  specimens  of  white  sperm  whales,  sharks, 
walruses,  and  the  embrjos  of  some  of  these  monsters. 
Fearful-looking  octopi  may  be  seen  in  bottles  of  spirit, 
and  as  their  colour  fades  so  quickly,  pictures  are  hung 
close  by  rendering  faithfully  the  hues  of  the  living  animal. 
In  many  instances  the  specimen  is  placed  by  the  side  of 
a  painting  made  when  it  was  still  alive.  While  adding 
to  the  beauty  and  interest  of  the  exhibits  this  is  of  the 
greatest  assistance  to  the  student.  There  are  also  to  be 
seen  life-sized  models  of  Arctic  Sea  whales,  dolphins, 
round-headed  whales,  and  other  large  mammals. 

Cases  along  the  walls  hold  smaller  objects,  from 
sponge-like  creatures  which  it  is  difficult  to  assign  to 
either  the  vegetable  or  the  animal  world,  to  star-  and  shell- 
fish. Noticeable  among  the  seaweed  exhibits  are  some 
with  marvellous  tints  of  green.  Many  of  the  minor 
specimens  belong  to  the  sea-urchin  kind.  Then  we  reach 
various  species  of  crabs,  smaller  jelly-fish  and  octopi. 
Here  the  coloured  drawings  show  how  much  the  beautiful 
tints  have  faded  during  the  process  of  preservation.   It 


is  impossible  to  over-estimate  the  value  of  these  coloured 
illustrations,  or  to  cease  admiring  their  beauty.  At  the 
farther  end  of  the  room  we  come  upon  some  larger  fish 
preserved  in  alcohol,  such  as  cod-fish,  playing-fish,  and 
a  strange  fish  called  the  petromyzon  inarinus  caught  in 
the  port  of  Monaco.  Its  anatomy  or  principal  organs  are 
exposed  and  labelled.  It  is  a  long,  slender  fish,  the  mouth 
is  round,  without  teeth,  and  seems  intended  only  for 
sucking.  The  genital  gland  is  almost  as  large  as  the 
intestine,  and  nearly  the  length  of  the  whole  body,  which 
is  about  two  feet. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  hall  are  exhibited  the  instru- 
ments used  in  deep-sea  research.  Here  we  may  see  how 
specimens  of  mud,  sand,  stones,  etc.,  are  collected  at 
great  depths  and  brought  to  the  surface.  Here  are  nets 
for  capturing  fish,  contrivances  for  taking  the  temperature 
of  the  water,  or  for  securing  samples  of  it  at  a  certain 
depth,  and  neither  above  nor  below  that  depth.  How 
was  this  apparatus  controlled  and  made  to  work  many 
thousand  feet  below  the  ship  ?  How  could  the  nets  be 
opened  or  closed,  the  bottles  for  samples  of  water 
manipulated  so  as  to  be  shut  when  full  at  the  right  depth? 
Men  stood  on  the  deck  of  the  ship  and  accomplished  all 
this  though  they  might  be  miles  away,  and  had  but  a 
thin  steel  cord  to  connect  them  with  the  apparatus  they 
were  employing.  The  new,  the  ingenious  contrivances  for 
accomplishing  such  work  are  shown  at  the  museum,  and 
this  throws  a  sidelight  on  the  material  difficulties  and 
obstacles  that  oceanographers  must  overcome. 

To  the  scientist  it  suffices  to  have  discovered  and 
demonstrated  an  unknown  fact.  The  new  fact  may  be 
millions  of  years  old,  but  it  is  called  new  if  only  just 
discovered.  It  may  appear  devoid  of  any  utility  whatsoever. 
This  does  not  matter.  In  the  course  of  time  some  other 
equally  useless  fact  will  be  discovered,  and  when  these 
two  inutilities  are  brought  together,  something  extremely 
useful  may  result  therefrom.  The  man  in  the  street, 
however,  is  likely  to  view  things  in  a  different  light.  He 


has  a  tendency  to  inquire  what  is  the  use  of  the  things 
shown.  Oceanography  is  a  new  word,  a  rather  cumbersome 
word,  and  the  question  is  often  put  as  to  whetlier  what 
it  represents  is  really  of  value.  Some  answers  to  such 
scepticism  will  be  found  in  this  museum.  To  begin  with, 
the  ordinary  mortal  associates  the  sea  with  waves,  not  to 
mention  sea-sickness,  and  on  entering  the  eastern  hall 
he  will  find  a  relievo  of  waves.  These  are  designed  to 
scale,  being  stereophotogrammetrically  measured  by 
Kohlochutter.  This  is  a  good  long  word,  and  worthy  of 
an  Atlantic  roller.  But  the  great  thing  is  to  know  what 
is  the  real  size  of  waves,  for  no  one  can  tell  by  merely 
looking  at  them.  In  a  storm  they  are  described  as 
mountains  high,  though  they  rarely  exceed  35  feet  even 
in  mid-Atlantic,  and  that  is  quite  bad  enough  for  most 

Having  thus  obtained  some  idea  of  the  size  of  waves, 
we  next  come  upon  Professor  Regnard's  experiments  for 
ascertaining  how  far  down  the  light  can  penetrate  into 
the  water  of  the  sea,  and  for  conveying  an  electric  light 
deep  down  into  the  water.  Here  we  have  the  actual 
bottles  and  tubs,  some  of  them  small  beer  tubs,  and 
various  forms  of  floaters  that  were  thrown  overboard 
to  ascertain  the  course  of  the  ocean  currents.  Each  con- 
tained a  paper  with  the  following  request  written  in  three 
languages : — "  Anyone  finding  this  paper  is  requested 
to  remit  it  to  the  naval  authority  of  his  country  in  order 
that  it  may  be  forwarded  to  the  French  Government." 

Thus,  for  instance,  in  1887,  cruising  the  Gulf  Stream 
for  a  distance  of  some  600  miles,  between  the  Azores  and 
Newfoundland,  931  floaters  were  dropped  overboard.  By 
the  year  1892  as  many  as  226  of  these  had  been  picked  up 
and  reported  to  the  authorities.  The  prince  was  therefore 
able  to  throw  some  new  light  on  the  course  followed  by  the 
Gulf  Stream.  There  is  also  a  great  variety  of  revolving 
machines  with  clock-work  that  look  like  anemometers, 
but  their  object  is  to  measure  the  velocity  of  water 
currents  and  not  that  of  the  wind. 


Having  thus  examined  the  movements  of  the  water 
we  must  consider  the  quahty  of  the  water,  and  it  will 
be  seen  that  sea- water  generally  contains  35  per  1000, 
or  35  grammes  of  salts  in  a  kilogramme  of  water ;  about 
three  quarters  of  these  salts  are  common  salt.  Where 
many  rivers  fall  into  the  sea  the  water  is  not  quite  so  salt, 
but  where  there  is  much  evaporation  it  is  more  salt.  Thus 
the  Baltic  is  poorest  in  salt,  the  proportion  being  only  10 
grammes  per  1000,  and  the  Red  Sea  the  richest.  If  the 
sea  were  of  equal  depth  throughout  the  world  we  should 
have  a  mass  of  water  3680  metres,  or  4000  yards  high,  and 
if  this  were  evaporated  it  would  yield  a  bed  of  salts  72'4 
metres  thick.  In  order  of  solubihty  salts  of  lime  would 
be  at  the  bottom ;  the  amount,  proportion,  and  position  of 
the  other  salts  are  given.  To  faciUtate  the  realisation  of  what 
the  depth  of  the  sea  means  there  are  great  squares  of  blue 
glass.  The  surface  represents  a  square  geographical  mile 
or  a  sixth  of  a  degree  of  latitude — that  is,  2025  yards. 
The  depth  is  measured  in  a  similar  proportion,  but  to 
make  this  even  more  easy  to  understand  there  are  little 
models  of  the  32,000  ton  Cunarders,  the  Maiiretaiiiu, 
and  Lusitania,  sailing  on  the  surface  of  the  water.  One 
column  represents  water  that  has  a  deptli  of  4500  metres, 
4905  )7vrds,  while  the  big  Cunarders  from  the  keel  to  the 
highest  deck  are  about  100  feet,  or  30  metres.  The  next 
column  represents  a  sea  that  is  9636  metres,  or  10,500 
yards  deep.  The  wooden  socket  on  which  one  of  these 
graphic  diagrams  of  water  stands  is  cut  in  exactly  the  same 
proportion  so  as  to  illustrate  the  greatest  depth  attained 
by  any  boring  made  in  the  solid  earth.  This  is  at  Cynchow, 
in  Upper  Silesia,  where  they  penetrated  2240  metres  (2440 
yards)  into  the  earth.  Oceanographers  bring  up  samples 
from  depths  exceeding  6000  metres,  so  there  is  knowledge 
of  what  is  happening  three  times  farther  below  the  surface 
of  the  sea  than  below  the  surface  of  the  land. 

Other  models  indicate  tliat  while  the  sea  occupies  the 
largest  surface  area  of  the  earth  its  depth  may  vary  from 
3000  to  6000  metres,  but  the  height   of  the  land   only 

DEEP    WATER    AND    HIGH   LAND        195 

varies  from  1000  to  2000  metres.  Also  there  is  very  little 
land  at  these  high  altitudes,  and  it  is  not  of  much  use. 
Half  of  the  sea,  on  the  contrary,  is  deeper  than  4000 
metres ;  and  there  is  a  tempting  pyramid  cut  to  scale 
to  indicate  how  much  silver  this  water  contains.  It 
amounts  to  no  less  than  13,800,000,000  tons  of  pure 
dissolved  silver.  On  the  other  hand  a  very  tiny  pyramid 
represents  the  32.5,760  tons  of  silver  obtained  since  the 
discovery  in  lidS  of  America,  and  reckoned  up  to  the 
year  1905.  The  pyramid  of  Gizeh,  the  greatest  in  Egypt, 
looks  quite  small  by  the  side  of  the  silver  pyramid  that 
could  be  built  if  it  were  possible  to  extract  all  the  silver 
the  sea  contains.  Indeed  this  pyramid  of  sea-born  silver 
would  be  just  as  large  as  the  cone-shaped  Mont  Agel 
that  towers  3451  feet  above  the  casino  gardens.  When 
to  this  store  of  silver  is  added  the  pearls,  the  mother-of- 
pearl,  the  coral,  etc.,  obtained  from  the  sea,  it  will  be 
readily  recognised  that  a  graphic  study  of  the  ocean  may 
not  be  devoid  of  practical  utility. 

Monumental  stairs  give  access  to  the  first  floor  and 
to  a  splendid  balcony.  Here,  as  elsewhere,  the  mosaics,  the 
carving,  stained-glass  windows,  and  other  forms  of  decora- 
tiv^e  work,  all  appropriately  recall  the  sea  and  its  many 
forms  of  animal  and  vegetable  life.  The  disposition  is  the 
same  as  on  the  ground  floor,  a  square  central  hall  and 
two  oblong  halls  on  each  side.  In  the  centi'al  and  square 
hall  there  is  a  fully  equipped  whale-boat,  with  the  small 
cannon  to  throw  the  harpoon,  and  all  the  other  weapons 
necessary  for  hunting  the  huge  cetacean  inhabitants  of 
the  ocean.  IJetween  the  beautiful  columns  of  Brescia 
stone  are  models  of  the  prince's  yachts,  the  Princesse 
^lice  I.  and  the  Priitvcsse  Alice  II.  In  the  corners  revolv- 
ing frames  hold  seaweeds  carefully  labelled  in  three 
languages.  Others  contain  photographs  that  give  views 
of  the  life  on  board  the  prince's  yachts.  Here  may  be 
recognised  the  numerous  and  distinguislied  persons  who 
took  part  in  the  different  expeditions.  There  are  also 
photographs  of  some  of  the  captures  made,  and  interest 


is  sure  to  be  felt,  especially  in  one  very  alarming  monster, 
for  it  was  caught  barely  a  stone's  throw  from  the  museum, 
at  the  Pointe  de  la  Vieille,  and  this  not  in  the  I'emote 
past,  but  on  the  14th  of  June  1909.  It  is  a  very  fierce- 
looking  brute,  armed  with  a  triple  row  of  teeth,  and  at 
least  as  big  as  a  man.  Such  a  neighbour  does  not  suggest 
the  advisability  of  bathing  in  the  open  sea.  Scientists  have 
bestowed  on  this  menacing  creature  the  name  of  Ocvyr/i/jta 
SpaUanzani.  Perhaps  such  complicated  nomenclature  may 
deceive  some  into  the  belief  that  the  fish  comes  from  a 
distance,  but  that  will  not  console  those  whom  it  may  bite. 
The  great  hall  to  the  west,  on  the  first  floor,  is  at 
present  held  in  reserve  for  the  increase  of  the  collections. 
For  the  moment  it  serves  to  sort  and  classify  specimens, 
and  is  thus  a  workshop  to  which  the  public  is  not  ad- 
mitted. The  hall  on  the  east  is  devoted  to  the  physical 
and  chemical  aspects  of  oceanography,  to  the  larger 
appliances  used  for  sounding  and  fishing,  and  also  to 
certain  industries  of  the  sea.  Immediately  on  entering, 
and  to  the  right,  are  sponges,  coral  and  pearls.  Then  come 
dried  fish,  such  as  stock-fish  and  molluscs.  The  gourmet 
will  be  interested  in  a  collection  of  caviare,  ranging  in 
colour  from  the  brown  of  the  German  lentil  to  dark  and 
pale  greens.  No  indication,  however,  is  given  to  shoAV  how 
flavour  and  colour  correspond.  After  this  we  have  furs. 
There  is  also  a  curious  collection  of  parasites  that  fatten 
on  fish,  including  the  familiar  cuttlefish  which  we  give 
to  our  pet  birds  so  that  they  may  sharpen  their  beaks. 
Bouquets  made  of  sea-plants,  pottery,  and  fans  decorated 
with  the  flora  of  the  ocean,  conclusively  prove  that  the 
gardens  of  the  sea  can  also  contribute  to  beautify  the 
dwellings  of  man.  From  the  centre  of  the  ceiling  hang 
huge  nets  and  all  manner  of  strange  devices  to  bring  up 
the  treasures  of  the  deep.  Here  are  models  of  the  laiger 
nets  or  cages  that  can  be  opened  when  at  a  certain  depth 
and  closed  again  before  they  are  hauled  up.  But  for  these 
it  would  be  impossible  to  discover  at  what  varying  depths 
the  diflerent  species  live. 


The  two  basements  are  for  the  most  part  devoted  not 
to  show  but  to  work.  Here  ai-e  situated  several  laboratories, 
including  a  well-fitted  dark  room  for  photography,  a 
library  for  works  on  oceanography,  various  studios  and 
workshops  for  investigation  or  the  preparation  of  speci- 
mens, together  with  the  offices  of  the  administrative  staff. 
These  premises  are  all  fitted  with  heating  apparatus,  and 
supplied  with  gas,  soft  water  and  sea-water.  Small  aquaria 
can  be  placed  in  the  studios  or  workshops,  and  there 
are  movable  operating  tables  for  dissection  and  other 
zoological,  botanical,  histological  and  biological  researches. 
Any  accredited  student  will  find  here  all  that  is  required 
for  elaborate  investigation.  *■ 

On  the  lower  of  the  two  basements  the  public  will 
not  fail  to  visit  the  most  attractive  and  enthralling  por- 
tion of  the  museum.  The  east  side  of  this  basement  is 
devoted  entirely  to  the  aquarium.  Here  are  glass  tanks 
that  vary  in  length  from  3  to  19  feet.  They  are  4 
feet  wide,  and  from  2^  to  6  feet  deep.  The  sea  is  just 
below,  and  a  gas  engine  pumps  up  the  sea-water  that 
constantly  flows  through  these  tanks.  But  at  first  there 
was  trouble.  The  outer  side  of  the  tanks  is  of  plate 
glass,  otherwise  the  fish  could  not  be  seen,  and  this  glass 
cracked,  broke  and  let  the  water  out.  If  not  promptly 
rescued  the  fish  would  have  died.  Nothing  struck  the 
glass,  it  seemed  to  break  of  its  own  accord  ;  and  at  first  it 
was  difficult  to  accoimt  for  so  mysterious  a  phenomenon. 
The  theory  was  started  that  there  must  have  been 
earthquakes,  doubtless  very  distant  earthquakes,  for  the 
shocks  were  so  slight  that  no  one  felt  them,  but  still 
sufficient  to  crack  glass  held  tightly  in  hard,  inflexible 
iron  frames.  Then  the  more  plausible  suggestion  was 
made  that  though  there  must  be  vibration  for  the  glass 
to  break  this  was  not  due  to  earthquakes.  It  was  probably 
caused  by  the  sea  waves  dashing  against  the  rocks  below. 
There  might  be  small  hollows  where  the  air  would  be 
imprisoned  and  compressed  by  the  inrushing  water,  and, 
on  bursting  forth  again,  produce  minor  explosions.  There- 


upon  Mr  Robert  S.  Ash  who,  as  an  Enghsh  surgeon- 
dentist,  enjoys  a  reputation  extending  far  beyond  the 
principaUty,  made  a  proposal  that  was  most  valuable 
because  it  was  practical  and  simple.  He  urged  that  the 
iron  frames  should  be  lined  with  some  flexible  rubber-like 
material.  This  was  done.  The  rigid  glass  and  the  rigid 
iron  being  now  separated  by  a  yielding  material,  the 
vibration,  however  caused,  no  longer  splits  the  glass. 

Thus  without  further  anxiety  we  can  watch  the 
mysterious  life  that  has  been  lifted  out  of  the  mighty 
deep  so  that  we  may  admire  and  wonder.  It  is  a  strange, 
an  awe-inspiring  sight.  How  little  do  we  know  of  the 
beauty  and  grandeur  that  is  close  at  hand  !  At  the  opera 
on  the  other  hill  just  opposite  we  see  ladies  dressed  in 
silks  of  the  most  delicate  hue,  wearing  precious  stones 
that  flash  forth  bright  and  coloured  lights.  Such  splendours 
could  not,  however,  be  compared  with  the  glorious  tints 
of  some  of  the  fish,  and  the  daintiness  of  some  of  the 
sea-flowers  that  now  live  in  the  aquarium  of  the  Oceanic 
Museum.  There  are  appalling  monstrosities  too,  side  by 
side  with  the  frail  exquisite  creatures,  beasts  of  great 
strength  near  elf-like  beings  to  whom  gentleness  and 
beauty  seem  a  sufficient  protection. 

Labels  and  coloured  drawings  are  provided  to  enable 
the  visitor  to  understand  a  little  of  what  he  sees.  But  it 
is  no  great  satisfaction  to  be  told  the  I^atin  name  of  a 
fish.  It  would  awaken  interest  and  stimulate  the  visitor 
to  study  some  of  the  questions  at  issue  if  a  few  words 
were  given  concerning  the  habits  of  the  fish,  its  use  and 
origin.  The  tanks  at  the  entrance  of  the  aquarium  con- 
tain a  great  variety  of  star-fish  that  will  surprise  by  their 
difference  in  size  and  shape,  their  yellow  to  scarlet  hues 
recalling  the  fruit  of  the  arbutus-tree  which  grows  so 
plentifully  on  the  Riviera.  Then  follow  extraordinary 
crabs  and  lobsters,  eels,  flat-fish,  stumpy,  short  fish,  green 
fish  with  transparent  green  fins  of  the  same  tint  as  the 
green  sword-bladed  seaweed  that  abounds  on  the  coast 
of  the    Mediterranean.    The   labrus   mixtus,   the  lip-fish 


and  blue-striped  wrasse  are  most  beautiful,  if  seen  in 
the  right  light.  Nor  do  they  endeavour  to  conceal  them- 
selves ;  on  the  contrary  they  come  up  close,  as  if  disposed 
to  stare  out  of  countenance  those  who  stare  at  them. 
The  sea-horse  near  at  hand  is  of  a  more  retiring  dis- 
position. The  cruelty  that  mingles  with  the  beauty  of 
this  life  is  exemplified  by  the  scorjnena  scrq/'a,  the  red 
scorpion  fish.  It  lies  watching  with  its  bright  transparent 
red  eyes  that  outshine  the  finest  ruby.  It  does  not  seem 
living,  so  quiet  and  motionless  is  its  attitude,  but  it 
strikes  the  approaching  prey  with  lightning  speed  and 
remorseless  force.  There  are  ferrets  in  the  sea  as  on  land, 
equally  cruel,  graceful  and  agile ;  and  though  we  may 
read  of  this  in  books  we  must  go  to  Monaco  to  see  them 
in  life  and  action.  As  I  looked  and  wondered,  an  admiring 
traveller  standing  near  exclaimed  that  this  was  better 
than  the  aquarium  at  Naples,  though  not  so  good  as 
that  of  Honolulu.  At  the  farther  end  are  great  conger- 
eels,  and  here  is  a  particularly  fascinating  and  remarkable 
fish.  He  is  podgy  in  shape,  but  when  in  the  right  light  his 
shining  scales  are  of  a  dark,  deep,  mysterious  blue.  A 
movement,  however,  a  motion  of  the  tail,  makes  the  fish 
reflect  different  rays,  and  then  he  appears  to  be  brown, 
till  in  turn  this  sombre  tint  changes  to  a  silvery  grey. 
Indeed  many  of  these  fish,  the  Murwna  Helena,  for 
instance,  with  brown  body  and  green  eyes,  are  constantly 
changing  colour  as  they  swim  about.  To  watch  their 
movements  is  like  watching  rockets  that  burst  in  the  air. 
The  closest  attention  is  necessary  not  to  miss  the  brilliant 
colours  as  they  Hash  out  and  disappear. 

There  is  also  a  large  but  shallow  tank  with  live  turtle 
in  it,  and  some  quite  small  glass  tanks  for  the  observation 
and  study  of  diminutive  animals,  as  these  would  be  lost 
in  a  spacious  and  deep  aquarium.  From  the  scientific  point 
of  view  it  is  not  the  more  conspicuous  animals  and  the 
big  fish  that  are  the  most  interesting,  'i'he  tendency,  of 
course,  has  been  to  study  the  larger  species,  but  there  is 
much  of  great  interest  in  the  customs  and  habits  of  com- 


paratively  unknown  small  types,  such  as  the  gouania, 
the  alpheides,  etc.,  and  they  are  likely  to  supply  useful 
indications  to  marine  biologists.  It  must  always  be  borne 
in  mind  that  though  there  is  much  to  interest  and 
fascinate  the  visitor  even  if  he  is  absolutely  ignorant  of 
oceanography  and  all  that  appertains  thereunto,  still  the 
main  object  is  to  encourage  research.  Therefore,  it  must 
not  be  imagined  that  all  the  collections  made  are  shown 
to  the  public.  A  certain  portion  of  these  things  is  used 
for  exhibits,  but  a  considerable  part  of  the  specimens  is 
held  back,  put  in  the  laboratories,  and  placed  at  the 
disposal  of  specialists.  Many  specimens,  especially  when 
there  are  duplicates,  are  preserved  in  view  of  effecting 
exchanges  with  other  museums. 

For  twenty-five  years  the  life  of  an  unseen  world  has 
been  brought  to  the  surface,  and  to-day  much  of  it  is 
there  in  the  museum  ready  to  awaken  the  interest  of  the 
ignorant,  and  to  supply  the  learned  with  the  means  of 
acquiring  greater  knowledge.  No  one  capable  of  appre- 
ciating form  and  colour  can  fail  to  be  enthralled  by  the 
vivid  yet  harmonious  tints  of  the  fauna  and  flora  of  the 
sea.  In  those  who  love  and  admire  flowers,  the  sea- 
anemones,  the  multi-sized,  many-shaped  and  coloured  star- 
fishes, will  excite  equal  or  greater  admiration.  But  the 
beauty  of  the  flower  intended  to  attract  the  fertilising  agent 
is  strictly  utilitarian  in  its  purpose.  So  also  is  this  museum. 
It  will  spread  the  love  of  science,  and  it  is  the  prince's 
conviction  that  all  the  forces  of  evil  must  succumb  to 
science.  "  Science,  which  includes  all  Mght  and  all  truth, 
is  the  force  that  draws  men  closer  together."  Science 
means  peace,  human  progress,  and  "  the  conquest  of  the 
unknown  is  the  only  conquest  worthy  of  the  modern 

In  the  sea  lie  hidden  the  keys  to  all  the  sciences,  for 
on  the  waters  life  began.  The  earliest  micro-organisms  are 
gathered  from  the  sea  and  studied  at  the  museum  of 
5lonaco.  These  of  course  include  the  plankton,  to  which 
perhaps  we  all  owe  our  existence.  This  fine  living  dust 


floats  over  the  surface  of  the  waters,  penetrates  into  their 
depths,  and,  by  destroying  impurities,  renders  the  exist- 
ence of  higher  organisms  possible.  The  human  body  is 
composed  mainly  of  water,  and  this  water  is  closely  akin 
to  sea-water.  Minute  organisms  preserve  the  purity  of 
sea-water,  and  the  preservation  of  our  health  depends  on 
the  triumph  of  the  friendly  over  tlie  hostile  organisms 
that  are  constantly  attempting  to  invade  our  bodies.  This 
is  a  fact  that  should  bring  oceanographic  science  home  to 
everyone.  Such  is  the  scope  and  utility  of  the  evidence, 
the  knowledge  now  accumulating  in  the  new  temple  raised 
to  the  enlightenment  that  science  gives,  the  life  it  inspires 
and  preserves.  On  the  ancient  rock  where  Hercules,  the 
god  of  strength,  light  and  vivifying  heat,  was  worshipped, 
now  stands,  with  solid  walls,  the  majestic  and  lofty 
museum.  It  is  a  noble  because  it  is  a  useful  structure. 
It  will  fire  the  ambition  and  create  thirst  for  knowledge 
in  the  minds  of  the  ignorant.  It  will  provide  a  haven  for 
the  learned  and  studious.  It  is  a  place  of  wonder  and 
delight  to  all,  and  it  stands  forth  overlooking  the  sea — a 
lighthouse  of  science. 



NEXT  in  importance  after  oceanographic  researches, 
so  far  as  the  principality  is  concerned,  is  the  great 
impetus  given  to  the  study  of  anthropology  and 
human  palagontology.  These  are  not  new  sciences,  like 
oceanography,  and  are  studied  by  a  much  larger  number 
of  persons ;  therefore  there  is  no  need  to  demonstrate 
their  importance ;  and  the  fact  that  a  historic  group  of 
rocks  and  caverns  known  as  the  Balzi-Rossi  or  Baousse- 
Roussc  or  l?oches  Rouges — the  red  rocks  of  Men  ton — 
used  to  form  part  of  the  principality  naturally  accounts 
for  the  fact  that  many  years  ago  archaeologists  came  to 
Monaco.  Just  above  these  rocks  is  the  picturesque  village 
of  Grimaldi.  It  was  in  the  year  1351  that  Charles 
Grimaldi,  Lord  of  Monaco,  Menton  and  Vintimille, 
bought  this  ground  and  gave  his  name  to  it.  He  also 
constructed  a  fort,  the  ruins  of  which  were  recently 
unearthed.  Thej^  tower  some  eighty  feet  above  the  edge 
of  a  high  cliff  which  forms  part  of  the  St  Louis  gorge. 
The  rock  is  called  La  Grimaldi,  and  its  cracks  and 
crevices  form  grottoes.  It  seems  that  once  the  Romans, 
and  perhaps  their  predecessors,  explored  the  palaeolithic 
deposits  of  the  Baousse-Roussc.  An  Englishman  in  1770 
tried  to  dig  into  the  Grotte  du  Prince.  In  1786  de 
Saussure  discovered  a  lime-kiln  under  the  shelter  of  the 
Grotte  des  Enfants,  22  feet  long;  and  other  grottoes 
were  used  for  the  same  purpose.  Before  1848,  Prince 
Florestan  I.  sent  a  case  full  of  remains  from  these  grottoes 
to  Paris,  but  they  were  lost  or  destroyed  during  the  revolu- 
tion. However,  in  1865,  Professor  Broca  visited thegrottoes, 




and  insisted  that  they  were  refuges  where  people  went  to 
enjoy  their  meals  in  security — a  sort  of  prehistoric  Giro. 

VV^hen.  in  January  1870,  the  railway  was  built  on  the 
uncultivated  strip  of  land  in  front  of  the  first  four  caves 
the  distinguished  French  geologist,  M.  Riviere,  was  there 
all  day  long  striving  to  impress  on  the  navvies  respect  for 
the  sacredness  of  the  soil  they  were  digging  into  or 
exploding  with  mines.  By  June  1871,  M.  Riviere  was 
able  to  take  a  large  collection  to  Paris,  and  next  autumn 
the  Minister  of  Public  Instruction  gave  him  an  official 
mission,  so  that  he  was  able  to  dig  deeply  and  open 
several  grottoes.  The  "  Memoirs,"  published  in  1873, 
testify  to  his  activity.  He  had  found  only  a  few  petrified 
birds,  including  a  falcon  the  size  of  an  eagle  ;  but  he  came 
across  many  large  animals  such  as  wolves,  antelopes, 
rhinoceroses,  and  finally  human  skeletons.  There  was  the 
skeleton  of  the  Cavillon  grotto  known  in  the  world  of 
anthropology  as  riiommc  dc  Mcnion.  He  was  found  some 
twenty  feet  above  the  stalagmitic  level.  This  skeleton 
is  now  at  the  Paris  Museum  of  Natural  History,  by 
the  window  on  the  first  floor  overlooking  the  Old  Orleans 
railway  station.  The  skull  is  stained  with  red,  and  a 
number  of  shells  of  snail-like  animals  adhere  to  it.  These 
are  the  A7/.v.w  of  the  Mediterranean.  The  late  Dr  Henry 
Rennet,  of  Menton,  Professor  Bennett  of  Edinburgh,  and 
Dr  .lolm  Martin  of  Portsmouth,  a  distinguished  dentist, 
were  all  present  during  the  week  it  took  to  uncover, 
without  damaging,  the  skeleton.  It  is  that  of  a  very  tall 
man,  with  perfect  teeth,  who  seems  to  have  died  in  his 
sleep.  The  general  opinion,  which  was  endorsed  by  Sir 
Charles  I^yell,  is  that  he  belonged  to  the  palaeolithic 
period — that  is,  the  epoch  of  the  mammoth,  when  man 
had  not  yet  learnt  how  to  polisli  stones. 

Most  appropriately,  at  the  Paris  Natural  History 
Museum,  from  the  gallery  close  to  the  Menton  skeleton 
a  commanding  view  can  be  obtained  of  the  life-sized 
reproduction  of  the  mammoth-like  Diplodoctis  Carnegiei 
■which  is  at  the  Carnegie  Museum  of  Pittsburg.  This  model 


is  a  gift  of  Mr  Andrew  Carnegie  to  M.  Fallieres,  President 
of  the  Republic.  The  Diplodocus  was  a  giant  reptile  of  the 
Secondary  era,  and  lived  at  the  end  of  the  Jurassic  period, 
on  the  borders  of  the  tropical  lagoons  that  stretched  to 
the  Rocky  Mountains.  It  was  found  in  Sheep  Creek, 
jVlbany,  co.  Wyoming,  and  is  82  feet  long  and  13 
feet  high.  Thus  very  important  discoveries  made  in 
America  and  in  the  principality  of  Monaco  are  close 
neighbours  in  the  Paris  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Soon  other  skeletons  were  found,  including  those  of 
two  children  in  what  is  now  known  as  /a  Groftc  des 
Enfunts.  The  implements  used  by  the  men  varied  greatly, 
though  the  animals  around  them  were  much  the  same. 
The  cut  stones  differed  in  size,  and  there  was  a  total 
absence  of  tools  made  with  bones.  It  was  in  1882  that 
Prince  Albert  first  began  his  researches.  He  dug  with  his 
own  hands  in  the  Banna  grande,  noting  down  at  once 
whatever  he  discovered.  His  object  was  not  so  much  to 
pick  up  specimens  that  might  form  a  collection  as  to 
unravel,  on  the  ground  itself,  every  sort  of  evidence  likely 
to  give  a  picture  that  would  facilitate  the  understanding 
of  the  epoch  to  which  they  belonged.  Then  he  also  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  saving  these  grottoes  and  the  precious 
evidence  they  contained  froin  the  depredations  of  scientists 
and  of  idlers.  It  was  indeed  necessary  to  see  that  what 
still  remained  should  not  be  destroyed  and  Avasted  by 
unskilled  explorers  or  ignorant  tourists.  ^Mlen  the  prince 
was  obliged  to  leave  he  insisted  that  M.  Saige,  Con- 
servator of  the  Archives,  should  conduct  the  explorations 
on  the  same  lines.  Everything  found  was  carefully  sorted 
and  classified  in  Paris,  with  the  aid  of  M.  Gantry,  whose 
competence  in  such  matters  is  universally  recognised. 

The  prince  insisted  on  the  careful  study  of  levels.  If 
for  a  certain  depth  there  was  nothing,  this  represented 
a  period  of  non-habitation.  The  things  found  above  this 
level  would  indicate  the  progress  accomplished  when 
compared  with  what  was  found  below  the  barren  stratum. 
Everything  was  noted  on  the  spot  and  the  earth  boarded 


up  so  that  it  should  not  crumble  down  and  mix  the 
periods.  The  earth  when  carted  away  was  removed  hori- 
zontally, so  as  to  keep  to  the  same  period.  Then  it  was 
passed  through  a  fine  sieve,  and  thus  small  objects,  such  as 
pins,  did  not  escape  notice.  To  be  more  free  and  sure  in 
his  researches,  the  prince  bought  one  of  the  grottoes,  now 
known  as  the  Grotte  du  Pr'uux.  The  rapid  progress  of 
anthropology  which  took  place  when  the  prince  was  yet 
quite  a  young  man,  and  the  discoveries  made  in  the  land 
of  his  ancestors,  greatly  stimulated  his  interests  in  all 
that  was  connected  with  the  origin  of  man. 

Early  in  his  researches  the  prince  sought  the  assist- 
ance of  the  Chanoine  I^.  de  Villeneuve  and  of  M. 
JNlarcellin  Boule,  professor  at  the  Paris  Natural  History 
Museum  and  editor  of  t Anthropologie.  The  services 
of  Professor  Verneau,  for  pure  anthropology,  and 
Professor  Cartignac  for  prehistoric  archaeology,  were  also 
secured.  P^'inally,  in  1906,  the  prince  invited  the  Inter- 
national Congress  of  Anthropology  to  hold  its  Thirteenth 
Session  at  Monaco.  Specialists  from  all  parts  of  the  world 
responded  to  this  invitation,  and  were  well  pleased  with 
such  an  opportunity  of  personally  verifying  the  importance 
of  the  prince's  researches.  Already  in  1902  the  prince 
had  determined  to  build  a  museum  to  contain  what  was 
discovered  in  the  neighbourhood  bearing  on  prehistoric 
anthropology.  Professor  Boule  was  commissioned  to 
organise  this  museum,  and  now  it  is  open  to  the  public 
every  day.  Here  the  Chanoine  de  ^'^illeneuve,  with  his 
assistant,  M.  Frederic  Leorenzi,  are  constantly  at  work,  and 
they,  <at  least,  know  how  to  receive  and  encourage  the 
ignorant  inquirer.  They  do  not  take  it  for  granted  that 
the  first-comer  knows  all  about  their  science,  and  manifest 
impatience  when  their  technical  terms  are  not  understood. 
Some  learned  professors  are  so  absorbed  in  their  studies 
that  they  fail  to  perceive  that  if  someone  makes  inquiries  it 
is  precisely  because  he  is  ignorant.  At  the  Anthropological 
Museum  the  reverend  canon,  though  a  man  of  science, 
has  all  the  tact  of  a  Catholic  priest,  and  does  not  fail 


to  inspire  the  most  ignorant  of  his  visitors  with  at  least  a 
gUmmer  of  liope. 

It  would  be  an  excellent  thing  if  periodical  excursions, 
at  a  fixed  fee,  could  be  organised  to  the  grottoes  at 
Menton,  beginning  or  concluding  with  a  visit  to  the 
museum  at  Monaco,  M.  Leorenzi  and,  at  times,  perhaps, 
the  Chanoine  de  Villeneuve  himself,  giving  explanations. 
For  nine  years,  from  1895  to  lOO^,  M.  Leorenzi  dug  and 
worked  almost  every  day.  The  greater  part  of  his  time  was 
devoted  to  the  red  rocks  at  Menton.  But  there  were  also 
explorations  in  the  Bas-Moulin  and  in  the  St  Martin  rock 
near  the  Oceanographic  Museum.  In  the  Monaco  rock — 
the  far  end  is  named  after  St  Martin — some  human 
palaeolithic  fragments  were  disinterred,  together  with  the 
remains  of  stags,  wolves,  leopards,  horses,  pigs  and  goats. 
There  were  also  some  marmots,  though  to-day  these  animals 
only  live  farther  inland  and  much  higher  up  the  mountains. 
At  the  Bas-Moulin  remains  of  the  Neolithic  Age  and  of 
man  were  found.  This  is  the  new  or  polished  stone  age.  By 
that  time,  great  Britain  was  already  separated  from  the 
Continent  and  the  Mediterranean  had  sunk  far  enough 
effectively  to  separate  Europe  from  Africa.  The  woolly 
rliinoceros  was  extinct,  and  races  of  animals  were  beginning 
to  part  company,  the  musk  sheep  travelling  towards  tlie 
Arctic  zone,  the  lion  and  the  hippopotamus  towards  the 
tropical  zones. 

After  much  collecting,  the  question  of  utihsing  what 
had  been  discovered  became  more  and  more  urgent.  When 
a  fossil  is  found,  it  is  covered  with  earth  or  other  matter. 
This  has  to  be  carefully  removed  and  the  bone  found 
under  such  a  covering  must  be  consolidated  so  that  it 
may  be  preserved,  and  marked  so  that  it  may  be  recognised 
and  catalogued  ;  otherwise  it  will  be  of  no  service.  The 
putting  together  of  broken  bones,  the  reconstitution  of 
a  shattered  skeleton,  the  preparation  of  the  specimen  so 
that  it  may  be  placed  in  the  glass  case  of  a  museum, 
require  special  knowledge  and  skill.  The  prince  therefore 
sent   M.    Leorenzi  to  the  Natural   History  Museum   at 

TiiK  Aniiihiipoi.oguat.  MrsKi'M 

THE    "GROTTE    DU    PRINCE"  207 

Paris,  where  he  was  thoroughly  trained  in  tlie  arts  and 
crafts  associated  with  anthropology. 

It  was  under  the  guidance  of  M.  Leorenzi  that  I  visited 
the  prince's  grotto.  On  an  excellent  road  after  an  easy 
level  walk  from  the  caravan  station  at  Menton,  the  grotto 
or  cave  is  reached.  The  accompanying  phototypographic 
illustration  shows  a  small  portion  of  the  wall  protecting 
the  approach  of  the  cavern.  But  M.  Leorenzi  was  armed 
with  a  big  and  heavy  key  which  opened  the  door  in  the  wall. 
It  is  situated  immediately  to  the  left  of  the  railway  line 
and  tunnel,  looking  towards  Italy.  The  cavity  now  disclosed 
was  absolutely  filled  up,  and  the  digging  began  at  the  top, 
where  the  opening  in  the  rock  forms  a  sharp  point.  At 
first  only  modern  things  were  found,  such  as  stones  of 
fruit,  shells  and  nuts.  A  straight  line  at  the  top  shows 
where  the  digging  began.  Numbers  are  affixed  here  and 
there  to  indicate  various  phases  of  the  work.  Thus  we  can 
note  a  stratum  some  seven  or  eight  feet  deep  where 
nothing  indicating  habitation  was  found.  Tiien  a  red  line 
painted  along  the  side  of  the  cavern  shows  the  finding- 
ground.  As  we  reach  the  deeper  layers  of  earth  we  come  to 
a  deposit  where  the  flint  implements  are  not  so  well  made, 
and  in  the  stratum  marked  C  we  get  traces  of  the  rhino- 
ceros and  the  elephant. 

At  Monaco  one  of  the  really  interesting  features  of  the 
Anthropological  Museum  is  the  graphic  and  easily  compre- 
hensible manner  in  which  these  researches  are  shown  and 
explained.  First  there  is  a  drawing  giving  a  section  of  the 
cave,  each  stratimi  being  numbered  and  coloured.  Close 
by  are  specimens,  each  bearing  a  paper  of  the  same 
colour  as  that  given  to  the  layer  of  deposit  from  which  it 
was  extracted.  Thus  we  can  find  at  once  the  rough  flint 
stones  of  the  earlier  periods,  the  cut  flints  ol"  a  later  date 
and  the  polished  stones  and  pottery  of  a  date  still  more 
recent.  And  while  the  development  of  man  may  be  ti-aced 
by  the  implements  he  made,  so  also  is  his  mode  of  life 
recorded  by  the  bones  of  the  animals  he  ate,  which  have 
been  petrified  side  by  side  with  his  own  bones. 


At  last  we  reach  man  himself,  but  who  will  tell  us  what 
sort  of  man,  or  how  he  got  there  ?  We  call  him  a  Trog- 
lodyte, which  only  means  that  he  dwelt  in  caves.  As, 
however,  his  bones  were  found  in  a  cave,  this  can  hardly 
be  considered  a  very  illuminating  piece  of  information. 
Some  of  the  Troglodytes  who  lived  in  the  caves  of 
Grimaldi  or  Menton  are  said  to  have  belonged  to  the 
earlier  negroid  race,  and  so  we  concluded  that  they  came 
from  Africa  before  the  Mediterranean  destroyed  the  over- 
land route.  But  no  skin  remains  to  tell  us  whether  these 
men  were  black ;  and  now  there  are  learned  authorities 
who  find  that  these  bones  compare  better  with  the  natives 
of  Australia.  The  fact  is,  nobody  quite  knows,  but  every- 
body can  see  that  this  supposed  negroid  man  had  more 
teeth  than  modern  men,  that  the  bones  of  his  limbs  were 
longer,  and  his  jaw  protruded  in  a  more  bestial  manner. 
As  a  contrast,  there  was  also  disinterred  the  skeleton  of 
a  Northern  type  of  giant  belonging  to  a  more  civilised  and 
more  modern  race.  Finally,  in  the  highest  strata,  Greek 
and  Roman  remains  were  found.  Thus  is  it  possible  to 
trace  man  back  to  the  earliest  times :  but  when  I  asked 
M.  de  Villeneuve  how  early  this  might  be,  he  replied  that 
he  did  not  believe  in  dates.  Probably  man  existed  fifteen 
thousand  years  before  our  era,  perhaps  much  earlier,  but 
really  he  did  not  know. 

In  the  lowest  marine  layer  of  the  Cave  (hi  Prince, 
just  on  the  other  side  and  under  the  wall  in  the  ac- 
companying illustration,  is  a  marine  deposit.  This  is  one 
mass  of  little  sea-shells,  and  here  was  found  the  shell  of 
the  Cams  rxija,  which  comes  from  the  Indian  Ocean,  and 
the  Strombus  bubonius,  a  tropical  shell  to  be  seen  in 
Senegal  or  some  similar  and  very  hot  climate.  In  this, 
the  lowest  part  of  the  cavern,  we  are  in  the  Pliocene 
system,  or  period  when  man  did  not  exist,  though  he 
seems  to  have  arrived  immediately  after.  Here  is  the 
priinitive  elephant,  the  rhinoceros  of  hot  climates,  and 
especially  the  hippopotamus,  which  is  so  very  susceptible 
to  cold  that  the  water  at  the  "  zoo  "  has  to  be  especially 

The  Anthropological  Museum 
Northern  tvpk  ok  (iiANT 

THE   FIRST   MAN  209 

warmed  for  him.  Then,  as  the  cavern  fills  up,  the  climate 
becomes  colder  till  we  reach  the  glacial  period ;  and  on 
this  selfsame  spot,  only  some  feet  higher,  we  find  the 
reindeer  and  other  frequenters  of  the  Arctic  regions. 
What  are  ancient  temples  by  the  side  of  this  natural 
shelter  provided  by  a  slit,  a  crack  occurring  in  a 
rock  ?  Here  we  have  accumulations  that  tell  us  some- 
thing about  the  world  before  man  existed.  Then  higher 
up  we  see  the  first  appearance  of  man,  the  so-called 
negroid  man  who  knew  nothing,  built  nothing,  but  did 
manage  to  make  a  little  fire  by  rubbing  pieces  of  wood  to- 
gether. This  type  is  found  everywhere  and  on  both  sides  of 
the  Atlantic.  He  hunted  by  himself,  for  he  had  not  even 
learnt  how  to  tame  a  dog.  If  there  are  any  horses  or  cows 
it  is  because  they  had  been  killed  and  eaten,  not  because 
the  negroid  man  knew  how  to  domesticate  them. 

There  are  nine  grottoes  in  all  at  the  red  rocks  of 
Menton,  and  the  inhabited  parts  are  carpeted  with  a 
stratum  of  cinders,  the  remains  of  innumerable  fires. 
Here  the  animals  were  cooked,  and  some  of  their  fossilised 
bones  may  still  be  dug  up.  But  in  these  layers  of  cinders 
there  are  subdivisions.  Burnt  bones  are  the  exception, 
the  cinders  are  very  small,  mostly  of  herbs  or  brushwood. 
Only  one  large  piece  of  petrified  wood  has  been  found, 
a  piece  of  oak.  There  are  five  layers  or  periods  of  habita- 
tion in  the  Caverne  du  Prmce ;  then  we  come  to  the 
marine  clay  that  terminates  such  explorations.  The 
distance  from  the  highest  to  the  lowest,  or,  in  other  words, 
the  depth  of  the  digging,  is  71  feet,  and  it  is  the  oldest 
of  the  caverns.  It  seems  well  established  that  there  was 
a  broad  belt  of  land  spread  out  in  front  of  the  rocks  and 
mountains  before  the  sea  was  reached.  Here  the  animals 
whose  remains  are  in  the  caverns,  but  who  do  not  live 
in  mountains,  used  to  roam  about,  coming  to  the  caves 
occasionally  for  shelter.  And  it  was  for  the  same  purpose 
that  men  frequented  the  caverns,  for  they  were  not  buried 
in  them.  To  test  this  theory,  the  prince  has  sounded  the 
whole  coast   and  found  that  thei'e  is  a  strip  of  ground 


varying  from  six  to  eight  miles  in  width  where  the  water 
at  the  deepest  places  is  only  ninety  or  a  hundred  feet  deep. 
But  at  the  limit  of  this  ancient  foreshore  there  comes  a 
sharp  descent  as  if  the  edge  of  a  cliff  had  been  reached. 

As  in  regard  to  the  oceanographic  research,  so  with 
respect  to  anthropology,  the  prince  has  defrayed  the  cost 
of  publishing  large  and  beautifully  illustrated  volumes 
recording  the  work  done  and  the  discoveries  made.  The 
first  is  "  Historical  and  Descriptive,"  and  is  written  by 
Canon  L.  de  \'^illeneuve.  The  second  is  by  Professor 
Marcellin  Boule,  treating  of  the  Geology  and  Palaeontology, 
and  the  third  is  on  Anthropology,  by  Dr  Rene  Verneau. 
As  with  oceanography  so  with  regard  to  anthropology. 
All  these  works  may  be  consulted  at  the  museum 
or  at  the  Municipal  Library.  No  charge  is  made  at  the 
library,  and  every  visitor  to  Monaco  should  go  and  see 
for  himself,  by  the  evidence  these  great  and  beautiful 
volumes  give,  what  a  mighty  work  has  been  done  for  the 
cause  of  the  enlightenment  conferred  by  science. 

In  1902,  at  Petites-Pjircnees  and  Haute-Garonne, 
M.  F.  Regnault,  of  the  French  Archteological  Society, 
found  in  a  grotto  some  red  and  black  paintings  of  a  pre- 
historic character.  These  were  similar  to  those  discovered 
at  Altamira  in  Spain  some  years  previously.  M.  de 
Santnold  while  out  shooting,  in  1868,  had  pushed  his  way 
into  the  Altamira  cavern.  But  he  was  not  a  man  of 
science,  and  there  were  very  few  men  of  science  capable 
of  judging  the  value  of  the  discovery  then  made.  This 
opportunity  of  tracing  the  arts  and  habits  of  the  primitive 
inhabitants  of  Gaul  and  Iberia  did  not  awaken  much 
enthusiasm  in  Spain.  But  when  something  similar  was 
found  in  France  a  small  subvention  was  obtained  from 
the  Acadriiiie  des  InscTipiions  ct  liclles  Leitrcn  so  that  the 
cave  of  Altamira,  in  the  north  of  Spain,  might  be  better 
examined.  Once  inside,  the  explorers  had  to  crawl  and 
lie  down  on  their  backs  to  see  the  low  and  unequal  roof 
that  stretched  out  to  the  length  of  130  feet.  This 
neglected  spot  was  now  invaded  by  crowds,  who  came  to 

The  Cavf.rnk  dv  Prince:  a  Troi.odytk  Dwiii.i.iNG 



find  out  what  the  explorers  had  come  to  see.  There  were 
many  difficulties,  but  nevertheless  Professor  H.  Breuil 
made  some  excellent  copies  of  the  paintings  that  existed 
on  this  roof. 

By  that  time,  however, the  small  subsidy  was  exhausted, 
and   no  one  had  the  means  of  publishing  these  copies. 
Here  it  was  that  the  Prince  of  Monaco  stepped  into  the 
breach  and   offered   the   printing    establishment    of    the 
principality  to  reproduce  in  the  most  perfect  and  artistic 
manner  possible  the  copies  made  by  Professor  H.  Breuil. 
It  is  a  mystery  how  the  original  paintings  were  done  and 
their  colouring  preserved.  There  is  this  to  be  said,  they 
cannot   be   seen   by   daylight.    There  are   traces  of  one 
painting  near  the  entrance,  but  it  has  faded.  Inside  the 
cave  there  is  no  light  at  all,  so  there  must  have  been  a 
good  artificial  light  at  the  period.  The  execution  is  artistic. 
Some  of  the  animals  represented  are  6  feet  in  length. 
The   fact   that   there  is   paint  inside  tlie   cracks   in   the 
stone   suggests   the   use   of  something   like   a   brush   to 
push  it  in.  Some  sharp  instrument,  a  flint  perhaps,  was 
employed  to  cut  a  portion  of  the  design  into  the  rock 
that  formed  the  roof  of  the  cave.  Ochre  is  abundant  in  the 
neighbouring  iron  mines,  and  may  explain  the  colouring. 
The  Troglodytes  who  lived  here  were  evidently  hunters, 
and  they  depicted  the  animals  they  pursued,  but  some 
of  these  exist  no  longer,  such  as  the  primitive  stag  and 
the  buffalo.   In  one  gallery  there  are  twenty-three  fine 
pictures  of  animals,  if  a  modern  had  painted  these  there 
would  be  some  trace  of  the  light  employed. 

The  reproduction  of  one  of  these  pictures  given  here 
represents  a  bovine  animal  and  a  female  bison.  Above  we 
see  the  portions  of  the  design  that  are  cut  into  the  rock. 
The  rest  is  coloured  with  brick-red  or  with  black,  and 
both  pigments  are  admirably  preserved.  They  are  perfectly 
reproduced  in  the  coloured  illustration  printed  at  Monaco. 
Three  large  volumes  dealing  with  these  prehistoric 
drawings  and  paintings  have  already  been  published  at 
the   prince's   expense,  and  the   knowledge  of  these  dis- 


coveries  saved  for  the  use  of  present  and  future  generations. 
Not  content  with  this,  and  realising  more  and  more  the 
importance  of  such  researches,  the  prince  resolved  to 
create  in  Paris  an  institute  to  encourage  all  possible  studies 
relating  to  man.  It  is  called  the  Institute  of  Human 
Palfeontology,  and  has  been  recognised  as  of  "  public 
utility  "  by  the  French  Government.  The  prince  has  put 
at  its  head  his  old  coadjutor.  Professor  Boule,  and  has 
also  obtained  the  services  of  I'Abbe  Breuil,  who  copied  the 
paintings  in  the  caverns,  and  Professor  Obermaier.  Then, 
so  that  the  institute  may  live,  the  prince  has  given  it  an 
endowment  of  £80,000  or  2,000,000  francs.  Further,  he  is 
erecting  the  building  at  his  own  expense,  and  it  threatens 
to  cost  nearly  as  much.  This  will  be  a  purely  international 
institute  and  Sir  Ray  Lankester  has  been  appointed  to 
represent  Great  Britain.  It  will  be  situated  close  to  the 
Ja7-din  des  Plantes  and  the  JNIuseum  of  Natural  History. 
Its  great  purpose  is  to  help  the  science  that  seeks, 
especially  by  means  of  researches  and  digging,  to  unravel 
the  history  and  origin  of  man. 







IT  was  during  the  reign  of  Charles  III.  that  the 
classification  of  the  archives  was  commenced.  Some 
four  years,  from  1882  to  1886,  were  devoted  to  putting 
the  papers  in  order.  That  portion  of  the  palace  which  was 
used  as  the  mint  in  the  days  when  the  Grimaldis  coined 
their  own  money  is  now  devoted  to  the  housing  of  the 
archives.  These  are  divided  into  three  series  of  papers. 
First  those  of  the  Grimaldi  family  and  Monaco,  which 
comprise  the  secret  archives  of  the  princes  and  their 
secretaries,  together  with  notary's  deeds  relating  to  pro- 
perty belonging  to  the  princes  and  letters  concerning  their 
private  lives.  A  few  of  these  documents  date  back  as  far 
as  the  year  982.  The  second  series  are  entitled  "  Terres  de 
France,"  and  deal  with  the  duchy  of  \'^alentinois,  other 
French  titles  or  estates  and  the  Matignon  family.  These 
papers  take  us  away  from  Monaco  and  treat  of  the 
government  of  different  parts  of  France,  such  as  Cherbourg, 
the  Channel  Islands,  etc.  The  third  series,  called  the 
Dukes  of  Aumont  and  Mazarin  series,  bring  us  nearer 
still  to  general  history.  It  is  in  this  series  that  the  letter 
from  Oliver  Cromwell  is  placed,  and  it  affords  us  some 
insight  into  the  character  and  policy  of  Cardinal  Mazarin. 
It  was  the  historian,  M.  (iustave  Saige,  who  first  put 
the  aix'hives  in  order.  But  if  confined  in  the  palace  at 
Monaco  these  documents  would  not  have  been  of  much 
use.  Therefore  it  was  decided  to  publish  the  more 
important  among  them,  so  that  they  might  be  consulted 
at  the  principal  libraries  in  all  parts  of  the  world.  Thus 

21. 'J 


in  1888  a  volume  of  716  pages  was  printed  containing 
the  reproduction  of  the  correspondence,  etc.,  dating  from 
1412  to  1494.  In  1890  a  volume  of  906  pages  brought 
the  correspondence  up  to  1540 ;  and  in  1891  a  third 
volume  of  724  pages  gave  us  the  chief  contents  of  the 
archives  from  1540  to  1641.  Then,  in  1905,  a  fourth 
volume  of  640  pages  appeared,  which  should  be  the  first 
volume,  as  it  contains  historical  documents  relating  to 
the  principality  anterior  to  the  fifteenth  century.  Here 
will  be  found  a  good  deal  of  evidence  concerning  the 
raids  on  the  coasts  of  England  by  Monegasque  ships. 
There  are  numerous  letters  from  the  three  great 
Monegasque  admirals  who  served  the  kings  of  Naples  and 
of  France — Rainier  Grimaldi,  his  son,  Charles  Grimaldi, 
and  his  grandson,  the  second  Rainier,  each  in  his  turn  the 
chief  of  the  house  of  Grimaldi. 

The  Paris  National  Library  has  acquired  a  register 
of  the  accounts  of  the  Treasury  under  Philippe  de  Valois, 
which  contains  minute  details  regarding  the  equipment 
and  cost  of  the  galleys  armed  from  1340  to  1346  at 
Monaco  by  Charles  Grimaldi.  This  is  followed  by  a 
description  of  their  subsequent  disarmament  and  sale  to 
the  King  of  France  after  the  disastrous  campaign  of 
Crecy.  Thus  at  Monaco  we  find  not  only  the  documents 
that  compose  the  Monaco  archives  but,  annexed  to  them, 
copies  of  other  documents  existing  in  other  archives  that 
supplement  the  information  available  on  the  spot. 

Of  the  207  documents  that  are  printed,  dating  before 
the  fifteenth  century,  20  are  borrowed  :  the  others  had 
never  been  published  and  the  originals  are  at  the  Palace 
of  Monaco  or  in  the  archives  of  the  Genoese  Republic. 
Among  the  documents  copied  from  other  archives  is  one 
from  the  Record  Office,  London,  Chancery,  Miscellaneous 
Rolls,  Bundle  14,  No  15.  It  is  a  lengthy  protest,  written 
in  Old  French,  emanating  from  English  prelates,  lords 
and  merchants,  against  the  enterprises  of  Rainier  Grimaldi, 
Admiral  of  France,  whom  they  accuse  of  hostile  acts 
perpetrated   in   times  of  peace.   They  ask  that   Rainier 

THE    ARCHIVES    AND    CROMWELL       215 

shall  be  condemned  and  compensation  given  to  the 
victims  ;  or  that  in  default  of  this  the  King  of  France,  in 
whose  employ  he  was,  should  indemnify  them.  There  are 
letters  from  Edward  IIL  to  the  Sicilian  Government 
regarding  the  interference  with  Monegasque  galleys 
which  the  King  of  England  wished  to  hire,  and  many 
other  documents  bearing  upon  the  naval  wars  waged 
against  England  by  fleets  from  Monaco. 

The  d'Aumont  correspondence  is  very  interesting, 
and  is  connected  still  more  intimately  with  general 
history.  Thus,  for  instance,  some  of  the  letters,  briefly 
to  summarise  them,  set  forth  that  the  war  is  going  on 
badly.  Dunkirk  was  besieged  by  the  Spaniards.  A  fleet 
sent  to  its  relief  called  at  Dieppe,  and  took  on  board 
1500  men,  provisions  and  ammunition.  The  Spanish  ships 
could  not  have  prevented  this  help  from  arriving,  but 
Blake,  in  obedience  to  orders  from  Cromwell,  attacked 
the  fleet  of  the  Duke  of  V^endome  between  Calais  and 
Dunkirk  and  took  15  ships  as  prizes  to  Dover.  Cromwell 
was  displeased  by  the  French  Government's  rejection 
of  the  proposal  he  had  made  with  regard  to  Dunkirk, 
which  he  desired  to  buy.  He  offered  to  pay  2,000,000 
crowns  and  to  lend  15,000  soldiers  and  50  ships  to  the 
King  of  France  and  INlazarin  to  fight  against  the  rebels 
and  against  Spain.  jNIazarin,  approving  this  offer,  would 
have  accepted  it,  but  the  queen  could  not  make  up  her 
mind  to  abandon  Dunkirk,  and  it  was  too  evident  that 
Cromwell's  purpose  was  to  restore  to  England  another 
Calais.  The  French  were  much  surprised  at  being  attacked 
by  the  English.  ^Vhen  they  protested  that  there  was  no 
war,  ('romwell  replied  that  it  was  retaliation  for  the 
pillage  of  English  ships  in  the  Mediterranean ;  but  he 
released  tlie  Frencli  ships.  In  the  meanwhile  Dunkirk 

This  vignette  of  history  is  an  example  of  the  glimpses 
that  occur  in  studying  the  archives  at  Monaco.  These 
archives,  it  must  be  noted,  are  becoming  more  and  more 
valuable.  Every  year  the  archivist,  M.  L.  H.  Labande, 


goes  for  a  few  months  to  study  other  archives  or 
celebrated  libraries,  and  there  copies  any  documents  he 
may  find  that  might  help  to  explain  or  throw  a  new 
light  on  what  exists  at  Monaco.  Thus  there  will  be  ever- 
increasing  attractions  for  the  historian  visiting  Monaco. 
For  those,  on  the  other  hand,  who  cannot  go  to  Monaco, 
there  are  the  printed  volumes  just  mentioned,  and  many 
others ;  in  all  about  twenty  or  thirty  publications  dealing 
with  what  has  been  found  in  the  archives  of  the  princi- 
pality. The  archives  therefore  are  a  very  important 
institution,  though  sadly  neglected  by  the  majority  of 
visitors.  This  neglect,  however,  will  not  continue  for  long. 
The  general  public  will  discover,  what  the  world  of 
science  well  knows,  that  Monaco  is  not  merely  a  pleasure 
resort,  but  a  centre  where  much  excellent  and  serious 
work  is  carried  on. 

Another  centre  of  study  is  the  International  Peace 
Institute.  It  occupies  a  modest  building,  the  chapel  of  the 
ancient  hospital.  This  is  near  the  Government  buildings 
in  the  Place  de  la  Visitation.  The  institute  was  founded 
and  endowed  by  the  Prince  of  Monaco  in  February  1903. 
In  consists  of  an  international  peace  library,  where  all  the 
literature  bearing  on  the  question  of  the  prevention  of 
war  is  collected  and  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  public. 
In  a  word,  this  is  a  centre  of  propaganda.  The  staff 
consists  of  ten  Monegasques  residing  in  the  principality 
and  forty-five  elected  foreign  members.  At  the  great 
Universal  Exhibition  held  at  Paris  in  1900,  M.  Gaston 
Moch  organised  the  exhibit  of  the  International  Peace 
Bureau,  which  was  rewarded  with  the  Grand  Prix.  The 
diagrams,  the  reproduction  of  the  works  of  art  and  many 
of  the  objects  composing  this  exhibition  are  now  at  the 
Monaco  Peace  Institute.  During  the  season,  from  two  to 
four  P.M.,  the  institute  is  open  to  the  public.  As  it  is  just 
by  the  tram  terminus,  most  visitors  to  Monaco  must  pass 
close  to  it,  and  should  devote  some  time  to  acquiring  at 
least  a  little  knowledge  concerning  the  efforts  made  to 
save  the  world  from  the  scourge  of  Avar. 



There  is  an  annual  subvention  of  £240  assigned  to  the 
pubheation  of  works  tliat  may  assist  the  adv^ocacy  of  peace. 
Thus  among  other  books  and  pamphlets  printed  at 
JSIonaco  for  the  Peace  Institute  is  to  be  found  one  by 
M.  E.  Izard  treating  the  problem  from  the  Theo- 
sophical  point  of  view.  JNI.  A.  Delassas  gives  a  summary 
of  Pacifist  instruction.  For  this  purpose  he  quotes  the 
arguments  generally  brought  forward  in  favour  of  war,  or 
at  least  showing  the  difficulty  of  preventing  war,  and  then 
explains  how  to  deal  with  them.  L'Abbe  Pichot  is  pub- 
lishing a  new  work  for  the  Peace  Institute  whicii  is  likely 
to  attract  special  attention.  It  proves  that  in  the  Middle 
Ages  we  were  better  off  than  in  modern  times  for  inter- 
national laws  to  prevent  war.  For  example,  there  was  a 
law,  an  international  law,  which  set  forth  in  what  circum- 
stances war  was  justifiable,  and  when  it  could  not  be 
sanctioned.  The  Pope  was  the  supreme  authority,  who 
could  and  did  interfere  to  prevent  wars.  During  the  last 
few  years  the  question  of  the  prevention  of  war  has  been 
discussed  at  the  annual  congresses  held  by  the  Inter- 
national Federation  of  Miners,  the  miners  feeling  that 
they  had  only  to  stop  the  production  of  coal  to  render 
war  impossible.  These  discussions  were  held  by  the  re- 
presentatives of  close  upon  1,200,000  organised  miners 
of  America,  Austria,  Belgium,  France,  Germany,  Great 
Britain,  Sweden  and  Holland.  No  one  can  have  followed 
the  debates  without  realising  how  strong  is  the  feeling  in 
favour  of  a  general  international  strike  against  war.  But 
this  is  no  new  idea.  Nothing  could  be  more  thorough, 
more  absolute  than  the  general  strikes  organised  by  the 
popes  and  carried  out  to  stop  war.  The  most  famous  was 
the  general  strike  and  boycott  ordered  by  Pope  Gregory 
VII.  against  Henry  IV.  of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire.  The 
word  Boycott,  it  is  true,  did  not  exist  in  those  days,  nor 
was  there  a  Confederation  Gencrale  du  Travail  to 
popularise  the  term  "  general  strike,"  but  never  were  the 
two  ideas  more  completely  realised. 

All  the  barons  and  soldiers  in  the  service  of  Henry  IV. 


were  released  from  their  oath  of  obedience.  None  of 
his  servants  was  allowed  to  execute  the  king's  orders 
under  the  penalty  of  being  in  his  turn  excommunicated. 
No  modern  syndicalist  ever  dreamed  of  such  a  complete 
general  strike,  and  its  success  created  the  historical  and 
idiomatic  expression :  "  to  take  the  road  to  Canossa." 
Here  Henry  IV.,  barefooted,  shivering  in  a  scanty  linen 
shirt,  came  to  prostrate  himself  before  the  Pope  and 
humbly  beg  his  Holiness  to  end  the  general  strike. 
L'Abbe  Pichot  in  his  work  will  not,  I  am  sure,  employ 
any  of  these  horrible  and  threatening  modern  terms. 
Instead  of  the  proclamation  of  a  general  strike  we  shall 
hear  of  a  Papal  Bull  of  Excommunication.  And  the 
signal  for  the  cessation  of  the  strike  will  be  the  granting 
of  absolution  or  pardon.  The  fact  remains  that  the 
Church,  internationally  organised,  checked  monarchs 
when  they  wished  to  pillage  and  to  fight ;  and  that  to- 
day the  miners,  internationally  organised,  contemplate  a 
somewhat  similar  action.  If  for  one  moment  we  pause 
to  reflect  on  the  potentialities  of  these  suggestions  and 
consider  that  such  thoughts  are  generated  at  Monaco, 
how  can  we  look  upon  the  principality  as  a  place  only  fiit 
for  frivolity  and  pleasure-hunting  ? 

The  real  fact  is  that,  whatever  may  be  said  about 
Monte  Carlo,  the  best  of  all  good  company  congi-egates 
at  Monaco.  Here  the  members  of  the  aristocracy  of 
intellect  are  sure  of  a  welcome.  From  all  parts  of  the 
world  men  of  science  are  attracted  to  Monaco,  and  at 
the  palace  we  may  also  meet  great  leaders  in  thought,  in 
the  arts,  in  politics  and  in  literature.  But  more  enjoyable 
by  far  than  the  formal  receptions  are  the  intimate 
breakfasts  given  at  noon,  and  generally  followed  by  coffee 
and  liqueurs  on  the  private  terrace.  Here  some  of  the 
guests  cluster  round  the  tables,  others  enjoy  the  beautiful 
view  from  the  parapet  over  the  bay  of  Fontvieille  to 
Cap  d'Ail  with  the  towering  Tete  de  Chien  rising  in  the 
background  to  protect  the  palace  and  the  principality. 
The  prince  will  often  select  one  of  his  guests  and  make 

O    " 



SOCIETY    AT    THE    PALACE  219 

him  pace  up  and  down  the  terrace  as  if  he  were  on  the 
deck  of  a  ship.  This  is  the  moment  to  get  things  said 
and  explained  which  perhaps  have  been  held  back  for 
want  of  a  suitable  opportunity.  When  his  Excellency 
Monsieur  Armand  Fallieres,  President  of  the  French 
Republic,  was  on  a  visit  to  H.S.H.  the  Prince  of  Monaco 
he  was  made  to  pace  this  terrace,  and  M.  Enrietti,  the 
photographer,  succeeded  in  taking  a  snapshot  just  as  the 
prince  was  indulging  in  one  of  his  best  jokes. 

Subsequently  Lieutenant  Bouree  was  anxious  to  get 
a  colour  photograph  of  the  President  of  the  Republic,  and 
succeeded  admirably.  The  president's  cheeks  were  rather 
Hushed  at  that  moment,  and  the  flesh  tints  are  wonder- 
fully reproduced,  as  is  the  vivid  colouring  of  the  flowers 
and  foliage.  These  colour  photographs  are  most  beautiful, 
and  are  invaluable  as  a  record.  When  recently  Lieutenant 
Bouree  accompanied  the  prince  to  the  courts  of  Austria, 
Belgium  and  Spain  he  showed  some  of  the  colour 
photographs  taken  during  the  later  oceanographic 
expeditions.  Though  he  put  some  of  them  in  a  lantern,  in 
answer  to  my  questions  Lieutenant  Bouree  explained  that 
they  were  of  no  use  as  ordinary  lantern  slides.  First,  an 
electric  light  of  50  amperes  was  necessary,  and  this  could 
but  rarely  be  obtained.  Then  it  would  not  be  safe  to 
expose  the  colour  photograph  in  such  a  light  for  more 
than  ten  seconds.  This  is  not  sufficient  time  to  give  any 
sort  of  explanation.  Therefore,  generally  speaking,  we 
must  be  content  to  look  at  colour  photographs  just  as 
they  are  or  through  a  magnifying-glass.  When  coffee  is 
taken  indoors  instead  of  on  the  terrace,  the  guests  who 
are  not  engaged  in  conversation  are  able  to  look  at  some 
of  these  colour  photographs,  and  thus  obtain  a  much 
better  idea  of  what  is  seen  during  an  oceanographic 

Apart  from  the  sciences  that  can  be  studied  to  such 
advantage  at  Monaco,  politicians  and  administrators 
would  find  much  to  learn  and  observe.  Here  essays  in 
legislation  may  be  made  which  a  statesman  would  not 



dare  to  attempt  in  a  great  country.  Monaco  thus  becomes 
a  sort  of  legislative  laboratory  in  which  Europe  may  safely 
experiment.  As  an  example  in  point,  we  may  take  the 
present  high  price  of  bread  and  meat,  leading  to  many 
serious  riots  in  France  and  Austria,  and  to  strikes  organised 
by  the  general  public  against  the  butchers  and  the  bakers 
of  several  towns  in  the  United  States  of  America.  During 
the  Great  French  Revolution  the  celebrated  law  of  the 
Maximum  was  enacted.  Under  this  law  the  price  of  bread 
is  fixed,  and  bakers  are  not  at  liberty  to  charge  what  they 
think  proper.  It  will  come  as  a  surprise  to  many  to  hear 
that  this  celebrated  law  is  in  force  in  the  principality,  and 
not  only  in  regard  to  bread  but  also  with  respect  to  meat. 
Now  that  the  present  high  prices  suggest  the  necessity  of 
some  such  legislation  it  would  surely  be  of  practical  use 
to  see  how  the  law  of  the  Maximum  works  in  Monaco. 

It  must  be  confessed  that,  judging  from  the  inquiries 
I  have  made,  the  results  are  not  conclusive.  First  of  all, 
there  is  not  enough  poverty  in  the  principality  for  the 
public  to  be  generally  interested  in  securing  the  strict 
application  of  the  law.  Certainly  if  a  butcher  refuses  to 
sell  meat  at  the  regulation  price  as  fixed  by  the  law,  the 
customer  can  call  a  policeman  and  the  butcher  will  be 
punished.  But  such  a  customer  would  ever  after  find  it 
difficult  to  get  served.  People  complain  that  it  is  not 
possible  to  get  good  meat  under  the  law  and  that  the 
prince  himself  pays  more  than  the  tariff  prices.  But  if  the 
law  is  not  strictly  applied  to  the  price  of  meat  it  is  very 
effective  in  regard  to  the  weight.  And  if,  on  the  pretext 
of  giving  choice  bits,  butchers  evade  the  law,  it  is  strictly 
obeyed  by  the  bakers,  and  this  is  a  great  protection  to  the 
population.  For  the  butcher  it  is  urged  that  he  often  pays 
more  for  his  meat  than  would  possibly  admit  of  his  selling 
at  the  legal  price.  It  seems  as  if  the  JNIaximum  had  not 
been  fixed  with  due  regard  to  the  quality  of  meat 
necessary  to  satisfy  a  large  section  of  the  visitors  to  the 
principality.  In  any  case,  it  is  almost  impossible  to  impose 
a  tariff  on  a  market  when  there  are  other  markets  close  at 

■-'.    u 

O    < 


hand  which  escape  from  any  such  restrictions.  The  price 
of  meat  at  Nice  decides  the  price  at  Monaco  far  more 
effectively  than  the  legislative  enactments  which  are 
supposed  to  govern  the  principality.  However,  whether  a 
success  or  a  failure,  the  fact  that  the  law  of  the  Maximum 
exists  at  Monaco  adds  immensely  to  the  interest  of  the 
place ;  especially  to-day,  when  in  so  many  countries  the 
dearness  of  provisions  has  become  an  urgent  and  threaten- 
ing problem. 

In  many  other  respects,  which  would  take  too  long 
to  enumerate,  new  laws  have  been  enacted,  old  ones 
modified  and  jurisdiction  simplified.  All  this  is  interesting 
to  those  who  study  such  matters,  because  there  is  at 
Monaco  a  field  for  experiment  such  as  does  not  exist  any- 
where else.  A  trial  may  be  made  here  which  it  would  be 
dangerous  to  attempt  elsewhere  ;  and  thus  again  does  the 
little  principality  of  Monaco  render  service  in  the  advance 
of  civilisation. 



THOUGH  in  any  case  the  methods  of  administra- 
tion and  the  laws  of  the  principaUty  offer  many 
points  of  importance,  this  has  been  greatly  ac- 
centuated by  the  recent  so-called  constitutional  agitation. 
Here  in  miniature  will  be  found  many  of  the  leading 
interests  that  go  to  make  the  world's  history.  We  can 
study  them  as  shown  on  a  small  scale,  and  therefore  are 
more  likely  to  understand  those  currents  that  determine 
great  events.  Here  then  we  have  a  population  exempt 
from  all  direct  taxation,  living  in  the  midst  of  wealth  and 
prosperity,  enjoying  the  benefits  of  lavish  expenditure  on 
local  government  to  which  they  do  not  contribute,  and 
yet,  with  all  this,  they  are  not  content.  On  the  contrary 
(it  seems  almost  a  case  of  mental  aberration),  they  are 
actually  clamouring  for  taxation.  If  we  say.  Pity  the  poor 
taxpayer,  we  are  invited,  in  reply,  to  pity  the  wealthy 
Monegasque  who  does  not  pay  any  taxes.  To  be  told  it  is 
a  great  misfortune  not  to  have  any  taxes  to  pay  is  certainly 
a  new  experience,  and  this  constitutes  another  interesting 
problem  for  the  visitor  to  Monaco.  Yet  when  we  think  of 
it,  a  reaction  in  favour  of  taxation  is  not  only  natural,  but 
it  might  be  taken  as  evidence  of  noble  and  high  motives 
of  the  ambition  to  assume  the  duties  and  responsibilities 
of  citizenship.  The  point  is  that  though  the  inhabitants  of 
the  principality  are  very  fortunate,  they  cannot  lose  sight 
of  the  fact  that,  collectively  speaking,  they  possess  nothing 
whatsoever.  This  does  not  matter  so  long  as  the  present 
prosperity  continues.  But  something  might  happen  to  the 
reigning  family  and  the  casino  might  be  swept  away.  At 



such  a  moment,  just  when  their  resources  were  vanishing 
and  their  property  losing  three  parts  of  its  value,  they 
would  be  called  upon,  for  the  first  time  in  their  lives,  to 
pay  taxes. 

The  primary  object  of  the  agitation  was  to  create  a 
public  fund,  a  Budget.  There  was  at  first  no  desire  to 
spend  such  money.  No  one  thought  of  creating  places 
with  emoluments  to  be  given  to  agitators.  The  original 
idea  was  to  collect  some  money  to  be  put  aside  where 
it  might  accumulate.  A  people's  sinking  fund,  a  public 
property,  was  to  be  created.  The  people  would  then  feel 
less  dependent  on  the  prince  and  the  casino ;  and  they 
might  help  themselves  should  either  or  both  fail.  But  such 
wise  foresight  soon  degenerated.  Appetites  that  had  re- 
mained dormant  awoke  and  began  to  see  in  the  agitation 
various  openings.  Instead  of  urging  that  it  was  necessary 
to  put  something  by  for  a  rainy  day,  they  now  began  to 
say  that  the  principality  was  wasting  its  opportunities. 
There  was  a  great  talk  concerning  vast  enterprises  that 
were  to  provide  employment  and  make  fortunes.  The 
deplorable  thing  about  it  all  is  tliat  the  people  do  not 
understand  there  is  already  far  too  much  enterprise. 

Of  course  the  principality  is  quite  unsuitable  for 
manufacturing  enterprise.  The  land  is  far  too  dear  and 
the  difficulty  of  bringing  provisions  along  this  narrow 
ledge  between  the  higli  mountains  and  the  deep  sea  v/ould 
handicap  any  ordinary  factory  or  mill.  Besides,  while  it 
would  be  difficult  to  feed,  it  would  be  quite  impossible  to 
lodge  the  workpeople.  Then,  as  there  are  no  native  work- 
people in  the  principality,  why  spoil  the  beauty  and 
tranquillity  of  this  unique  spot  by  importing  a  large 
underpaid  and  therefore  turbulent  proletaiiat  ?  ^Ionaco  hjis 
one  of  the  best  climates  and  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
places  in  Europe.  Is  not  this  a  sufficient  endowment?  To 
ask  for  more  is  to  court  the  destruction  of  what  exists. 
People  come  for  the  climate  and  the  scenery :  not  to 
liear  the  rattle  of  mills  and  breathe  smoke  from  factory 


Apart  from  manufactories,  merely  as  a  centre  for 
retail  trade  this  milder  form  of  enterprise  has  been  over- 
done. There  has  been  a  good  many  failures,  not  because 
business  is  bad,  but  because  businesses  are  started  on  a 
bad  basis.  Formerly  if  a  man  opened  a  shop  he  did  this 
in  his  own  town,  where  he  knew  many  people  and  was 
acquainted  with  the  local  requirement.  He  carried  on  his 
trade  as  conscientiously  and  honestly  as  possible  in  order 
to  win  a  good  reputation  and  ensure  the  future  of  his 
children  by  creating  a  business  he  could  leave  to  them. 

At  JNIonte  Carlo,  tradesmen  have  come  pouring  in 
from  various  foreign  countries,  thinking  they  would  make 
money  in  a  very  short  time  because  there  were  no  taxes 
to  pay,  and  the  place  is  developing  with  wonderful 
rapidity.  Speculators  of  this  description  have  no  idea  of 
winning  a  good  reputation  by  honourable  dealings ;  they 
are  strangers  in  a  strange  land,  serving  other  strangers 
who  have  still  less  claim  to  be  considered  as  natives 
or  even  as  residents.  Such  customers  are  not  likely 
to  return.  Thus  there  is  no  care  shown  to  keep  up  a 
reputation,  but  merely  the  desire  to  make  the  utmost  out 
of  each  individual  transaction.  This  is  all  very  foolish, 
because  even  those  who  do  not  return  tell  their  friends  to 
buy  all  they  require  before  they  come  to  Monaco ;  and, 
when  there,  if  they  still  need  anything,  then  they  are 
advised  to  do  their  shopping  at  Nice. 

The  tradesmen  here  are  not  the  traditional  tradesmen. 
They  have  lost  the  old  bourgeois  virtues  that  made  the 
political  and  social  power  of  the  bourgeoisie  so  great  that 
under  Louis  Philippe  they  became  the  real  governing 
class.  At  Monte  Carlo  they  are  a  cosmopolitan  horde  of 
gamblers  rather  than  tradesmen.  They  do  not  gamble  at 
the  casino,  for  they  are  not  admitted,  but  their  notions 
of  trade  are  gambling  notions  rather  than  conceptions  of 
earning  an  honest  living  by  steady  attention  to  work  and 
the  rendering  of  genuine  service  for  a  moderate  profit.  Of 
course  this  rapacity  fails  to  develop  the  friendliness  and 
neighbourly  feelings  which  form  such  a  delightful  phase, 



especially  of  French  retail  trade.  How  agreeable  it  is  to 
note  that  shopkeepers  in  the  same  district  make  a  point 
of  buying  from  each  other.  They  are  friends  with  one 
another  and  with  many  of  their  customers.  This  accounts 
for  the  comparative  failure  of  stores  in  France.  To  the 
purchaser  cheapness  is  not  the  sole  object. 

Then  come  swooping  down  upon  the  principality  great 
financial  companies  or  syndicates,  and  they  also  want  to 
gain  fabulous  sums  in  a  very  short  time.  Instead  of  im- 
proving it  they  spoil  the  place  with  the  ugly  buildings 
they  rear  for  their  businesses,  just  as  if  the  casino  was 
not  making  enough  money  for  everyone  without  the 
coming  of  these  financial  companies  to  render  the  princi- 
pality insupportable.  There  has  been  too  much  success. 
The  flood  of  money  is  corrupting  everything.  W^e  long 
for  the  quiet  and  perfume  of  the  lemon  groves,  the  song 
of  the  birds,  the  sparkle  and  glitter  of  the  fireflies ;  we 
get  the  shriek  of  the  motor  car,  the  stench  of  its  petrol 
and  the  flare  of  its  acetylene  lamp. 

In  the  Condamine  district,  and  still  more  in  the 
historical  town  of  Monaco  itself,  we  have  somewhat  less 
of  the  gambling  element  among  tradesmen,  and  they  have 
not  altogether  lost  the  old  bourgeois  virtues.  The  small 
retail  shops  are  nearly  all  in  the  hands  of  Italians,  some 
of  whom  have  become  nationalised.  The  others  are  so 
near  home  that  they  have  not  the  notion  of  leaving  as 
soon  as  they  succeed  in  amassing  a  little  money.  They 
constitute  a  more  stable  element  of  the  population. 
Whatever  labour  is  required  is  also  almost  entirely 
supplied  by  Italians.  Native  Monegasques  are  far  too  well 
off' to  tliink  of  doing  liard,  physical  work,  and  it  is  difficult 
to  see  why  they  should  urge  the  introduction  of  new 
enterprises  in  which  they  are  quite  incapable  of  taking 
any  useful  part. 

Fortunately,  as  already  stated,  there  is  a  special 
Monegasque  law  concerning  joint-stock  and  limited 
liability  companies.  They  are  more  closely  watched  and 
controlled  than  in  other  countries,  and  there  is  not  so 


much  danger  of  seeing  bubble  companies  floating  in  the 
principahty.  In  several  cases,  on  the  pretext  that  such 
enterprises  practically  enjoyed  a  monopoly,  they  have 
been  made  to  pay  a  small  sum  ;  and,  what  is  more  valuable, 
they  have  to  show  their  accounts.  Very  wisely,  these 
enterprises  are,  to  a  large  extent,  confined  to  one  district. 
It  is  situated  beyond  the  JNIonaco  rock  in  the  direction  of 
Nice  and  called  Fontvieille.  Here  a  portion  of  the  small 
bay  is  being  reclaimed  from  the  sea  so  that  there  shall 
be  more  room  for  future  factories.  At  present  the  two 
principal  establishments  are  a  brewery  on  the  Bavarian 
model  and  a  very  elaborate  macaroni  manufactory.  Here 
again  the  visitor  who  needs  food  for  thought  will  find  it 
in  the  practical  evidence  these  industries  give  on  the  beer 
and  macaroni  problems.  We  know  that  in  England  beer 
is  an  unsafe  drink  because  there  is  no  law  to  define  its 
constituents  ;  hence  such  cases  as  the  arsenic  poisoning  of 
beer-drinkers  at  Manchester.  In  Bavaria,  for  more  than 
five  hundred  years,  it  has  been  a  criminal  offence  to  make 
beer  with  anything  whatsoever  but  barley  malt,  hops, 
yeast  and  water.  The  beer  at  Monaco  is  brewed  by  German 
brewers  from  Bavaria,  and  the  capital  embarked  in  this 
enterprise  amounts  to  £64,000. 

The  macaroni  factory  cost  £24,000  to  establish,  and 
the  elaborate  processes  employed  to  produce  these  Itahan 
jiastes  in  a  great  variety  of  forms  are  an  interesting  sight. 
In  England  it  is  not  realised  that  the  macaroni  problem 
is  practically  the  bread  problem  in  other  words.  At 
Monaco  there  are  one  hundred  and  twenty  forms  for 
exactly  the  same  paste,  varying  from  the  well-known 
spaghetti,  tagliarini  and  canneloni  to  the  less-known 
bomboloti,  cockle  shells,  cornets  or  little  baskets.  The 
substance  rather  than  its  shape  is,  however,  the  important 
part  of  the  problem,  and  it  stands  thus :  Macaroni  is 
made  not  with  ordinary  flour  but  with  semolina,  derived 
from  the  transparent,  "hard,  for  the  most  part,  Russian 
wheat.  This  semolina  contains  from  50  to  55  per  cent,  of 
gluten  or  nitrogenous  matter,  and  never  less  than  from 



42  to  43  per  cent.  If  we  buy  flour  it  will  be  made  from 
tender,  opaque  wheat,  such  as  the  Canadian  wheat,  which 
yields  only  from  30  to  35  per  cent,  of  nitrogenous  matter. 
Now  flour  in  France,  as  a  result  of  protective  duties,  will 
cost  from  50  to  52  centimes  the  kilogramme ;  but  before 
this  can  be  eaten  we  must  add  the  cost  of  the  labour 
of  making  something  with  the  flour  and  of  the  fuel 
used  in  cooking.  The  macaroni,  already  made,  costs 
60  centimes  the  kilogramme,  and  needs  less  labour  and  fire 
for  cooking.  As  macaroni  contains  from  a  quarter  to  two- 
fifths  more  nutriment,  and  only  costs  one-sixth  more 
money,  the  answer  to  the  problem  favours  macaroni  as 
against  flour.  There  is  also  the  sanitary  question  as  to  how 
macaroni  can  be  made  without  coming  into  contact  with 
dirt  of  any  description,  and  this  also  can  be  studied  with 
great  advantage  in  the  factory  at  Fontvieille. 

Among  other  large  undertakings  there  is  the  manu- 
facture of  gas.  It  is  proposed  to  remove  this  odoriferous 
establishment  from  the  Condamine,  to  which  it  is  no 
ornament,  and  install  it  in  the  industrial  quarter  of 
Fontvieille.  We  have  also  the  electric  power  works,  two 
steam  laundries  and  a  model  bakery.  Employing  fewer 
persons,  may  be  mentioned  a  manufactory  of  perfumes 
and  an  art  pottery  work.  Altogether,  the  industries  of 
the  principality  are  valued  at  the  following  sums  : — The 
casino,  £15,000,000  ;  the  hotel  industry,  £1,320,000;  other 
industries,  £360,000— total,  £16,640,000.  These  figures 
show  more  eloquently  than  any  flow  of  rhetoric  what  the 
casino  means  to  the  country,  and  therefore  it  can  be  well 
understood  that  the  inhabitants  may  feel  a  little  anxious. 
The  enterprise  most  likely  to  survive  the  disappearance 
of  the  casino  is  the  manufactory  of  macaroni,  for  the 
macaroni  is  now  sold  extensively  at  Nice  and  other 
places  outside  the  principality.  Even  without  a  casino — 
that  is  to  say,  a  casino  with  gambling — the  principal  means 
of  existence  would  remain  the  catering  for  strangers. 
Tliough  in  reduced  numbers,  they  would  still  frequent 
the  principality  for  the  sake  of  its  beauty  and  its  climate. 


Therefore  any  sort  of  enterprise  which  would  spoil  the 
beauty  of  the  place  must  prove  a  lasting  injury.  In  any 
case,  an  enterprise  run  by  foreigners  witli  foreign  capital 
would  not  be  of  any  assistance  to  the  Monegasques  should 
they  find  themselves  suddenly  stranded  through  the 
abolition  of  the  casino. 

In  the  earlier  stages,  the  agitation  was  directed  against 
the  Governor  of  the  Principality,  who  was  accused  of 
having  badly  advised  the  prince.  It  was  only  the  native 
Monegasques  who  took  part  in  the  movement.  They 
called  upon  the  prince  to  act  more  as  a  father  to  them, 
since  they  had  no  rights  of  citizenship  and  lived  under 
the  patriarchal  system.  It  was  the  father's  duty,  and 
should  be  his  pleasure,  to  give  privileges  to  his  children. 
The  country  was  theirs  and  his,  and  they  were  tired  of 
always  having  foreign  functionaries  forced  upon  them. 
Later,  the  prince  himself  came  in  for  some  share  of  the 
unpopularity  and  animosity  which  at  first  M^as  directed 
solely  against  the  governor. 

The  prince  was  not  slow  to  recognise  that  there  was 
some  foundation  for  these  complaints,  and  has  gone  out 
of  his  way  to  confer  posts  upon  natives  instead  of  upon 
foreigners.  The  people  also  demanded  to  be  more  generally 
employed  by  the  casino,  and  this  has  likewise  been 
obtained.  So  there  was  some  sense  in  the  agitation,  and 
it  did  bring  about  good  results.  Unfortunately  there  are 
not  many  able  men  in  the  country.  Nor  do  the  employees 
believe  in  the  native  administrative  capacity.  Still,  when 
the  agitation  came  to  a  climax  and  the  people  made  a 
hostile  demonstration  before  the  palace  the  position  was 
dangerous.  Very  fortimately  no  one  was  molested  or  hurt, 
otherwise  bloodshed  would  have  ensued.  There  can  be  no 
doubt  that  there  was  a  strong  feeling  of  resentment,  and 
many  demonstrators  had  revolvers  in  their  pockets.  Great 
bitterness  was  felt  against  the  foreigners  who  had  invaded 
and  overrun  the  principality,  doing  everything  there  was 
to  be  done  and  keeping  all  the  money.  Why  did  these 
foreigners  open  shops  and  sell  their  goods  so  dear,  com- 


pelHng  the  native  jNIonegasque  to  go  all  the  way  to  Nice 
for  anything  he  might  want  ?  It  was  not  because  the 
casino  made  so  much  money  that  greedy  foreign  shop- 
keepers were  to  extort  exorbitant  profits  from  the  native 
JNlonegasques.  There  was  also  the  more  sordid  idea  that 
good  things  were  going  and  they  had  no  share  in  them. 
The  country  was  overrun  by  foreigners,  the  natives  had 
little  or  nothing  to  fall  back  upon,  the  dynasty  was  not 
stable,  the  casino  might  be  closed  at  any  moment — then 
what  would  become  of  the  Monegasques  ? 

If,  on  the  other  hand,  no  such  catastrophes  occurred, 
foreign  financiers,  for  the  benefit  of  foreign  shareholders, 
would  carry  out  vast  schemes  in  the  principality.  For 
instance,  it  is  proposed  to  reclaim  from  the  sea  land  on 
which  a  boulevard  would  be  built  from  the  JMonte  Carlo 
station  round  the  bay  to  the  eastern  frontier  of  the 
principality.  Thus  fresh  land,  created  by  foreigners 
for  the  benefit  of  foreigners,  would  compete  with  and 
reduce  the  value  of  such  land  as  the  Monegasques  might 
still  possess  in  the  Moulin  district  and  up  the  sides  of  the 
mountains.  Already  the  Condamine  was  suffering  because 
the  new  town  of  Beausoleil  had  sprung  into  existence 
just  outside  the  principality.  All  these  things  came  to 
pass,  the  Monegasques  were  buffeted  here  and  there 
by  the  rapid  development  of  economic  forces  and  they 
were  not  able  to  say  a  word  or  to  influence  in  any  way 
their  own  destinies.  So  they  cried  aloud  for  a  Constitution 
and  put  revolvers  in  their  pockets. 

Itwas  in  October  1910  that  the  agitation  came  to  a  head. 
When  the  hostile  demonstration  was  made,  serious  trouble 
was  feared.  A  story  is  even  told  of  mysterious  cases  of 
wine  brought  to  a  celebrated  hotel  at  Monte  Carlo.  At 
the  same  time  a  large  number  of  sailors  belonging  to  a 
British  man-of-war  anchored  at  Villefranche  were  un- 
expectedly given  a  holiday.  But  there  were  conditions 
attached  to  that  holiday.  It  was  to  be  spent  in  the 
principality  and  the  sailors  were  to  watch  the  flagstaff 
of  the  hotel,   whicli   had  laid  in  a  new  stock  of  wine. 


Should  a  certain  flag  be  hoisted,  they  were  to  hasten 
to  the  hotel  as  fast  as  possible.  On  their  arrival  the  heavy 
wine-cases  would  be  opened,  rifles  and  ammunition  ex- 
tracted from  them  and  the  sailors  sent  out  to  restore 
order,  or,  in  any  case,  to  protect  British  property.  Several 
persons  occupying  high  positions,  who  ought  to  know, 
have  assured  me  that  this  story  is  correct.  In  any  case, 
and  of  this  there  can  be  no  doubt,  French  troops  were 
held  ready  both  at  Villefranche  and  JNIenton  to  proceed 
at  a  moment's  notice  to  Monaco.  Any  disturbance, 
especially  any  attack  on  property,  would  lead  to  foreign 
intervention ;  then,  as  Frenchmen  are  the  principal 
proprietors  in  Monaco,  the  question  of  annexation  might 
arise.  But  the  casino  has  rights  that  the  French  Govern- 
ment could  no  more  recognise  than  the  German  Empire 
could  recognise  the  rights  of  the  casinos  at  Hom- 
burg,  Wiesbaden  and  Baden-Baden.  The  future  is  not 

Fortunately  no  serious  disturbance  occurred,  and  the 
prince  promised  to  grant  some  sort  of  constitution  so 
that  the  Monegasques  should  have  a  voice  in  the  govern- 
ment and  administration  of  their  country.  But  a  most 
disconcerting  discovery  was  now  made.  The  concession 
came  too  late,  for  the  Monegasques  are  already  almost 
obliterated  by  the  foreign  invasion.  One  unforeseen  result 
is  that  most  of  the  Monegasque  women  have  married 
foreigners,  and  therefore  their  children  are  not  Mone- 
gasques. In  1861  the  population  of  the  principality 
numbered  1200,  nearly  all  of  whom  were  native 
Monegasques.  The  census  of  1908  sets  down  the  fixed 
population  at  19,121,  comprising  only  1482  Monegasques 
by  birth  or  by  naturalisation.  Of  these  latter  not  more 
than  635  were  I'eal  Monegasques,  and  thus,  in  about  fifty 
years,  the  native  population  has  decreased  by  about  50 
per  cent.  Then  when  it  came  to  reckoning  who  among 
them  could  claim  the  right  to  vote  it  was  found  tliat 
though  the  electorate  would  amount  to  448  voters,  the 
electors  were  nearly  all  naturalised  Italians,  there  being 


only  95  genuine,  native-born  Monegasques  entitled  to  the 

What  applies  to  the  vote  also  applies  to  the  ownership 
of  the  380  acres  that  make  up  the  principality.  It  was 
at  that  time  estimated  that  126  of  these  acres  were 
covered  with  1300  houses  valued  at  £7,080,000.  The  land 
not  yet  built  upon  was  considered  to  be  worth  £2,000,000. 
This  total  real  estate  of  £9,080,000,  in  which  the  prince's 
estate  is  not  included,  is  owned  by  1300  different 
persons.  Of  these  landowners  620  are  French,  265  Italians, 
and  115  belong  to  other  nationalities,  and  the  value  of 
the  land  possessed  by  these  1000  foreigners  amounts  to 
£7,880,000.  The  rest  of  the  land,  which  is  worth  only 
£1,200,000,  is  shared  by  300  Monegasques.  With  regard 
to  personal  property,  such  as  shares  in  the  various  enter- 
prises mentioned  above,  the  situation  is  the  same.  On  the 
1st  of  January  1909  the  total  value  of  shares  and 
debentures  was  set  down  at  £15,880,000,  but  of  all  this 
property  the  jMonegasques  themselves  only  possessed 
stock  to  the  value  of  £400,000.  No  invasion  could  be 
more  complete,  except  in  one  spot,  Monaco  town.  Here 
one  foreigner  only,  an  English  lady,  bought  a  beautiful 
villa  before  the  decree  went  forth  that  no  part  of  the  old 
historical  town  of  JNIonaco  should  be  sold  to  strangers. 
How  independent  and  how  immensely  wealthy  the 
principality  would  be  to-day  if  the  same  law  had  been 
applied  throughout,  and  all  the  foreign  fortune-seekers 
compelled  to  content  themselves  with  being  the  tenants 
of  a  Monegasque  Commonwealth  ! 

Now  at  this  late  hour,  when  the  mischief  has  been 
done,  when  the  Monegasques  are  well-nigh  crushed  out 
of  existence,  when  their  beautiful  country  has  been  dis- 
figured by  incongruous,  ugly  commercial  speculations, 
they  have  risen  in  their  death-agony  to  claim  a  constitu- 
tion. The  prince  was  too  much  of  a  Grimaldi — that  is 
to  say,  of  a  Monegasque — to  refuse.  Too  late,  perhaps, 
to  be  of  much  use,  a  trial  will  be  made,  and  Monegasques 
have   now  a  voice  in  the  affairs  of  their  country.   But 


a  voice  in  the  face  of  economic  forces  recalls  Canute 
bidding  the  tide  to  stop. 

The  Constitution  bears  date  5th  January  1911.  It 
consists  of  seven  Chapters  and  fifty-eight  Articles.  The 
supreme  sovereignty  of  the  prince  is  maintained,  but 
there  is  now  a  national  or  public  domain,  distinct  from 
the  prince's  private  domain  though  drawn  from  the  latter. 
The  expenditure,  as  already  explained,  is  divided  into  the 
Consolidated  Services  and  the  Interior  Services,  the  latter 
being  submitted  to  the  criticism  of  the  popular  repre- 
sentatives. Individual  liberty,  freedom  of  speech,  meeting, 
association,  the  right  of  petitions,  freedom  of  religion  and 
the  freedom  not  to  observe  religious  fete  days,  is  granted 
to  all  INIonegasque  citizens. 

The  function  of  Governor  of  the  Principahty  is 
abolished,  being  replaced  by  that  of  Minister  of  State : 
this  minister  represents  the  prince  in  all  circumstances, 
and  presides  over  the  various  assemblies  or  councils.  The 
prince  appoints  three  functionaries,  who  might  be  called 
Cabinet  Ministers :  one  for  the  Home  Office,  another  for 
the  Treasury,  and  a  third  for  the  Public  Works  Depart- 
ment. These  three,  with  the  Minister  of  State,  the  First 
President  of  the  Court  of  Appeal  and  the  Procurator- 
General,  constitute  the  Council  of  State.  This  body 
frames  laws  and  ordinances  and  prepares  the  annual 
Budget,  all  of  which  are  submitted  to  the  prince. 

Universal  suffi'age  is  granted,  and  all  Monegasques 
may  vote  for  the  election  of  a  National  Council,  consisting 
of  twenty-one  members  appointed  for  four  years.  The 
council  is  to  meet  twice  a  year,  and  oftener  if  necessary. 
It  can  be  dissolved  by  the  prince  on  the  advice  of  the 
Council  of  State,  but  new  elections  must  be  held  within 
three  months.  Though  the  initiation  of  laws  belongs  to 
the  prince  the  council  can  demand  that  the  prince  shall 
propose  a  law  they  desire  to  see  pronmlgated.  In  the 
event  of  the  necessity  arising  for  the  imposition  of  direct 
taxation  this  could  not  be  done  without  a  vote  of  the 
National    Council.     Thus    it    comes    about    that    some 


Monegasques  are  agitating  in  favour  of  taxation.  On  the 
principle  that  •'  he  who  pays  calls  tlie  tune,"  they  argue 
that  they  will  have  no  real  power  till  they  pay  for  it.  Yet 
though  they  do  not  pay,  the  National  Council  is  per- 
mitted to  discuss  and  criticise  the  expenditure  on  public 
works,  fine  arts,  schools,  the  hospital,  health  and  charity 
departments.  Apart  from  the  National  Council,  three 
municipalities  are  created  for  the  three  communes — 
Monaco,  the  Condamine  and  Monte  Carlo. 

The  National  Council  has  now  met  several  times,  and 
of  course  it  complains  that  its  powers  are  not  sufficiently 
extensive.  The  trouble  is  that  the  population,  as  a  whole, 
has  never  been  taught  the  duties  of  citizenship,  the  sense 
of  public  responsibility  has  not  been  inculcated  during 
childhood  ;  and  the  chief  object-lesson  received  is  that  the 
casino  has  made  an  immense  amount  of  money,  therefore 
the  Monegasques  think  they  also  should  be  able  to  make 
much  money — it  is  a  demoralising  influence.  Then  there 
is  the  further  complication  that  the  vast  majority  of  the 
population,  though  foreigners,  have  to  be  considered. 

At  first,  when  the  Monegasques  desired  to  have 
a  voice  in  the  government  of  their  own  country,  the 
population  of  the  principality,  though  in  the  main 
foreign,  looked  on  benevolently.  But  now  the  situation 
has  changed.  The  handful  of  Alonegasques  want  to  have 
a  Budget ;  they  want  to  impose  direct  taxes  on  the  vast 
majority  of  residents  who  are  not  Monegasques.  These 
latter  see  no  ad\antage  to  be  gained  by  paying  the  taxes 
from  which  they  have  always  been  exempt.  Why  should 
they  pay  merely  to  allow  a  very  small  minority  of  fellow- 
inhabitants  to  enjoy  the  power  and  prestige  of  manipulat- 
ing a  Budget?  VVhy  should  a  rich  majority  create  a 
Budget  for  the  advantage  of  a  poor  minority  ?  The 
Monegasques  constitute  but  one-twelfth  of  the  population, 
and  of  course  the  eleven-twelfths  of  the  inhabitants  do  not 
see  matters  in  the  same  light.  The  complication  is  due 
to  the  difference  of  nationalities.  A  council  dealing 
purely  with  municipal  affairs  might  be  elected  by  every 


resident,  whatever  his  nationality,  Hke  the  Sanitary  Board 
at  Tangiers.  Each  voter  at  Tangiers,  however,  contributes 
towards  the  expenses  incurred  by  the  Board  he  elects. 
But  why  have  such  an  international  Board  or  ISIunicipal 
Council  at  Monaco  when  there  is  no  need  of  making  any 
payments  ?  If  it  should  ever  be  necessary  to  impose  taxes 
then  it  will  be  time  enough  to  speak  of  electing  a 
municipality  to  represent  not  one-twelfth  but  the  whole 
of  the  population. 

In  the  meanwhile,  so  long  as  the  prince  and  the 
casino  do  all  that  is  necessary,  the  foreigner,  who  conies 
to  the  principality  to  make  money  rather  than  to  attend 
to  politics,  is  quite  satisfied  with  his  irresponsible  position. 
He  enjoys  living  in  a  country  where  there  is  no  political 
squabbling:  he  has  enough  of  politics  at  home.  On  the 
other  hand,  it  is  quite  easy  to  understand  that  the  native 
Monegasque,  who  is  at  home,  should  feel  humiliated  to 
think  he  had  no  voice  whatsoever  in  the  concerns  of  his 
own  native  country.  So  efforts  are  being  made  to  satisfy 
the  Monegasque  without  imperilling  the  foreigner :  not  an 
altogether  easy  task. 



ANEW  treaty  now  allows  the  Monegasque  police 
to  pursue  and  arrest  fugitives  over  the  frontier 
line  on  condition  that  they  are  immediately  given 
over  to  the  French  police.  Quite  recently  a  criminal  might 
escape  by  running  perhaps  only  a  few  hundred  yards.  This 
might  carry  him  over  the  border  and  into  France.  Here 
he  could  enjoy  breathing-time,  safe  in  the  knowledge  that 
formalities  must  be  gone  through  before  the  French  police 
took  up  the  matter  and  continued  the  pursuit  the  Mone- 
gasque police  had  begun.  This  is  one  of  the  reasons  why, 
apart  from  the  desire  to  avoid  scandals  and  disturbances, 
the  Monegasque  police  preferred  prevention  to  punish- 
ment. It  is  quite  natural  that  Monte  Carlo  should  attract 
all  sorts  of  criminals,  more  especially  those  of  the  pick- 
pocket persuasion.  The  play  is  for  cash.  Cheques  and  bills 
are  of  course  not  accepted,  nor  are  counters  used.  The 
players  must  have  ready  money,  which  they  generally  put 
in  their  pockets,  so  that  it  is  easily  accessible  to  the  pick- 
pocket as  well  as  to  themselves.  Very  large  amounts  are 
thus  loosely  carried.  If  during  the  season  a  census  could 
be  taken  of  the  ready  cash  and  bank-notes  carried  by  those 
present,  the  amount  per  head  or  the  average  per  cent, 
would  be  greater  than  could  be  found  in  any  other  spot 
in  the  world.  In  bonds,  shares,  cheques,  bills,  etc.,  larger 
sums  are  brought  to  a  stock  exchange  or  leading  market, 
but  the  thief  cannot  easily  dispose  of  these  securities.  He 
likes  bank-notes,  or,  better  still,  gold,  and  these  abound  at 
Monte  Carlo ;  they  fall  in  glittering  cascades  upon  the 




Many  thousand  persons  enter  the  gaming-rooms  in  the 
course  of  a  single  day.  A  large  proportion  have  their 
pockets  well  filled,  at  least  on  arrival.  Besides,  if  the 
enterprising  pickpocket  is  afflicted  with  doubts  and 
blessed  with  patience,  he  has  only  to  watch  till  he  spots 
the  rare  player  who  is  satisfied  to  leave  the  tables  while 
still  the  winner  of  a  good  round  sum.  It  is  true  that,  when 
the  pickpocket  is  watching  the  players,  the  police  are 
watching  the  pickpocket ;  but,  like  the  game  which 
attracts  thief  and  thief-catcher,  with  uncertain  results. 
There  is  a  good  tale  told  of  a  detective  set  to  w^atch  a 
notorious  pickpocket  who  had  gained  admission  to  the 
gaming-saloons.  The  detective  kept  so  close  to  the  thief 
that  he  never  discovered  anything ;  but  this  proximity 
provided  the  thief  with  an  excellent  opportunity  of  safely 
stealing  the  detective's  scarf-pin  !  There  is  one  thing, 
however,  to  be  said  in  favour  of  the  criminal  class  fre- 
quenting Monte  Carlo  :  they  are  quite  worthy  of  the  other 
classes  which  make  a  point  of  visiting  this  fashionable 
resort.  We  have  no  vulgar  "  area  sneaks  "  here.  The  milk- 
can  may  hang  outside  the  door  of  house  or  flat  and  no  one 
will  condescend  to  steal  the  milk.  Petty  larceny  is  well 
and  good  for  London  suburbs  and  other  commonplace 
abodes.  On  the  contrary,  the  Monte  Carlo  thief  is  difficult 
to  catch  because  he  is  such  a  refined  and  high-class 
personality  that  the  police  hardly  dare  venture  to  arrest 
him,  however  politely. 

The  headquarters  of  the  police  at  Monaco  occupies 
part  of  the  Government  House.  It  is  not  called  the  Pre- 
fecture of  Police,  but  bears  the  title  of  Public  Safety — 
Surete  Puhlique — and  its  chief  is  M.  Joseph  Henri  Simard, 
JDirecteur  de  la  Sxirete.  Now  M.  Simard  is  the  proud 
owner  of  Max,  the  wolf-like  dog  of  Gronendael  breed, 
which  has  been  carefully  trained  as  a  police  dog.  At  the 
brilliant  international  Dog  Competition  held  in  the  Con- 
damine  during  the  spring  of  1911,  I  had  seen  this  dog  win 
prizes  by  reason  of  its  irresistible  ardour  in  devouring  the 
padding  protecting  the  limbs  of  a  very  honest  individual 


dressed  to  personate  a  villainous  apache.  In  1912  he  was 
again  equally  successful.  On  the  occasion  of  my  first  visit 
to  M.  Simard,  he  happened  to  enter  the  Government 
Offices  a  few  yai-ds  in  front  of  me,  and  I  watched  with 
pleasure  the  joyful  bounds  of  his  beautiful  dog  as  it 
played  about  while  following  its  master.  When  I  entered 
M.  Simard's  private  office.  Max  sprang  to  its  feet  and, 
with  dignified  deliberation,  strode  up  till  its  nose  was  within 
an  inch  of  my  leg.  A  studious  sniff  followed;  then,  standing 
still  but  watchful,  without  any  fuss,  show  of  teeth  or 
barking,  it  gave  just  one  low  but  emphatic  growl.  There 
was  no  mistaking  the  dog's  meaning,  and  I  felt  myself  as 
much  a  prisoner  as  if  handcuffs  and  manacles  had  been 
affixed  to  my  limbs.  Fortunately  a  friendly  word  from  its 
master  sufficed ;  the  dog  wagged  its  tail  and  returned  to 
its  usual  post  of  observation  under  the  office-desk  at  JNI. 
Simard's  feet. 

Having  explained  the  object  of  my  business,  I  was 
referred  to  M.  Theotime  Farine,  whose  special  business  it 
is  to  watch  over  the  people  who  visit  the  principality.  As 
a  detective  of  no  ordinary  talent  he  must  have  rendered 
eminent  service  to  the  Russian  Imperial  family,  for  he  has 
received  both  orders  and  decorations  from  Russia.  With 
M.  Farine,  I  was  soon  plunged  in  an  interesting  conversa- 
tion. The  police  of  Monaco,  he  explained,  pride  themselves 
on  their  elaborate  organisation  and  practice  of  preventive 
measures.  Their  great  object  is  to  be  so  thoroughly 
acquainted  with  all  swindlers,  sharpers,  pickpockets  and 
similar  gentry  as  to  render  their  lives  unendurable  from 
the  moment  they  enter  the  principality.  The  detectives 
so  dog  their  footsteps  that  in  alarm  they  depart  without 
attempting  to  steal  anything.  On  such  occasions  the  police 
will  spend  the  whole  night  watching  in  the  hotel  where 
the  suspected  person  has  taken  a  room,  and  thus  the  thief 
is  sometimes  caught  in  the  act.  There  are  police  agents 
who  have  been  living  in  the  principality  for  so  many  years 
that  they  have  become  familiar  with  the  faces  of  nearly 
all   the  regular   frequenters.   This   is  most   useful,   as  it 


prevents  a  great  deal  of  weary  and  futile  watching.  Still, 
much  depends  upon  hazard,  for  there  is  a  constant  flow  of 
new-comers  whose  features  cannot  be  known  and  who  are 
probably  very  honourable  people. 

Detection  is  rendered  more  difficult  because  it  is  the 
aristocracy  of  the  criminal  classes  who  frequent  Monte 
Carlo.  The  visitor  of  good  birth  and  breeding  need  have 
no  apprehension.  His  refined  senses  will  not  be  offended 
in  any  way.  He  will  be  robbed  with  the  utmost  courtesy, 
and  by  some  very  elegant,  well-conducted  and  wealthy 
person.  Indeed,  one  of  the  best  chances  of  catching  a 
thief  is  the  probability  that  he  will  overplay  his  part.  His 
luggage  will  be  just  a  little  too  good  and  expensive,  or 
he  will  wear  rather  too  much  jewellery.  Of  course  these 
ingenious  adventurers  go  to  winter  quarters  in  the  most 
expensive  style  and  by  the  dearest  route.  Only  very  rich 
people  can  aiFord  to  rival  the  Riviera  sharper  and  thief  in 
his  mode  of  travelling.  Thus  may  we  rest  in  peace.  There 
is  in  such  facts  a  merciful  dispensation.  Only  those  who 
can  afford  the  loss  are  likely  to  be  robbed. 

Of  late  years  it  has  been  the  fashion  among  this  class 
of  criminals  to  adopt  American  manners,  perhaps  because 
some  of  the  boldest  and  most  skilful  thieves  actually 
came  from  the  States,  following  those  of  their  countrymen 
who  had  "struck  oil."  Early  in  1911  the  police  arrested 
an  American  who  frequented  very  good  society  and  had 
put  up  at  one  of  the  best  hotels  at  Nice.  On  opening  his 
luggage  there  were  found  a  complete  and  most  scientific 
burglar's  kit,  two  trick  roulettes  and  packs  of  marked 
cards.  Not  only  are  these  light-fingered  gentlemen 
perfectly  dressed,  they  are  also  very  courteous.  Some  of 
them  are  Avell  read,  and  ingratiate  themselves  both  by 
their  obliging  manners  and  their  entertaining  conver- 
sation. However,  this  is  not  a  sufficient  reason  to  justify 
the  haughty,  insulting  indifference  English  travellers  are 
apt  to  display  towards  the  stranger  who  attempts  to  be 
polite  and  agreeable.  Politeness  is  a  virtue,  honesty  is  a 
virtue ;  and  though  we  may  suspect  the  absence  of  the 


latter  that  is  not  reason  enough  for  exiling  the  former. 
It  will  be  time  to  turn  a  cold  shoulder  on  a  fellow- 
traveller  when  he  suggests  a  game  of  cards  or  any  other 
course  involving  a  money  issue. 

When  these  fashionable  thieves  reach  their  hotel,  and 
it  is  generally  one  of  the  very  best  and  most  expensive 
in  the  place,  the  difficulty  of  recognising  and  convicting 
them  only  increases.  Just  as  they  wear  elegant  clothes, 
have  the  best  trunks  and  the  most  valuable  jewellery,  so 
also  are  they  provided  with  a  plentiful  supply  of  money. 
Their  first  care  is  to  interview  the  proprietor  or  manager 
of  the  Iiotel  and  ask  him  to  keep  their  money  in  his  safe. 
As  this  is  a  usual  custom,  assent  is  readily  given,  and  the 
new  arrival  hands  over  such  a  large  sum  as  entirely  to 
disarm  all  suspicion.  M.  Farine  assured  me  that  he  had 
known  professional  thieves  deposit  in  the  hotel  safe  as 
mucli  as  £1000.  There  was  one  case  of  a  pickpocket  who 
gave  his  hotelkeeper  160,000  francs,  or  £2400.  When  the 
police  come  to  inform  the  hotel  manager  that  there  is  a 
thief  among  his  guests,  the  warning  is  naturally  greeted 
with  expressions  of  surprise  and  incredulity.  Yet  if  this 
warning  were  not  given  the  manager  of  the  hotel,  by 
answering  favourably  questions  asked  concerning  his 
lodger,  might  help  the  rogue  to  effect  his  purpose.  When 
a  chance  acquaintance  is  made  in  travelling  or  at  an  hotel 
one  of  the  few  methods  available  of  obtaining  some 
information  about  the  stranger  is  to  inquire  if  he  is 
known  at  the  hotel.  The  manager  may  then  reply  that 
though  he  does  not  know  much  about  his  guest,  still  as 
he  is  a  very  well-conducted  person  and  has  deposited  a 
large  sum  in  the  hotel  safe  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  his 
respectability.  On  the  other  hand,  if  the  hotel  manager 
has  been  put  on  his  guard  by  the  police,  he  will  be  careful 
not  to  say  anything  that  might  be  construed  as  a  recom- 
mendation wliich  would  help  the  thief  to  impose  on  his 

Some  of  these  hotel  "  rats,"  to  use  the  graphic  French 
term,  have  all  sorts  of  pincers  with  which  they  can  turn  a 


key  that  is  on  the  other  side  of  the  door.  They  can  then 
enter  and  help  themselves.  If  the  occupant  is  asleep  they 
will  increase  the  profundity  of  his  slumbers  by  the  aid  of 
chloroform.  On  leaving,  the  thief  with  his  admirable  tools 
locks  the  door  again.  Next  morning  the  victim  awakes 
and  finds  his  door  locked  from  the  inside  just  as  he  had 
locked  it  himself  before  going  to  bed.  Evidently  no  one 
has  come  in  by  the  door,  nor  indeed  in  any  other  way. 
There  have  been  no  burglai-s  this  time,  for  everything  is 
in  exactly  the  same  position  as  on  the  previous  evening, 
and  there  were  several  objects  lying  about — a  gold  watch 
perhaps — which  would  be  worth  stealing  but  which  have 
not  been  touched.  It  is  perhaps  much  later  in  the  day  that 
the  pocket-book  chai'ged  with  bank-notes  is  missed.  What 
has  happened  ?  One  thing  seems  quiet  clear :  no  robbery 
was  committed  in  the  hotel.  The  door  was  locked  in  the 
evening  and  it  was  still  locked  in  the  morning.  There  is 
not  a  scratch  or  a  mark  anywhere  to  reveal  the  entrance 
of  a  thief,  and  there  were  so  many  other  things  that 
might  have  been  stolen  but  were  not  tampered  with.  The 
book  with  the  notes,  it  is  more  natural  to  suppose,  was 
lost,  dropped  or  snatched  out  of  the  pocket  when  its 
owner  was  aM'ay  on  some  excursion  or  had  reluctantly 
consented  to  participate  in  the  gathering  of  a  rather 
mixed  but  jovial  company,  where,  however,  he  had  enjo3'^ed 
himself  mightily.  Then  pockets  are  so  easilj^  picked  in  the 
crowd  round  the  gambling-tables.  At  the  hotel  obviously 
nothing  was  lost  or  stolen,  and  the  one  person  the  police 
suspect  has  given  the  most  absolute  proof  that  he  is  a 
man  of  means. 

That  is  why  the  police  set  detectives  to  watch  at  night 
in  the  hotels,  even  at  the  risk  of  terrifying  some  inmate 
whose  suspicions  will  be  awakened  by  seeing  a  stranger 
loitering  in  the  passages.  Thus  the  detective  runs  every 
risk  of  being  mistaken  for  a  desperate  burglar,  and  may 
consider  himself  fortunate  if  some  amateur  defender  of 
law  and  order  does  not  take  a  shot  at  him  with  a  revolver. 
Desperate  crimes  attended  with  bloodshed  are,  however, 


very  rare  in  the  principality.  In  1907  there  was  the 
celebrated  Gould  affair,  when  a  lady  was  murdered  and 
cut  into  pieces  by  her  friends  and  an  attempt  made  to 
get  rid  of  the  body  by  putting  it  in  a  box. 

The  next  notorious  theft  with  violence  took  place  at 
five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  on  the  28th  of  December  1911. 
By  eight  o'clock  that  same  evening  the  three  men  con- 
cerned were  arrested.  They  had  entered  the  apartment  of 
a  beautiful  Italian  actress  named  Signorina  Liona,  sprung 
on  her  ser\ant,  treated  her  with  some  violence  and  left 
her  securely  bound  and  fainting  on  the  floor.   The  men 
made  off  with  some  money  and  a  large  quantity  of  very 
valuable  jewellery.  Part  of  this,  and  the  jewel-box,  were 
buried  in  the  sand  on  the  Larvotto  beach.  The  servant, 
restored  to  her  senses,  was  able  to  give  so  clear  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  three  men  that  two  of  them  were  arrested  in 
the    principality   shortly  after   they  had  perpetrated   the 
crime.   The  third   managed  to  get  as  far  as   Vintimille, 
Here,  however,  he  had  to  wait  some  time  for  a  train,  and 
strolled   about  in   the  streets.    A  Monegasque  detective, 
who  was  watching,  and  who  had  received  by  telegraph  a 
full  description  of  the  crime  and  the  criminals,  thought  he 
recognised  the  man.  He  at  once  asked  the  Italian  police 
to  interrogate  the  stranger,  who  was  accordingly  invited 
to  step  into  the  police  office.    Here  he  gave  such  satis- 
factory answers  that  he  was  about  to  be  released  when 
the  Monegasque  detective  noticed  that  he  had  never  taken 
off  his  cap.   Attention  having  been  drawn  to  this,  the 
stranger   was   told  to  remove  his  cap ;    on  his  doing  so 
some  jewels    fell    on    to    the    floor.    He    was    at   once 
arrested,   but  his  trial   did  not  take  place  till  the  22nd 
of  May  1912,  at   Oneglia,   in   Italy.    In    the  meanwhile 
his  brother,  who  had  participated  in  the  crime  and  was 
imprisoned   at   Monaco,   committed   suicide   in   his   cell, 
on   the    1st   of  .lanuary   1912.    Perhaps   it   was    on  this 
account  that    a  plea    of  insanity  or  irresponsibility  was 
set   up.    At  any  rate,  the  Italian  court  acquitted  their 
prisoner.  The  important  and  notable  feature  of  the  affair 


is  the  rapidity  with  which  the  culprits  were  arrested.  The 
whole  of  the  jewels  also  were  recovered  ;  not  a  single  thing 
was  lost. 

Crimes  with  violence  are  extremely  rare  in  the 
principality.  There  may  be  quarrels  accompanied  with 
violence  among  Italians,  but  these  are  honest  if  hot- 
tempered  individuals.  The  police  place  the  greatest  faith 
in  ostentatious  shadowing.  As  already  stated,  when  a 
criminal  finds  he  is  watched  at  every  turn  he  generally 
goes  away.  It  is  easier  to  prevent  a  crime  than  to  capture 
the  criminal  after  it  has  been  perpetrated.  But  the  police 
have  no  light  task.  An  enormous  number  of  people  come 
into  the  principality.  Many  of  them — the  majority  of 
them — are  not  strangers  but  neighbours,  coming  from  the 
outskirts,  from  Nice,  Menton  and  other  places.  They  will 
return  home  the  same  evening,  and  may  be  back  again 
in  the  principality  the  next  day.  Nevertheless,  however 
numerous  the  cases  of  duplicating  may  be  the  fact  remains 
that,  coming  by  train,  tramway  or  other  means  of  loco- 
motion, the  persons  entering  the  principality  during  the 
year  1911  numbered  1,587,130.  How  is  such  a  crowd  to 
be  adequately  watched  ? 

According  to  an  official  report  giving  a  summary  of 
legal  proceedings  during  the  ten  years  from  1898  to  1907, 
there  were  4  convictions  for  murder  during  this  period, 
and  altogether  34  convictions  for  serious  crimes  entailing 
heavy  penalties.  There  took  place  11,229  prosecutions, 
most  of  them  for  insignificant  minor  offences,  such  as 
letting  off  a  squib  in  the  streets,  blocking  the  thorough- 
fare, singing  at  night,  dropping  something  out  of  a  window 
and  infringing  various  administrative  regulations.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  of  all  these  prosecutions  8459 
were  directed  against  Italians,  1885  against  French,  566 
against  Monegasques,  185  against  Germans,  51  against 
Swiss,  and  only  31  against  British  subjects,  though  they  are 
numerous  in  the  principality.  The  Russians  came  in  for 
23  prosecutions,  and  other  nationalities  not  mentioned 
for  29.  There  is  not  the  slightest  doubt,  and  the  figures 



quoted  testify  to  the  fact,  that  the  greatest  personal 
security  is  enjoyed  by  residents  in  the  principaUty.  This 
indeed  is  one  of  its  attractions,  and  many  people  en- 
deavour to  make  a  home  on  this  beautiful  spot  because 
they  feel  so  safe  and  well  guarded. 



THE  greatest,  the  most  legitimate  claim  to  pre- 
ference Monaco  can  make  is  its  climate.  The  whole 
of  the  Riviera  from  San  Remo  to  Cannes,  and 
again,  but  farther  on,  Hyeres,  adduce  identically  the  same 
reason  as  their  justification  in  taking  the  title  of  winter 
stations.  The  JNIaritime  Alps  or  offshoots  from  this  great 
mountain-range  protect  all  these  places  from  the  cold 
northerly  winds,  though  here  and  there,  maybe,  a  gap  cut 
by  a  river  lets  some  cold  wind  through  and  makes  things 
uncomfortable.  There  is  no  such  river  in  the  principality. 
Direct  to  the  north,  and  quite  close  at  hand.  Mount  Agel 
rises  to  a  height  of  3770  feet.  An  offshoot  of  this  mountain 
to  the  north-east  passes  above  the  romantic  village  of 
Roquebrune  to  advance  some  distance  out  to  sea  and 
form  the  Cap  Martin.  On  the  other  side  of  Mount  Agel, 
toward  the  west,  there  are  lower  mountains,  but  no  in- 
terruption in  the  succession  of  protecting  hills.  First  comes 
the  battle  mountain.  La  Turbie,  with  its  Augustan  trophy 
built  at  an  altitude  of  2620  feet,  and  then  the  Tete  de 
Chien,  1880  feet,  terminates  the  amphitheatre  which,  with- 
out any  break,  shelters  the  principality  from  the  cold 
northern  winds.  The  mistral,  it  is  true,  blows  in  spite  of 
all  this  shelter,  but  by  the  time  it  has  leapt  over  the  lofty 
peaks  and  has  been  deflected  down  on  the  other  side  it 
has  lost  much  of  its  rude  violence.  It  comes  to  carry  away 
the  dust,  to  oxidise  and  purify  its  particles  by  blowing 
them  about  in  the  blazing  sunshine,  and  to  announce  that 
rain  and  uncertain  weather  are  over.  The  mistral  is  not 
an  enemy  ;  it  is  rather  a  brusque,  boisterous  friend  which, 


MiDwiMKR  Sun  Bath  on  thk  Casino  Tekkace 

THE    CLIMATE  245 

like  a  spring  cleaning,  creates  alarming  discomfort  while 
rendering  genuine  service. 

The  more  perfect  the  shelter,  the  more  likely  is  the 
atmosphere  to  become  oppressive,  like  the  air  in  a  hot- 
house ;  but,  with  the  exception  of  the  Condamine  district 
and  the  Bas-Moulin,  the  principality  escapes  from  this 
inconvenience.  The  houses  are  not  built  on  a  beach  at  the 
seashore.  They  are  built  on  the  sides  of  mountains.  The 
building  land  available  rises  to  a  height  of  500  feet,  and 
there  are  comparatively  few  houses  at  a  lower  level  than 
200  feet  above  the  sea.  This  ensures  a  constant  if  slight 
circulation  of  air,  which  prevents  the  feeling  of  depression 
and  acts  as  a  gentle  stimulant.  As  the  subsoil  consists 
mainly  of  rock,  and  is  situated  on  the  mountain-side,  the 
gradient  towards  the  sea  is  very  steep ;  we  thus  obtain 
very  efficient  natural  drainage.  There  are  no  accumulations 
ofstagnant  water  or  of  mud.  After  the  severest  rainfall  the 
roads  are  dry  again  in  a  few  hours.  Thus  the  principality 
is  remarkably  free  from  mist  and  damp.  The  air  is  always 
exceptionally  dry  ;  and  excess  of  cold  or  heat  is  much 
more  endurable  if  the  air  is  not  moist. 

The  purity  of  the  air  is  assured  by  the  immense 
uninhabited  space  occupied  by  the  mountains  on  the  one 
side  and  tlie  wide  expanse  of  sea  on  the  other  side.  These 
constitute  two  inexhaustible  sources  of  germ-free  atmos- 
phere. The  strip  of  land  running  between  the  mountains 
and  the  sea,  which  man  befouls,  is  so  narrow  that  the 
impurities  engendered  are  promptly  dispersed  by  the 
constiint  admixture  of  pure  air  blown  in  upon  it  from  one 
or  the  other  side.  Then  the  enormous  volume  of  water 
that  bathes  the  whole  length  of  the  narrow  principality 
throws  off  in  winter  some  of  the  heat  it  has  stored  in 
summer ;  while,  in  the  hot  weather,  on  the  contrary, 
it  helps  to  keep  the  temperature  cool.  Thus  there  is 
a  summer  as  well  as  a  winter  season,  when  visitors  come 
from  Greece,  Turkey,  Egypt,  Brazil  and  other  hot  places 
to  enjoy  the  comparative  coolness  of  the  principality. 
But   we   have   the   reverse   to   every   medal.    The   more 


attractive  the  place  the  greater  the  number  of  visitors. 
With  the  increase  of  popularity  comes  the  danger  of 
overcrowding.  Already  some  houses  have  been  built 
in  defiance  of  the  most  elementary  laws  of  health.  The 
back  of  the  lower  part  of  these  very  lofty  dwellings  is 
so  close  against  the  mountain-side  that  there  are  some 
rooms  which  can  never  be  reached  by  nature's  disinfectors 
— the  direct  rays  of  light  and  sunshine.  Human  beings 
should  not  be  allowed  to  sleep  in  such  rooms,  however 
elegantly  they  may  be  furnished.  The  attempt  to  house 
too  many  people  on  one  spot  and  other  sanitary  defects 
all  arise  from  the  same  cause,  too  much  success. 

On  the  other  hand,  homage  must  be  rendered  to  the 
principality  for  its  activity  and  readiness  to  apply  sanitary 
measures  and  reforms.  In  this  it  has  often  given  a  precious 
example  to  the  entire  Riviera.  Before  the  necessity  of 
drainage  was  appreciated  in  this  part  of  the  world 
attempts  were  already  made  to  construct  sewers  in 
Monaco.  Here  the  narrowness  of  the  streets  and  their 
rocky  foundations  made  this  work  of  cutting  down  into 
the  solid  stone,  which  was  begun  in  1885,  very  difficult 
and  expensive.  At  that  time,  of  the  68,000  houses  which 
Paris  then  possessed,  only  1100  were  drained  direct  into 
sewers,  and  might,  in  that  respect,  be  considered  in  a 
satisfactory  condition.  By  1894  the  principality  adopted 
the  English  water-carriage  system  of  draining  everything 
into  the  sewers.  The  abolition  of  cesspools  and  other  such 
abominations  was  therefore  decreed  and  enforced.  In  the 
course  of  a  few  years,  some  fifteen  miles  of  sewers  were 
built.  For  the  low-lying  districts  (to  prevent  draining  into 
the  port)  Shone  ejectors  were  installed,  being  placed  in 
the  Condamine  to  raise  the  sewage  to  a  higher  level  so 
that  it  could  reach  the  main  outfall  at  Fontvieille.  This 
English  method  has  been  working  automatically  in  the 
Condamine  all  day  and  all  night  for  now  fourteen 
years  without  ever  getting  out  of  order.  A  technical  com- 
mission, recently  appointed  to  investigate  the  condition 
of  the    drainage,    gives    high    praise    to    the    wonderful 


manner  in  which  this  system  has  stood  the  test  of 

The  report  of  tlie  commission  on  the  state  of  the 
sewers  is  a  very  disconcerting  document.  In  a  word, 
the  principahty  has  altogether  outgrown  its  system  of 
drainage.  The  sewers  are  now  too  small,  they  overflow 
or  burst  and  there  is  no  efficient  ventilation.  Without 
entering  into  details  of  an  unsavoury  description,  it  may 
be  said  that  everyone  knowing  anything  about  the  subject 
readily  admits  that  a  new  scheme  must  be  devised  to 
meet  the  altered  state  of  affairs  due  to  the  great  increase 
of  population.  This,  there  is  no  doubt,  will  be  taken  in 
hand  at  an  early  date  ;  and,  in  the  meanwhile,  it  cannot 
be  said  that  the  principality  is  properly  drained.  Such 
is  the  consequence  of  too  much  or  too  rapid  success.  A 
few  years  ago  Monaco  had  the  reputation  of  being  the 
best-drained  place  on  the  Riviera.  But  if  what  is  invisible 
within  the  sewers  is  now  in  an  unsatisfactory  condition,  the 
surface  cleaning  or  scavenging  is  perfect.  Nowhere  in  the 
world  would  it  be  possible  to  find  cleaner,  better  swept 
and  watered  streets,  paths  and  public  gardens.  The 
principality  first  on  the  Riviera  employed  a  destructor 
so  that  all  the  rubbish  and  household  refuse  should  be 
consumed  by  fire  as  soon  as  collected.  The  Horsfall  system 
of  Leeds  was  installed  at  Fontvieille,  and  here  56  cubic 
metres  of  refuse  can  be  reduced  to  ashes  in  a  day.  (A 
cubic  metre  is  rather  more  than  35  cubic  feet.)  The 
heat  engendered  exceeding  900°  centigrade,  it  is  utilised 
to  cremate  carcasses,  condemned  meat  and  other  obnoxious 
organic  matter.  Little  or  no  smoke  or  smell  results,  and 
the  principality  is  promptly  freed  from  rubbish  which 
if  allowed  to  accumulate  soon  becomes  dangerous. 

The  disinfector  is  not,  as  is  often  the  case,  near  the 
destructor,  but  just  outside  the  hospital.  In  respect  to 
the  disinfection  of  clothes,  bedding,  etc.,  the  principality 
is  ahead  not  only  of  its  neighbouring  winter  stations  but 
of  great  countries,  particularly  of  England.  There  are  two 
things  we  do  not   yet   possess  in  England ;   first,  com- 


pulsory  notification  of  pulmonary  tuberculosis,  which 
is  still  optional ;  second,  compulsory  insurance  against 
disinfection.  If  a  hotel  or  lodging-house  keeper  has  to 
pay  for  the  disinfection  of  a  room  occupied  by  a  tenant 
notified  as  suffering  from  an  infectious  or  a  tuberculous 
disease,  he  may  occasionally  save  his  money  by  not 
fulfilling  this  duty.  In  the  principality  the  authorities 
are  not  satisfied  to  incur  this  risk.  For  all  the  poorer 
inhabitants  they  disinfect  gratuitously  ;  on  the  hotel  and 
lodging-house  keepers  compulsory  insurance  is  imposed. 
Whether  they  have  cases  of  infectious  diseases  or  not, 
they  all  pay  a  fixed  sum  per  annum,  and  the  premises  are 
disinfected  whenever  necessary  without  any  further  charge. 
Nor  can  this  be  considered  a  burden,  for  the  sum  levied 
only  amounts  to  one  franc  per  annum  per  bed.  Thus 
there  is  no  money  to  be  saved  by  not  obeying  the  law. 
It  would  be  a  great  advantage  to  the  public  at  large 
if  some  similar  system  were  applied  in  all  countries.  A 
special  cart  takes  away  the  bedding,  curtains,  carpets, 
clothes,  etc.  The  room  itself  is  disinfected  with  formol ; 
and  there  is  a  specially  trained  staff  of  disinfectors. 

Again,  and  in  this  the  principality  should  be  more 
widely  imitated  in  England,  and  certainly  in  the 
United  States  of  America,  the  Sanitary  Authorities  do 
not  entrust  their  meat-supply  to  the  tender  mercies  of 
private  butchers.  No  private  slaughter  -  houses  are 
sanctioned.  A  municipal  abattoir  has  been  constructed, 
well  away  from  any  dAvellings  or  general  traffic.  It  is 
situated  under  the  Oceanographic  Rluseum  on  a  narrow 
ledge  of  rock  just  over  the  sea  and  at  the  far  extremity 
and  below  the  town  of  Monaco.  Purified  by  the  sea-winds, 
and  placed  in  this  isolated  spot  the  abattoir  can  incon- 
venience no  one.  Here  veterinary  surgeons,  paid  by  the 
Government  and  having  no  interest  in  the  trade,  are  ever 
on  the  watch  to  see  that  the  animals  are  healthy  and  the 
meat  wholesome,  and  that  there  is  no  cruelty.  Indeed, 
throughout  the  principality  the  prevention  of  cruelty 
is  strictly  enforced,  except  with  regard  to  pigeon-shooting. 

THK     KXlKKMirv    OK    THK    MONACO     KOCK 


There  are  also  very  severe  laws  concerning  the  constant 
inspection,  entailing  the  right  of  entry,  of  private  stables, 
so  that  unhealthy  and  unhappy  conditions  for  animals  are 
not  allowed.  Needless  to  say  the  control  of  food,  and 
especially  of  milk,  is  becoming  more  and  more  rigorous. 
Those  dealers  who  bring  in  milk  from  outside  the 
principality  must  also  bring  twice  a  year  a  certificate 
from  a  veterinary  surgeon  showing  that  their  cows  are 
in  good  health.  This  surveillance  giv^es  rise  to  many 
prosecutions  and  condemnations ;  sentences  of  imprison- 
ment as  well  as  tines  are  unhesitatingly  inflicted.  Any 
false  statement  on  a  label  is  also  severely  punished. 

The  water-supply  is  in  a  state  of  transition.  A  large 
portion  of  the  drinking  water  comes  from  the  same  supply 
as  that  drunk  at  Nice.  This  is  the  water  of  the  V(^subie, 
and  of  late  it  has  been  sterilised  by  the  introduction  of 
ozone.  But  a  local  water-supply  is  collected  in  the  princi- 
pality. No  fault  has  been  found  with  it,  though  in  these 
days  the  fact  that  water  is  pure  when  examined  is  not 
considered  a  sufficient  guarantee.  There  is  no  knowing 
when  or  how  it  may  get  contaminated.  Therefore  before 
delivering  this  water  to  the  consumer  it  is  now  proposed 
to  ensure  its  purity  by  submitting  it  to  the  action  of  the 
ultra-violet  rays. 

Another  admirable  institution  which  exists  in  Paris, 
Bordeaux  and  several  French  towns,  as  well  as  in  the 
principality,  is  the  Casier  Sanitaire.  The  Sanitary  Authority 
has  for  every  house  a  cas-ier,  or  small  case  or  portfolio.  In 
this  is  placed  a  plan  of  the  house,  giving  its  sanitary 
services,  a  description  of  the  number  of  rooms,  cubic  space 
and  other  details,  such  as  the  nature  of  the  water-supply, 
or  of  the  trades,  if  any,  carried  on  inside.  In  time  there 
accumulates  in  the  casier  the  sanitary  history  of  the 
house.  When  anything  happens  a  sheet  of  paper  is  dropped 
into  the  casier,  and  the  paper  by  its  colour  tells  what 
has  occurred.  Particulars  of  deaths,  diseases  notified,  dis- 
infection carried  out,  with  dates  and  details,  are  all  to  be 
found   in   the  portfolio.   Placed  in   dictionary  order,  the 


sanitary  history  of  any  one  house  can  be  ascertained  in  a 
moment,  and  the  sanitary  authorities  are  thus  precisely 
informed  before  they  take  action.  These  sanitary  house 
passports,  as  they  are  sometimes  called,  are  most  practical 
and  useful,  and  when  once  in  working  order  save  much 
time,  trouble,  and  not  a  few  errors.  What,  however,  is  still 
needed  is  a  better  and  more  scientific  method  of  house 
inspection.  The  condition  of  the  air  inside  the  sewers  has 
never  been  analysed,  and  there  are  no  efficient  means  of 
testing  whether  the  house  drains  are  airtight.  In  a  word, 
the  population  has  not  yet  been  educated  to  the  point  of 
understanding  how  great  is  the  danger  of  allowing  air  from 
the  sewers  and  drains  to  enter  dwellings.  Mere  outside 
cleanliness  does  not  suffice :  sometimes  it  is  dangerously 
deceptive.  One  very  good  thing  has  been  done  during  the 
year  1912.  The  water  cistern  of  nearly  every  house  in  the 
principality  has  been  inspected.  Regular  inspection  is 
the  next  best  thing  to  total  abolition.  Of  course  the  water 
should  come  direct  from  the  main  and  not  be  stored  in 
a  cistern  for  mice  and  birds  to  fall  in,  get  drowned,  and, 
decomposing  with  other  organic  matter,  pollute  what 
would  otherwise  be  a  pure  water-supply.  Some  houses  in 
the  principality  have  done  away  with  this  dangerous 
contrivance  and  do  get  their  water  direct  from  the 

One  of  the  most  notable  sanitary  features  of  the 
principality  is  its  Model  Hospital.  It  was  inaugurated 
in  1902  by  the  prince,  who  was  then  accompanied  by 
the  Conference  of  the  International  Association  of  the 
Medical  Press.  This  is  a  body  of  severe  and  expert  critics, 
but  no  fault  was  found  and  much  praise  was  bestowed.  It 
was  described  in  The  Lancet  at  the  time ;  and  in  May 
1911  the  result  in  the  treatment  of  patients  was  analysed. 
From  this  it  appears  that  during  the  first  year  78  opera- 
tions of  major  and  20  of  minor  surgery  were  performed  ; 
2  deaths  resulted,  1  only  being  the  consequence  of  the 
operation.  By  1909  the  reputation  of  the  hospital  had  so 
spread  that  there  were  204  major  and  44  minor  surgical 


operations  performed,  resulting  in  only  6  deaths.  During 
the  first  seven  years  there  were  868  major  and  200  minor 
operations.  Of  these  1068  patients  operated  upon,  23  died 
in  consequence  of  the  operation  they  had  undergone,  and 
30  died  from  some  other  cause.  Thus  the  avei'age  total 
mortality,  calculated  on  seven  years'  experience,  resulting 
directly  from  operations,  did  not  amount  to  more  than 
2'1  per  cent.  Taking  more  recent  figures  given  since  the 
publication  of  The  Lancet's  article,  the  hospital  staff 
in  1911  performed  267  operations,  and  there  were  only 
3  deaths  resulting  from  the  operations  and  11  deaths 
from  other  causes ;  so  that  253  patients  were  cured. 
This  means  an  operation  mortality  of  1  •!  per  cent,  and  a 
general  mortality,  including  the  direct  effect  of  operations, 
equal  to  5  per  cent.  If  these  more  recent  figures  be  added 
to  those  collected  since  the  opening  of  the  hospital  we 
have,  as  the  average  of  nine  years,  a  general  mortality  of 
5  per  cent,  among  patients  operated  upon,  and  a  specific 
mortality  due  to  the  failure  of  the  operations  of  1"8  per 

It  is  only  necessary  to  compare  these  figures  with  the 
statistics  published  by  other  hospitals  in  other  parts  of  the 
world  to  realise  the  enormous  advantage  enjoyed  by  those 
patients  who  have  the  good  fortune  to  be  operated  upon  in 
the  Monaco  Hospital.  The  Lancet  says :  "  These  favour- 
able results  are  due,  not  merely  to  the  undoubted  surgical 
skill  displayed, but,  according  to  Dr  Cailland's  [the  principal 
operator]  own  testimony,  to  the  great  safety  in  anaesthesia 
resulting  from  the  use  of  the  Roth-Droeger-Guglielminetti 
apparatus,  to  the  admirable  topographical  position  of  the 
hospital,  and  to  the  lavish  care  bestowed  on  the  patients. 
Indeed  the  topographical  position  of  the  hospital  con- 
stitutes in  itself  a  treatment  that  has  proved  effective  even 
in  some  advanced  cases." 

On  the  side  of  the  mountain  under  the  Tcte  de  Chien 
a  ledge  has  been  cut  into  the  rock  measuring  2800  metres 
square.  Here,  in  the  midst  of  trees  and  flowers,  at  a  height 
of  260  feet  above  the  sea,  a  series  of  pavilions  has  been 


built,  all  facing  due  south.  Cases  of  tuberculous  peritonitis,  J 

tubercular  affection  of  the  limbs  and  arthritis  are  simply  i 

wheeled  out  and  left  in  the  open  to  be  cured  by  breathing 

the  saline  air  and  by  the  penetrating,  purifying  action  of 

the  direct  rays  of  sunshine.  A  wing  called  the  Pavilion 

Koch  has  been  built  expressly  for  the  sunshine  treatment 

of  children  suffering  from  tubercle  of  the  bones.  It  is  the 

wholesomeness  of  the  situation  that  aids  the  healing  of 

surgical  cases  while  acting  in  a  specific  manner  on  diseases  m 

such  as  these  just  mentioned.  The  land  and  the  building,  * 

without  including  any  furniture,  surgical  instruments  or 

fittings,  cost  £80,000,  which,  as  usual,  came  out  of  the 

prince's  private  purse,  and  he  particularly  insisted  upon 

having  the  best  hospital  possible  without  any  regard  to 


Nor  is  the  hospital  intended  exclusively  for  the  poor. 
There  are  wards  where  persons  of  small  means  can  be 
treated  for  three  shillings  and  fourpence  or  four  shillings 
per  day,  and  a  pavilion  has  been  built  and  furnished  in 
a  luxurious  style  for  wealthy  patients,  called  the  Villa 
Albert.  It  has  its  own  operating-room,  and  there  is  an 
English  trained  nurse.  This  is  a  great  comfort  to  British 
or  American  visitors  who  cannot  speak  French  and  fall  ill 
while  in  the  principality.  Especially  when  an  operation  is 
necessary,  nothing  can  be  more  trying  than  to  be  invalided 
in  an  hotel.  But  at  the  Villa  Albert,  for  from  eight  shillings 
to  sixteen  shillings  a  day,  according  to  the  room  selected, 
the  patient  can  have  every  comfort  as  if  in  a  high-class 
hotel,  the  technical  nursing  needed,  and  the  attendance 
of  any  physician  he  chooses  to  consult.  This  is  indeed 
a  boon,  for  hotel  servants  cannot  be  expected  to  give 
proper  attention  to  patients.  The  position  is  even  more 
terrible  if  the  visitor  contracts  an  infectious  disease.  He 
then  becomes  not  merely  a  nuisance  but  a  danger  to 
all  in  the  hotel  or  lodging-house  where  he  is  residing. 
As  a  rule,  in  such  cases,  he  is  taken  off  by  force  to  the 
common  hospital.  Now,  and  higher  up  the  mountain  than 
the  new  hospital,  a  luxurious  fever  or  isolation  hospital  has 



THE    SUN    CURE  253 

been  built.  It  contains  paying  wards  and  private  rooms,  and 
all  the  modern  contrivances,  such  as  glass  compartments 
for  the  isolation  of  children  from  each  other,  though  all  are 
under  the  watch  of  the  one  nurse  in  the  same  ward. 

Consequently  the  visitor  need  no  longer  view  with 
apprehension  the  possibility  of  falling  ill  when  away  from 
home  if  he  is  going  to  Monaco.  Whether  suffering  from 
infectious  or  other  disease,  medical  or  surgical,  he  can 
have  every  care,  every  luxury,  and  an  altogether  ex- 
ceptional chance  of  recovery  at  the  Model  Hospital,  which 
has  been  built  according  to  the  most  modern  principles 
and  regardless  of  expense.  This  is  one  of  the  institu- 
tions Monaco  has  the  most  reason  to  be  proud  of,  and 
visitors  should  not  leave  the  principality  without  paying 
the  hospital  a  visit  so  as  to  see  for  themselves  the  great 
and  humanitarian  work  that  has  been  accomplished. 

END    OF    PAUT    I 




OB\"IOUSLY  the  fundamental  principle  of  roulette 
must  have  come  into  existence  when  humanity 
had  so  far  progressed  as  to  make  wheels  and 
organise  games  of  chance.  The  early  Britons  may  have 
turned  one  of  their  war  chariots  over  on  its  side,  painted 
the  upper  wheel  in  different  colours  and  sent  it  whirling 
round.  A  spear  stuck  in  the  ground  so  that  the  point 
might  be  near  the  edge  of  the  wheel  would  answer  very 
well  as  a  winning-post.  To-day  in  Greenland  a  board 
serves  as  a  pivot.  The  players  sit  round  and  a  revolving 
finger-piece  in  stopping  points  out  the  winner.  So  the 
early  Briton  who  backed  the  colour  which  stopped 
opposite  the  point  of  the  spear  would  win  the  game. 
Whether,  in  the  absence  of  a  casino  police,  the  losers 
would  allow  him  to  carry  off  the  prize  is  another  matter. 
In  my  juvenile  days,  playing  with  other  children  in  the 
gardens  of  the  Champs  Elysees,  I  was  early  initiated  in 
the  mysteries  of  the  roulette  brought  round  by  the 
mdrcluuidcx  dc  plaisirs.  The  dear  old  ladies  who  thus 
announced  themselves  as  merchants  of  pleasure  carried — 
and  still  carry,  for  they  have  survived  the  change  of  many 
a  government  and  dynasty — tin  cylinders  about  three 
feet  deep  and  one  foot  wide.  The  "  pleasures  "  are  kept 
cool,  dry  and  crisp  inside,  for  what  would  be  a  pleasure 
that  was  not  crisp  ?  It  would  be  like  a  cracknel  that  did 
not  crackle.  How  sweet  they  were,  how  delicately 
flavoured,  how  thin  and  light !  It  was  all  pleasure  and 
no  food.  There  was  nothing  in  them  to  spoil  our  appetites. 
We  could  consume  scores  without  the  risk  of  a  scolding 

R  257 


for  being  unable  to  eat  our  dinners  properly.  Yet  they 
were  quite  large ;  larger,  though  hardly  thicker,  than  a 
sheet  of  notepaper,  and  folded  gracefully  like  the  petal  of 
a  giant  flower.  But  before  the  lid  of  the  cylinder  containing 
a  vast  store  of  these  pleasures  was  removed,  a  halfpenny 
had  to  be  paid,  and  then  the  gambling  began. 

Since  there  was  no  wheel  to  turn,  the  instrument  was 
not  exactly  a  roulette.  Spikes  like  pegs  standing  upright 
divided  the  circumference  of  the  lid  into  equal  compart- 
ments, each  bearing  a  number.  From  the  centre  we  sent  a 
hand  whirling  round.  It  was  more  like  the  game  the  Green- 
landers  play,  but  it  was  a  happy  game,  because  we  always 
won.  It  would  not  do  to  mar  the  cheerfulness  of  the  Champs 
Elysees  with  sounds  of  lamentation  from  the  children 
who  had  lost.  But  we  often  won  only  one  plaisir,  less 
frequently  two  or  more,  and  it  was  the  uncertainty  as 
to  the  result  which  caused  all  the  excitement.  Then  there 
was  just  one  out  of  the  many  compartments  that  re- 
presented the  gi'os  lot.  This  meant  a  pile  of  pleasures, 
something  altogether  beyond  the  combined  dreams  of 
avarice  and  greed.  When  someone  did  win  this  big  prize, 
there  was  an  outburst  of  delirious  joy  in  that  happy  child- 
land  that  can  only  be  compared  to  the  demonstrations 
which  used  to  take  place  in  the  good  old  days  when 
players  were  allowed  to  break  the  bank  at  Monte  Carlo. 

Perhaps  all  this  was  very  wicked.  Cei'tainly  I  soon 
became  a  gambler  of  the  worst  type,  plunging  recklessly 
so  long  as  my  nurse  or  fond  parents  provided  the  half- 
pence. Was  it  very  wrong  of  them  to  sympathise  with  me 
when  I  failed  to  pull  off  a  big  number  ?  Were  they  by 
their  loving  indulgence  sowing  tares  that  would  grow 
up  and  choke  the  good  harvest  ?  If  so,  how  many  other 
games  and  joys  of  childhood  must  be  nipped  in  the  bud  ! 
Indeed,  very  serious  essays  have  been  published  de- 
nouncing Christmas  tree  festivities.  The  children  sit 
round,  excited  by  long  anticipation  and  the  many  lights 
glittering  on  the  tree  ;  from  the  branches  hang  numerous 
presents,  and   in  its  little  hand  each  child  clutches  the 


ticket  bearing  the  numbei*  that  determines  which  of  all 
these  presents  it  shall  receive.  Afterwards  what  envy, 
malice  and  hatred  are  engendered  in  the  mind  of  the 
children  who  have  not  been  fortunate  and  would  prefer 
what  some  other  child  has  got.  Evidently  if  the  roulette 
at  Monte  Carlo,  like  its  predecessors  at  Baden-Baden, 
Wiesbaden  and  Homburg,  is  to  be  suppressed,  then  the 
strong  arm  of  the  law  must  also  cut  down  the  Christmas 
tree.  If  people  gamble  at  Monte  Carlo  it  is  entirely  of 
their  own  free  will ;  but  before  the  Christmas  tree  the 
child  is  absolutely  helpless. 

The  excitement  of  a  lottery,  the  joy  of  winning  at  what 
is  to  all  intents  and  purposes  a  game  of  hazard,  are  forced 
upon  the  child  by  its  parents.  It  would  be  preposterous 
to  expect  that  children  should  resist  and  refuse  on  moral 
grounds  to  attend  Christmas  festivities.  Yet  the  mind  of  a 
child  is  more  impressionable  than  that  of  an  adult.  At 
Monte  Carlo  juveniles  are  rigorously  excluded,  and  adults 
must  procure  a  special  permission  before  they  can  enter 
the  gaming-rooms.  Again,  at  charity  and  other  bazaars, 
and  at  country  fairs,  how  many  wheels  are  there  for  holiday 
folks  to  send  spinning  round  in  the  hope  of  winning  a 
large  piece  of  gingerbread,  a  china  dog,  or,  it  may  be,  a 
real  live  rabbit  ?  From  childhood  upwards,  in  a  thousand 
different  ways,  games  of  hazard  have  been  enjoyed,  and  are 
but  rarely  prevented.  The  sermons  and  denunciations  of 
moralists,  the  laws  and  police  have  proved  equally  in- 
effectual. Tlie  love  of  getting  something  for  nothing  still 
prevails.  It  is  always  possible  to  bet  in  one  way  or  another, 
to  speculate  on  'Change  or  to  invest  in  risky  enterprises 
that  will  yield  large  profits  in  the  unlikely  event  of  their 
proving  successful. 

The  hope  of  quickly  and  easily  winning  by  a  happy 
chance  what  requires  so  much  trouble  to  earn  has  always 
acted  as  a  strong  temptation,  leading  too  frequently  to 
disastrous  results.  In  face  of  this  melancholy  fact  the 
obvious  but  very  commonplace  attitude  to  observe  is  one 
of  virtuous   indignation.  Convention  bids  us  vigorously 


denounce  gambling  as  a  terrible  vice  which  calls  for 
immediate  suppression.  There  is  also  a  tendency  to  forget 
that  natural  instincts,  like  measles,  cannot  be  suppressed, 
though  they  may  be  driven  inwards  or  underground,  where 
they  will  become  far  more  dangerous.  To  the  thoughful  it 
is  obvious  that  this  "  off  with  his  head  "  policy  is  no  solu- 
tion of  the  difficulty.  The  decapitated  one  will  none  the 
less  have  desired  to  gamble.  To  penalise  the  deed  is 
useless  :  it  is  necessary  to  destroy  the  desire.  Meanwhile, 
until  men  are  guided  by  a  higher  ambition  than  the 
excitement  of  games,  it  may  be  of  more  practical  benefit 
to  bear  in  mind  that  the  devil  or  Evil  has  been  well 
defined  as  misdirected  energy.  But  for  the  energy  that 
engenders  the  spirit  of  enterprise  the  world  would  stagnate. 
That  playing  games  of  hazard  is  among  the  least  worthy 
manifestations  of  the  spirit  of  enterprise  may  be  readily 
admitted.  Indeed,  as  suggested  above,  it  may  even  be 
maintained  that,  on  the  contrary,  the  desire  to  gamble 
arises  from  a  lack  of  energy,  patience  and  courage.  It  is 
because  a  man  has  not  sufficient  firmness  to  go  forth  and 
make  his  way  by  the  accomplishment  of  some  useful  woi-k 
that  he  resorts  to  the  easy  device  of  winning  money 
at  games  of  chance.  Probably  both  explanations  are 
partly  correct.  The  very  timid  and  unenterprising  rarely 
become  gamblers  ;  while  the  more  bold  and  venturous 
not  unfrequently  find  the  rewards  of  legitimate  industry 
desperately  slow  in  coming. 

In  any  case,  in  all  times  the  more  enterprising  and  less 
honest  have  found  surer  profit  in  seeking  to  ensnare  those 
who,  for  whatever  reason,  resorted  to  games  of  hazard. 
Thus  cheats  and  thieves  early  became  the  associates  of 
gamblers.  But  action  engenders  reaction,  and  roulette 
represents  the  reaction  against  robbery.  The  great 
philosopher,  divine  and  mathematician,  Blaise  Pascal,  was 
passionately  fond  of  games.  Perhaps  this  was  a  weakness, 
but  then  one  of  Pascal's  most  celebrated  sayings  compares 
man  to  a  reed :  "  Man  is  a  reed,  the  feeblest  reed  in 
nature,  but  he  is  a  reed  t/iat  thinks  "  ;  and  Pascal  did  think. 


He  thought  so  well  that  he  discovered  the  laws  governing 
the  weight  of  air,  the  equilibrium  of  liquids,  the  arithmeti- 
cal triangle,  the  calculation  of  probabilities,  the  hydraulic 
press  and  the  theory  of  the  cycloid  or  roulette.  From  his 
very  birth,  according  to  Michaud's  "  Biographie  Univer- 
selle,"  Pascal  devoted  himself  to  "  researches  concerning 
combinations  in  games  of  hazard."  His  letters,  written  in 
1654,  to  the  mathematician  Fermat,  on  games  of  chance, 
constitute  a  classic.  Then  because  he  wrote  a  "  history  of 
the  roulette  or  trochoid  or  cycloid  "  and  a  "  general  treatise 
on  the  roulette  and  the  dimensions  of  the  curved  lines 
of  all  roulettes  "  the  impression  was  engendered  that  he 
invented  the  roulette  used  for  gambling  purposes.  But  the 
word  roulette  as  used  by  Pascal  applies  to  sometliing  that 
rolls  along  like  a  wheel.  The  curved  line  is  the  line  which 
a  spot  marked  on  the  circumference  of  the  wheel  would 
draw  in  space  as  the  wheel  rolled  forward.  The  proba- 
bilities are  that  the  discoveries  of  this  great  geometrician 
on  the  laws  of  chance  did  encourage  the  belief  that  with 
a  mathematically  accurate  instrument  cheating  would  be 
impossible  and  the  player  would  then  only  have  to 
contend  with  the  laws  of  chance.  The  circumference  of 
the  roulette  wheel  can  be  divided  so  as  to  give  to  each 
division  its  precise  share  of  the  circle. 

Roulette  realised  the  honest  gamester's  ideal.  It  drove 
away  the  cheat  and  the  thief.  Whatever  objections  there 
may  be  to  games  of  hazard  there  is  still  more  objection  to 
stealing  and  swindhng.  Yet  even  to-day,  as  in  Pascal's 
time,  if  a  gambler  risks  his  money  on  a  throw  of  dice,  he 
may  meet  someone  Avho  uses  loaded  dice.  Should  the 
player  prefer  cards,  there  are  any  number  of  cardsharpers 
about.  Even  if  he  only  plays  in  the  most  respectable  clubs 
or  in  the  best  society,  spelt  with  ever  so  big  an  S,  the 
presence  of  royalty  itself  has  not  prevented  baccarat 
scandals.  Cheating  has  been  attempted  even  where  there 
was  the  least  reason  to  fear  dishonest  practices ;  in  the 
palaces  of  kings  as  in  the  lowest  gambling  hells.  Ever 
since  men  have  given  such  subjects  a  thought,  they  have 


endeavoured  to  discover  a  method  or  invent  an  instrument 
that  would  render  swindling  impossible.  The  great  en- 
cyclopaedia, the  original  encyclopaedia  that  so  powerfully 
contributed  to  bring  about  the  French  Revolution,  the 
encyclopsedia  of  Diderot  and  d'Alembert,  says  in  the 
second  edition  :  "  At  the  public  games  held  in  the  hotels 
of  Sevres  and  of  Soissons,  in  Paris,  roulette  was  imagined  so 
that  players  might  risk  their  money  in  complete  security." 
Though  roulettes  of  a  sort  have  existed  from  time 
immemorial,  the  marvellous  ingenuity  with  which  the 
numbers  are  selected  and  distributed  round  the  Monte 
Carlo  wheel  is  a  comparatively  modern  device.  Something 
similar  existed  in  the  seventeenth  century.  Pascal  died  in 
1662,  and  soon  after  his  death  roulette  began  to  be 
recognised  as  the  most  honest  form  of  gambling  it  was 
possible  to  establish.  Thus  when  nearly  a  century  later, 
in  1760,  it  was  decided  to  legalise  gambling  it  was  the 
game  of  roulette  which  found  special  favour  in  the  eyes 
of  the  police  authorities.  Efforts,  it  is  true,  were  made  on 
previous  occasions  to  bring  gambling  under  police  control, 
but  they  had  never  been  successful ;  at  least,  not  on  a 
large  scale.  History  tells  us,  for  instance,  that  in  the  reign 
of  Henri  IV.  there  were  fifty  gaming  establishments 
which  paid  a  daily  tax  to  the  police ;  and  the  king  himself 
was  a  notorious  gambler ;  though  Sully  ultimately  con- 
trived to  check  this  form  of  royal  extravagance.  Attempts 
were  also  made  to  classify  the  gambling  resorts.  There 
were  a  few  luxurious  hells  for  the  rich,  and  many  commoner 
places  for  the  poor.  Elaborate  etiquette,  combined  with 
stately  ceremonies,  was  instituted  to  keep  the  former  select. 
Nevertheless  the  story  is  told  of  a  distinguished  gambler 
to  whom  some  remonstrances  were  made.  Among  other 
things,  he  was  told  that  all  the  patrons  of  the  high-class 
saloon  he  had  the  privilege  of  frequenting  were  honest 
people.  The  player  thereupon  replied  ;  "  Yes,  I  am  well 
aware  of  this.  They  are  honest  people  one  of  whom  gets 
hanged  every  week  when  perchance  the  law  is  disposed 
to  do  its  duty." 


The  court  setting  the  example,  simpler  folks  also  thought 
it  was  the  proper  thing  to  gamble.  Later  on  Cardinal 
Mazarin  from  Italy  introduced  new  games  of  hazard  and 
found  in  Louis  XIV^.  a  ready  pupil.  The  highest  dignitaries 
of  the  Church  as  well  as  of  the  court  played,  and  for  large 
sums.  As  an  inspiring  example  of  the  true  spirit  of 
Christianity  prevailing  even  among  the  princes  of  the 
Church,  it  is  related  that  Cardinal  d'Este,  having  invited 
Cai-dinal  de  JMedici  to  dinner,  contrived  to  let  the  latter 
win  at  cards  some  ten  thousand  crowns.  On  being  re- 
proached for  playing  so  badly.  Cardinal  d'Este  replied 
that  it  was  poor  hospitality  to  allow  one's  guests  to  go 
away  in  a  bad  humour ;  it  did  not  favour  the  digestion, 
and  the  guests  were  apt  to  think  they  had  been  made  to 
pay  for  their  dinner. 

Cardinal  Mazarin  not  only  himself  played  but 
persuaded  the  king  to  allow  him  to  establish  numerous 
authorised  gaming-houses  for  playing  hoca,  a  game  with 
thirty  chances,  including  two  zeros  in  favour  of  the  bank. 
After  a  while,  the  public  protested  that  the  bank  was 
robbing  the  people  for  the  benefit  of  the  cardinal.  The 
Parliament  of  Paris  showed  its  reverence  for  the  cardinal 
and  its  due  appreciation  of  the  proceeding  by  proposing 
to  enact  a  law  inflicting  the  death  penalty  on  all  who 
played  hoca.  This  was  a  brave  threat,  but  it  added  zest 
to  the  pleasure  and  privilege  of  playing  this  very  game  in 
court  circles.  Not  only  did  gambling  become  more  and 
more  usual  at  court,  but  cheating  at  cards  was  not 
excluded.  The  great  ladies  of  the  court  became  so  abso- 
lutely unscrupulous  that  passwords  were  invented  to 
enable  them  to  communicate  to  each  other  the  amounts 
gained  by  illegitimate  means.  This  was  especially  the 
case  at  the  receptions  given  by  Madame  de  Maintenon. 

For  the  sake  of  securing  the  presence  at  court  of 
willing  gamblers  most  disreputable  persons  were  admitted. 
Lemontey,  a  distinguished  man  of  letters,  in  his  essay 
on  the  Monarchical  Establishment  of  I^ouis  XIV.,  gives 
the  names  of  several  individuals  who  had  been  convicted 


of  theft  and  of  coining  false  money,  and  who  were  never- 
theless received  at  court  when  there  was  any  gambling 
going  forward.  The  Due  de  Saint-Simon  makes  similar 
complaints ;  and  adds  that  many  members  of  the 
aristocracy  employed  as  valets  and  lackeys  soldiers  of 
fortune  "  addicted  to  all  the  vices,  and  as  familiar  with 
theft  and  assassination  as  with  eating  and  drinking."  Thus 
it  is  that  Moliere  and  otlier  contemporaneous  authors  so 
constantly  represent  valets  as  rogues.  These  unscrupulous 
servants  were  useful  in  doing  the  dirty  work  of  their 
masters.  No  one  can  read  the  history  of  those  times 
without  being  impressed  by  the  better  management  of 
modern  casinos.  For  safety  and  absence  of  swindling  the 
twentieth-century  casino  compares  favourably  with  the 
court  of  the  great  monarch.  The  improvement  represented 
by  the  methods  of  which  INIonte  Carlo  is  the  leading 
example  can  be  fully  appreciated  only  by  acquiring  some 
knowledge  of  the  abominations  practised  in  the  past.  It 
is  perhaps  because  the  gambling  resorts  of  former  times 
were  appropriately  called  hells  that  to-day  so  many 
persons  describe  IVIonte  Carlo  as  an  earthly  paradise. 

The  scandal  was  so  great  that  in  1691  I^ouis  XIV. 
found  it  necessary  to  take  action  against  these  degrading 
abuses.  He  issued  a  decree  punishing  the  playing  of  games 
of  chance  by  heavy  fines  or  imprisonment  for  not  more 
than  six  months.  This  threat  did  not,  however,  have 
greater  effect  than  the  stronger  fulminations  of  the  Paris 
Parliament.  A  few  years  later  an  edict  threatened  cavalry 
officers  with  the  death  penalty  if  caught  gambhng. 
Nevertheless  people  still  gambled,  and  under  the  Regency 
the  evil  was  even  more  widespread.  For  a  short  time, 
however,  the  love  of  gambling  was  converted  by  John 
Law  into  a  fever  for  speculation.  Tiie  Scotsman  who,  as 
Voltaire  said,  became  a  Frenchman,  the  Protestant  who 
became  a  Catholic,  the  adventurer  who  became  a  prince, 
the  banker  who  became  a  cabinet  minister,  carried 
everything  before  him,  at  least  for  a  season.  The 
superstitious  will  be  interested  in  the  fact  that  near  Law's 


offices  in  the  rue  Quincampoix  there  was  a  hunchback. 
This  individual  reaped  a  golden  harvest  by  lending  his 
back  to  stock-jobbers  and  others  so  that  they  might 
write  out  on  it  their  orders  for  the  purchase  or  sale  of 
Law's  shares.  The  luck  that  hunchbacks  bring  was  there- 
fore recognised  long  before  the  building  of  modern  casinos, 
nor  has  their  popularity  died  out.  There  was  a  hunchback 
who  frequented  the  gaming-rooms  at  Monte  Carlo,  ^^'hen- 
ever  anyone  ventured  to  strike  his  hunch  lie  quickly  turned 
round  and  informed  the  caressing  stranger  that  his  fee 
was  twenty  francs  !  In  spite,  however,  of  the  hunchback 
in  the  rue  Quincampoix,  the  big  bubble  burst  in  1720. 
The  people,  having  vented  their  disappointment  by 
sacking  Law's  houses  and  destroying  his  carriages, 
returned  to  the  gambling  hells  they  had  deserted  in  his 

At  last,  when  Paris  was  ruled  by  M.  de  Sartines,  this 
celebrated  Chief  of  Police  determined  to  I'egulate  what  it 
had  proved  impossible  to  abolish.  To  his  mind,  the  policy 
of  organising  and  controlling  that  which  could  not  be 
prevented  was  by  far  the  safest  course  to  pursue.  There- 
fore he  authorised  the  opening  of  houses  for  certain  games, 
notably  roulette,  and  an  ordinance  to  that  effect  was 
issued  in  1760.  Henceforward  games  of  hazard  were  only 
to  be  played  in  licensed  places,  and  all  clandestine 
gambling  hells  sternly  suppressed.  But  M.  de  Sartines  was 
not  anxious  to  limit  and  circumscribe  the  evil.  He  was 
determined  to  utilise  the  dynamic  force  wastefulness  and 
evil  propensities  represent,  and  so  canalise  and  direct  them 
as  to  provide  the  moti\e  power  needed  to  accomplish 
good  works  and  realise  serious  economies.  In  authorising 
the  opening  of  a  gaming  saloon,  he  not  only  decreed  what 
games  should  be  played  and  what  rules  should  be  enforced 
but  also  wiiat  was  to  be  done  with  the  money  the 
gamblers  were  sure  to  lose.  As  it  so  happened  that  the 
need  of  more  hospitals  was  keenly  felt  at  that  time,  he 
conceived  the  admirable  idea  of  employing  the  money 
spent  in  pleasure  for  the  relief  of  distress.  From  that  day 


forth  it  has  been  the  law  in  France  that  no  one  shall 
gamble  either  in  a  public  establishment  or  on  the  turf 
without  first  paying  a  handsome  quota  for  the  mainten- 
ance of  hospitals  and  the  succour  of  the  poor. 

In  England  we  impose  a  direct  tax  on  some  un- 
necessary luxuries,  such  as  armorial  bearings  and  dogs  ; 
but,  while  twelve  millions  of  our  population  live  on  or 
below  the  poverty  line,  we  might  tax  pleasures  on 
behalf  of  the  poor.  In  France,  on  every  seat  taken  at  a 
theatre  a  percentage  is  reserved  for  the  hospitals.  All  the 
gambling  in  the  casinos  is  heavily  taxed  for  the  poor. 
No  betting  on  the  racecourses  is  allowed  except  through 
the  agency  of  the  Pcui  Mutriel,  which  shares  its  profits 
with  the  Assistance  PuhUque,  the  administration  that  has 
charge  of  the  hospitals  and  all  forms  of  poor  relief.  At 
Monte  Carlo  also  the  claim  is  made  that  by  canalising 
the  evil  of  gambling  the  administration  of  the  casino 
attempts  to  direct  its  effects  to  a  good  purpose.  Certainly 
the  people,  many  of  them  very  foolish  people,  who  have 
lost  their  money  at  the  tables  have  created  far-reaching 
prosperity.  By  gambling  elsewhere  and  in  hidden  places 
the  money  lost  would  not  be  employed  to  such  good 
purpose.  Of  this  we  may  be  certain  if  for  no  other  reason 
than  that  there  is  nowhere  else  the  same  blaze  of 
publicity.  Public  opinion  is  a  force  that  compels  even  the 

Thus  M.  de  Sartines,  who  first  attempted  on  a  large 
scale  to  organise  the  means  whereby  good  results  could 
be  derived  from  an  acknowledged  evil,  deserves  a  place  of 
honour  in  the  annals  of  the  gambling  world.  The  gamblers 
themselves  have  the  best  of  reasons  to  cherish  his  name 
with  grateful  feelings.  He  not  only  rendered  cheating  and 
robbery  more  difficult,  and  therefore  less  frequent,  but  he 
supplied  to  all  gamblers  this  supreme  consolation,  that 
the  money  they  had  flung  away  was  not  absolutely  lost, 
for  some  of  it  would  be  employed  for  the  best  of  all  pur- 
poses— that  of  reducing  the  sum-total  of  human  misery. 

It   must   not   be   thought,   however,   that    the   good 



intentions  of  M.  de  Sartines  were  at  once  realised.  A  great 
many  clandestine  hells  remained  open,  and  so  many 
scandals  occurred  tliat  Parliament  was  again  forced  to 
intervene.  A  law  was  passed  condemning  bankers  who 
kept  unauthorised  gaming  places  to  be  branded  with  a 
hot  iron,  Hogged,  or  at  least  put  in  the  pillory.  Thereupon 
the  foreign  ambassadors,  profiting  by  the  fact  that 
embassies  are  extra-territorial,  allowed  one  or  two  rooms 
to  be  used  for  gambling  purposes.  Instead  of  the  poor  of 
Paris  it  was  the  foreign  ambassadors,  notably  the  Prussian, 
^^enetian  and  Swedish  envoys,  who  pocketed  a  part  of  the 
profits.  Among  the  places  where  gambling  used  to  be 
authorised  was  the  Cafe  de  la  Regence.  This  cafe  still 
exists,  and  ranks  as  one  of  the  oldest  historical  caf^s  in  Paris. 
It  is  situated  just  opposite  the  Theatre  Fran^ais,  and  was 
one  of  the  favourite  liaunts  of  Theophile  Gautier.  To-day 
it  is  celebrated  for  the  special  excellence  of  its  absinthe, 
and  as  the  resort  of  chess-players  and  of  Scandinavian 
visitors.  But  the  greatest  centre  of  gambling  was  just 
opposite,  in  the  Palais  Royal.  Political  changes  and  revolu- 
tions did  not  affect  these  places,  though,  like  the  cafes, 
they  were  each  apt  to  acquire  a  special  political  tone. 
At  one  time  there  were  as  many  as  thirty  such  establish- 
ments in  the  Palais  Royal.  The  royalist  party  especially 
patronised  No.  50.  No.  36  was  the  most  respectable,  for 
no  women  were  admitted  and  no  strong  drink  served. 
There  were  also  armed  "  chuckers-out "  to  expel  undesir- 
ables. When,  in  1814,  the  allied  forces  occupied  Paris 
these  houses  did  a  great  business  with  the  foreign  officers. 
The  Duke  of  Wellington  did  not  gamble,  but  his  colleague, 
Marshal  Bliicher,  was  a  constant  visitor  to  No.  154  Palais 
Royal,  playing  very  high  and  expressing  his  dissatisfaction 
because  he  was  not  allowed  to  put  down  more  than  £400 
at  a  time. 

In  many  of  these  places  other  attractions  were  provided. 
Light  refreshments  could  always  be  obtained,  and  very 
excellent  thougli  cheap  dinners  were  generally  given  twice 
a  week.  Ladies,  sometimes  ladies  of  title  and  distinction, 


were  occasionally  invited  to  preside  at  the  tables,  and 
received  fees  for  doing  so.  But  behind  all  this  gaiety  and 
dissipation  the  various  governments,  as  they  succeeded 
each  other,  did  not  fail  to  make  these  establishments  pay 
for  the  relief  of  the  poor.  In  Dulaure's  great  history  of 
Paris,  published  in  1821,  it  is  stated  that  in  1818  the 
Government  received  £280,000  from  these  gaming  houses, 
which  left  them  £300,000  net  profit.  At  that  time  there 
were  in  all  seven  tables  for  trenie-ci-nn,  nine  for  roulette, 
and  one  each  for  passe-dix,  craps,  hazard  and  hirihi.  Under 
the  first  Revolution,  the  First  Empire  and  the  Restoration 
the  licensed  gambling  saloons  had  continued  to  prosper. 
But  after  the  Revolution  of  1830,  the  end  of  the 
White  Terror  and  the  Reaction,  a  determined  agitation 
was  set  on  foot,  at  first  merely  to  clear  out  the  evil 
company  which  the  proximity  of  gambling  attracted  to 
the  Palais  Royal.  But  there  had  been  a  few  suicides, 
especially  at  No.  113  ;  and  No.  154  was  so  crowded  on 
Sundays  as  to  become  a  nuisance.  Debates  on  these 
grievances  were  held  in  Parliament,  and  finally,  in  1836.  a 
law  was  passed  to  close  every  gambling  resort  on  the  1st 
of  January  1838.  Many  descriptions  have  been  given  of 
this  last  day,  and  the  great  crowds  that  gathered  in  front 
of  the  more  notorious  resorts.  Outside  Frascati's  an  un- 
happy gambler  shot  himself  before  the  assembled  public, 
because  now  that  gambling  was  abolished  he  had  no  hope 
of  winning  back  his  losses.  At  the  sinister  No.  113  there 
was  also  a  suicide  on  this  last  day,  that  of  a  workman. 

Needless  to  say,  gambling  was  not  really  abolished  ; 
but  its  worst  phase — that  of  encouraging  gambling  among 
poor  men  like  this  ill-fated  workman — was  suppressed. 
Gainbling — that  is  to  say,  the  form  of  gambling  which 
consists  of  playing  at  games  of  hazard — was  now  in  the 
main  restricted  to  the  better  class  of  private  clubs.  Here 
the  majority  of  members  can  afford  to  lose. 




THOUGH  thus  far  a  good  deal  has  been  said  about 
gambling  in  France,  this  vice  was  as  prevalent  in 
other  coiuitries,  and  especially  in  England.  History 
does  seem  to  show  that  the  endeavour  to  control, 
while  tolerating,  gambling  was  first  attempted  in  France. 
What  was  begun  in  France  was  perfected  in  Germany, 
and  reached  its  apogee  at  Monte  Carlo.  Therefore,  in 
tracing  the  evolution  which  brought  about  present 
conditions,  the  development  of  events  in  France  has  a 
more  direct  bearing  on  the  subject.  This  does  not,  how- 
ever, in  any  way  justify  a  belief  that  in  England  we  were 
less  afflicted  by  such  evils.  There  is  any  amount  of 
evidence  to  the  contrary,  and  recently  a  comprehensive 
summary  of  the  history  of  gambling,  by  Mr  Ralph  Nevill, 
was  published  in  a  book  entitled  '*  Light  Come,  Light 
Go."  Here  will  be  found  an  account  of  the  vast  sums  lost 
by  English  gamblers  in  England.  Like  the  kings  of  France, 
the  kings  of  England  were  addicted  to  this  vice.  At  Blyth 
House  a  table  used  to  be  preserved  on  which  the  Prince 
Regent  staked  and  won  £40,000  from  the  celebrated 
gambler,  Harry  Mellish.  On  one  occasion  Harry  Mellish 
lost  £97,000  ;  another  time  he  won  about  £100,000.  Under 
the  Georges  not  only  did  gambling  prevail  in  more  or  less 
disreputable  resorts,  but  also  at  Brooks's,  at  White's,  at  the 
Thatched  House,  and  other  high-class  clubs. 

In  private  houses  gamblers  were  welcome,  though 
they  did  not  always  constitute  a  choice  company.  One  of 
the  dukes  of  Buckingham,  who  lived  where  Buckingham 
Palace  now  stands,  used  to  entertain  once  a  year  the 
frequenters  of  a  celebrated  gambling  hell  in  Marylebone. 


The  nature  of  this  company  may  be  inferred  from  the 
elegant  toast  which  his  Grace  solemnly  proposed  on  each 
of  these  festive  occasions : 

"  May  as  many  of  us  as  remain  unhanged  next  year 
meet  here  again." 

To-day  on  this  very  spot  the  King  of  England 
drinks  to  the  foreign  potentates  whom  he  entertains  at 
Buckingham  Palace. 

Throughout  the  West  End  of  London  up  to  the  year 
1845  there  were  an  untold  number  of  gambling  hells. 
These  were  sometimes  appi-opriately  called  slaughter- 
houses. In  private  dwellings  it  was  also  the  fashion  to 
gamble  extravagantly.  Ladies  who  lived  in  St  James's 
Square  were  notorious  for  such  entertainments,  and  in  the 
course  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  game  of  E.O.  was 
introduced.  This  was  a  precursor  of  the  modern  roulette. 
It  was  a  round  table  with  places  marked  off  at  the  edge 
on  which  to  put  the  stakes.  In  the  centre  there  was 
a  roulette  or  wheel  which  could  be  spun  round  in  one 
direction  while  a  ball  was  sent  round  in  another.  The 
wheel  was  divided  into  twenty  partitions  marked  E  and 
twenty  marked  O.  Two  were  called  bar-holes,  and  when 
the  ball  fell  in  these  the  bank  won  half  and  did  not  pay 
the  other  half.  It  was  the  zero  of  roulette,  only  there 
were  two  zeros  in  forty  chances  instead  of  one  in  thirty- 
seven,  as  at  jVIonte  Carlo.  This  was  considered  a  great 
improvement  on  dice.  Nevertheless  when  the  floor  of  the 
Middle  Temple  Hall  was  taken  up,  close  upon  a  hundred 
sets  of  dice  were  found.  They  had  fallen  through  the 
chinks  in  the  boards. 

In  1797  the  Countess  of  Buckingham,  Lady  Elizabeth 
Luttrell  and  other  leaders  of  society  were  prosecuted  and 
fined  at  the  Marlborough  Police  Court  for  illegally  playing 
games  of  hazard.  During  the  course  of  the  proceedings 
it  came  out  that  some  of  the  best  families  had  borrowed 
from  a  money-lender,  involved  in  the  trial,  £180,000 
exclusively  for  gambling  purposes.  The  Duchess  of 
Devonshire,  in   1805,   was  publicly   credited  with   losing 


£176,000  at  faro.  Though  money  is  much  cheaper  to-day, 
these  are  figures  that  can  be  compared  with  the  most 
extravagant  stories  and  legends  of  INIonto  Carlo.  Charles 
James  Fox,  by  the  time  he  was  twenty-five  years  old,  had 
ruined  himself  with  no  worthier  object  than  the  pleasure 
of  playing  at  faro.  Sometimes  the  play  ended  dramatically. 
In  1755  Lord  Montford  lost  his  fortune  at  White's  and  shot 
himself.  Sir  John  Bland  lost  £32,000  at  a  sitting,  and  also 
shot  himself,  selecting  for  this  purpose  the  road  from  Calais 
to  Paris.  It  is  on  record  that  at  the  Cocoa  Tree  Club, 
in  1780,  no  less  than  £180,000  was  lost  in  a  week.  Thus 
large  losses,  some  followed  by  suicides,  were  associated 
with  gambling  long  before  Baden-Baden,  Homburg  and 
Monte  Carlo  came  into  existence.  I^ord  de  Ros,  Premier 
Baron  of  England,  who  died  in  1837,  brought  an  action 
against  The  Satirist  because  it  had  accused  him  of  unfair 
play.  This  event  inspired  Theodore  Hook  to  write  the 
following  epitaph  : — 

"  Here  lies  England's  Premier  Baron 

Patiently  awaiting  the  last  trump." 

It  must  not  be  imagined  that  every  gambler  lost.  Some 
few  not  only  won  but  were  wise  enough  to  keep  their 
gains.  Thus  Colonel  Panton  invested  the  money  he  won 
at  a  gambling  house  in  Piccadilly.  He  bought  some  land 
between  Leicester  Square  and  the  Haymarket,  and  here 
built  Panton  Street,  which  bears  his  name  to  this  day. 

It  cannot  be  claimed  that  there  is  anything  new  in 
the  idea  of  running  a  luxurious  casino  on  the  products 
of  gambling.  Nor  can  this  be  described  as  something 
specially  belonging  to  the  Continent.  Among  many 
others  who  distinguished  themselves  in  ventures  of  this 
description  there  was  a  certain  fishmonger  called  AVilliam 
Crockford.  According  to  "  Doings  in  London,"  illustrated 
by  Cruikshank,  he  first  opened  a  hell  in  King  Street. 
From  Lord  Thanet,  Lord  Granville  and  three  of  their 
friends  he  contrived  to  win  about  £100.000,  and  soon 
possessed  the  capital  necessary  to  establish  the  celebrated 
Crockford's  in  St  James's  Street.  This  magnificent  club 


or  casino  cost  £94,000  for  furnishing  alone.  The  chef, 
Monsieur  Eustach,  received  a  salary  of  £1200  a  year. 
In  1827  there  were  1200  members,  each  paying  £25 
annual  subscription.  The  diplomatic  corps  was  admitted 
free.  But  the  members  were  not  respectful.  They  could 
not  forget  Mr  Crockford's  original  calling  in  life,  and 
persisted  in  naming  the  palace  he  had  built  the 
Fishmongers  Hall.  Yet  Mr  Crockford  was  not  a  snob. 
He  did  not  repudiate  his  origin.  On  the  contrary,  he 
proudly  traced  his  good  fortune  back  to  the  selling  of 
sound  and  fresh  fish,  especially  shell-fish,  at  the  noted  old 
fish  shop  first  established  just  outside  Temple  Bar  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  VHI.  During  all  his  life  he  preserved 
a  keen  affection  for  the  old  narrow  wooden  house  with 
its  projecting  gables  and  quaint  appearance,  and  would 
not  allow  it  to  be  altered  for  any  consideration. 

Mr  Crockford  engaged  Wyatt,  the  celebrated  architect, 
to  build  his  club  in  St  James's  Street,  which  was  con- 
structed in  1827.  To-day  this  building,  with  some  altera- 
tions, has  been  converted  into  the  Devonshire  Club.  After 
Crockford's  death  neither  the  club  in  St  James's  Street  nor 
the  fish  shop  at  Temple  Bar  prospered.  The  latter  became 
a  hairdresser's  shop ;  then  a  second-hand  book  dealer 
occupied  the  premises  till  they  were  pulled  down  to  make 
room  for  the  new  I^aw  Courts.  The  owner  of  what  may 
be  considered  the  most  successful  and  important  gambling 
club  ever  established  in  England  died  in  May  1844. 
Mr  T.  Raikes,  in  the  Jmvrnal,  thus  records  the  event: 

"  That  arch-gambler  Crockford  is  dead,  and  has  left 
an  immense  fortune.  He  was  originally  a  low  fishmonger 
in  Fish  Street  Hill,  near  the  Mommient;  then  a  'leg' 
at  Newmarket  and  a  keeper  of  '  hells '  in  London.  He 
finally  set  up  the  club  in  St  James's  Street  opposite  to 
A\^hite's,  with  a  hazard  bank,  by  which  he  won  all  the 
disposable  money  of  the  men  of  fashion  in  London,  which 
was  supposed  to  be  near  two  millions." 

At  his  death,  however,  it  was  found  that  Mr  Crockford 

NAPOLEON    III    AT    CROCKFORD'S        273 

left  only  £700,000,  for  he  had  lost  a  good  deal  in  mining 
speculations.  Mr  Raikes  says  his  end  was  accelerated  by 
anxiety  with  regard  to  his  bets  on  the  Derby.  This  is 
curious  and  inconsistent.  Proprietors  of  gambling  establish- 
ments are  far  too  well  informed  to  indulge  in  gambling. 
Indeed  it  is  related  that  some  young  friend  having  once 
asked  him  for  advice  Mr  Crockford  replied  : 

"  I'll  tell  you  what  it  is,  young  man.  You  may  call 
mains  at  hazard  till  your  hair  grows  out  of  your  hat  and 
your  toes  grow  out  of  your  boots ;  my  advice  to  you  is 
not  to  call  any  mains  at  all." 

As  an  example  of  the  luxury  and  extravagance 
prevailing  at  Crockford's,  it  is  said  that  the  dice  alone 
cost  £2000  a  year.  A  guinea  was  paid  for  each  pair,  and 
three  new  pairs  were  provided  every  day ;  but  apart  from 
this  supply  players  often  called  for  new  pairs  of  dice  in 
the  hope  of  changing  their  luck. 

After  Crockford's  death,  the  place  soon  fell  to  pieces 
and  lost  its  reputation.  During  that  time  of  decadence 
an  incident  occurred  that  may  have  contributed  to  bring 
Monte  Carlo  into  existence.  In  his  "  Life  of  Napoleon  the 
Third,"  Mr  Blanchard  Jerrold  records  that  in  1847  the 
proprietor  of  Crockford's  was  compelled  to  return  to 
Prince  Napoleon  a  sum  of  £2000  "which  a  cheat  had 
endeavoured  to  extort  from  him  in  that  dangerous 
establishment."  In  a  footnote  it  is  stated  that  this  same 
proprietor,  a  successor,  but  an  unsuccessful  successor,  of 
the  celebrated  Crockford,  was  so  reduced  in  circumstances 
that  in  1865  he  begged  money  from  the  emperor. 
Perhaps  his  unpleasant  experience  at  Crockford's  may 
have  so  far  enlightened  the  emperor  as  to  make  him 
appreciate  the  more  honest  methods  of  administration 
established  by  M.  Fran(,'ois  Blanc  at  Homburg.  Conse- 
quently the  emperor  did  not  object  when  the  Homburg 
enterprise  was  transferred  to  Monte  Carlo.  The  emperor, 
it  is  true,  had  no  legal  right  to  interfere,  for  Monaco  is 
an  independent  principality  ;  but  nevertheless  it  was  very 
important  to  secure  his  good  will.  Monaco  could  not  have 


resisted  had  the  French  Government  thought  fit  to  forbid 
gambUng.  Such  a  proceeding  might  be  most  arbitrary  and 
opposed  to  treaty  rights,  but  no  European  power  would 
have  drawn  the  sword  to  defend,  for  the  sake  of  M.  Blanc 
and  his  roulette-tables,  the  treaties  that  guarantee  the 
independence  of  Monaco.  Fortunately  for  M.  Blanc,  the 
emperor  while  in  exile  in  London  had  seen  what 
unauthorised  and  uncontrolled  gambling  establishments 
were  like.  He  was  one  of  Crockford's  many  victims,  and 
perhaps  this  made  him  look  with  favour  on  the  safer 
methods  applied  at  Homburg.  Napoleon  IIL  knew  full 
well  that  if  a  casino  with  roulette-tables  was  properly 
managed  it  would  bring  wealth  and  prosperity  to  the 
whole  neighbouring  country.  In  Germany,  and  notably 
at  Homburg,  this  had  been  very  conclusively  demon- 
strated. Yet  in  no  instance  had  there  been  such  fraud  and 
cheating  as  that  which  the  emperor  himself  had  experi- 
enced in  some  of  the  best  but  uncontrolled  gambling 
resorts  of  England.  The  newly  annexed  province  of  Nice 
and  the  winter  stations  on  the  French  Riviera,  which  were 
beginning  to  attract  visitors,  would  all  derive  enormous 
benefit  from  their  proximity  to  a  Homburg  transplanted 
to  the  principality  of  Monaco.  On  the  other  hand,  it 
would  be  the  Prince  of  Monaco  and  not  the  Emperor 
of  the  French  who  would  have  to  support  the  blame  and 
abuse  that  were  sure  to  be  hurled  against  the  casino  and 
the  gambling. 

Though  British  legislature  is  phenomenally  slow  to 
move,  especially  when  it  is  a  question  of  interfering  with 
financial  matters,  so  many  persons  had  been  ruined  by 
gambling  that  on  the  8th  of  August  1845  an  Act  to 
amend  the  law  against  games  and  wagers  was  passed. 
This  law  compelled  many  houses  or  clubs  to  close,  because 
gambling  was  their  chief  purpose.  Such  resorts  were, 
however,  soon  reopened  ;  not,  it  is  true,  for  games  of 
hazard  such  as  dice,  faro  or  roulette,  but  as  betting 
centres.  By  1850  there  were  some  four  hundred  houses  of 
this  description.   Here  bets  from  sixpence  and  upwards 


were  taken  on  races  and  other  events.  If  the  owner  made 
a  bad  book  he  bolted,  leaving  behind  him  debts  that 
sometimes  amounted  to  several  thousands  of  pounds, 
like  the  notorious  Dwyer  of  St  Martin's  Lane.  When  in 
1851  Miss  Nancy,  contrary  to  his  anticipations,  won  the 
Chester  Cup,  Dwyer  absconded,  leaving  debts  to  the 
amount  of  £25,000.  Volumes  could  be  and  have  been 
written  describing  scandals  of  this  description,  and  they 
might  be  read  with  advantage  by  those  persons  who  feel 
inclined  to  fling  stones  at  the  Monte  Carlo  casino.  Frauds 
of  this  character  were  so  frequent  that  in  July  1852 
another  Act  was  passed.  Its  object  was  the  suppression 
of  betting  houses,  and  it  sanctioned  the  infliction  of  fines 
up  to  £100,  and  imprisonment  with  hard  labour  up  to  six 
months.  Nevertheless  to  this  day  there  is  no  difliculty  in 
backing  a  horse,  while  clandestine  gambling  hells  are 
constantly  discovered  and  raided  by  the  police  in  various 
parts  of  the  provinces  and  the  metropolis. 

Mrs  Grundy  may  frown.  Englishmen  may  pretend  to 
be  proud  of  British  virtue  and  of  British  institutions ;  but 
with  regard  to  gambling  we  cannot  afford  to  throw  stones. 
Still  less  should  we  venture  to  sling  such  missiles  at  a 
principality  where  there  is  no  Stock  Exchange,  no  horse 
racing,  no  betting,  and  where  neither  native  nor  resident 
can  gamble ;  for  it  is  only  foreigners  and  aliens  who  are 
allowed  to  approach  the  closely  guarded  gaming-tables. 
No  doubt  gambling  is  altogether  bad,  but  the  British, 
which  of  all  people  is  the  most  prone  to  hypocrisy,  should 
be  very  modest  and  reserved  when  speaking  of  this  vice. 
In  any  case  the  Monte  Carlo  casino,  without  the  slightest 
hypocritical  pretence,  opens  its  doors  to  foreign  gamblers 
who  are  rich  enough  to  travel  so  far  for  the  pleasure  of 
playing.  In  England  gambling  is  not  restricted  to 
foreigners,  or  even  to  those  who  can  afford  to  lose.  From 
the  poorest  errand-boy  up  to  the  plutocrat  and  the 
aristocrat  all  contrive  to  back  horses,  bet  on  football  and 
other  matches,  or  to  speculate  on  'Change.  The  latter  is 
probably  the  most  ruinous  and  disastrous  of  all  gambling 


institutions.  During  a  debate  on  the  Budget  in  the  House 
of  Commons  it  was  stated  that  90  per  cent,  of  the 
business  transacted  on  the  London  Stock  Exchange  was 
of  a  gambUng  character.  Among  the  various  speakers,  Mr 
Markham  frankly  confessed  that  he  had  gambled  on 
'Change  and  lost.  It  seemed  to  him  that  these  trans- 
actions might  very  well  be  taxed.  The  Chancellor  of 
the  Exchequer,  however,  replied  that  such  a  tax  would 
stop  genuine  business. 

On  the  13th  of  March  1907,  Mr  Field,  in  the  House 
of  Commons,  asked  if  the  Chancellor  were  aware  that  in 
transactions  on  the  London  Stock  Exchange  the  terms  of 
the  Leeman's  Act  7-e  bank  shares  transfers  are  openly 
violated  :  and  whether  he  would  take  measures  to  ensure 
that  members  of  the  London  Stock  Exchange  should  be 
required  to  observe  the  safeguard  imposed  by  law  to 
prevent  gambling  in  bank  shares.  Mr  Asquith  replied  : 

"  I  have  no  information  on  the  subject ;  but  the  effect 
of  the  Act  is  merely  to  invalidate  certain  contracts  if 
entered  into.  If  people  choose  to  enter  into  such  contracts 
there  is  nothing  to  prevent  their  doing  so,  but  they  do  so 
at  their  own  risk,  since  these  contracts  cannot  be  enforced. 
The  Act  imposes  no  penalty  for  entering  into  such  con- 
tracts unless  there  be  false  entries  of  numbers  and  names 

Thus  this  form  of  gambling  on  the  London  Stock 
Exchange  is  assimilated  to  other  gambling  outside  where 
it  is  not  possible  to  sue  for  gambling  debts.  No  attempt 
was  made  in  the  House  to  deny  the  prevalence  of  gambling 
on  the  Stock  Exchange.  Then  why  do  so  many  persons 
say  it  is  wicked  to  go  to  Monte  Carlo  and  yet  are  not 
shocked  when  people  frequent  the  city  ?  If  the  only 
business  done  on  the  Stock  Exchange  were  legitimate 
business,  one-tenth  of  the  brokers  now  engaged  would 
suffice.  At  Berlin,  a  jobber  on  the  Stock  Exchange  is 
called  a  sckinder — i.e.  "  skinner  " — and  his  clients  rinder 
or  "  cattle,"  an  allusion  to  their  stupidity.  Why  are  the 
"  skinned  "  "  cattle "  of  the  Berlin  Stock  Exchange  pre- 

THE    COMMONS    AND    GAMBLING         277 

ferred  to  the  "  shorn  sheep  "  or  "  plucked  birds "  of  the 
Monte  Carlo  casino  ?  The  latter,  in  any  case,  do  not  pay 
so  heavy  a  brokerage  and  have  a  much  better  chance  of 

The  commission  paid  in  England  to  the  stockbroker 
is  generally  ^  per  cent.,  and  A  for  the  "cover  system." 
This  seems  much  less  than  the  1^  per  cent,  brokerage 
the  zero  represents  for  the  simple  chances  at  roulette. 
But  that  does  not  apply  to  gambling  transactions.  The 
buyer  of  £4000  of  shares  pays  |  per  cent,  or  £5  com- 
mission. It  would  be  a  poor  business  for  the  broker 
if  the  purchaser  kept  these  shares  for  several  years. 
The  gambler,  of  course,  proposes  to  sell  again  in  a  few 
days,  or  at  most  in  a  few  weeks.  In  the  latter  event 
another  commission  will  have  to  be  paid  to  the  broker. 
This  brokerage  must  not  be  compared  with  the  nominal 
value  of  the  shares  the  gambler  never  intended  to 
keep  and  probably  could  not  have  paid  for,  but  with 
the  actual  amount  of  money  produced.  At  Monte  Carlo 
the  calculations  are  based,  not  on  the  money  players  may 
be  disposed  to  risk,  but  on  what  they  put  on  the  tables. 
The  only  money  the  gambler  produces  on  the  Stock 
Exchange  is  the  sum  needed  to  meet  the  difference 
between  the  purchase  and  sale  price  of  the  shares.  It  is 
this  difference  which  constitutes  the  speculation,  the  bet 
or  gambling  deal.  If  the  brokerage  paid  be  compared  with 
this  latter  sum  it  will  reach  a  much  higher  percentage 
than  that  charged  at  Monte  Carlo.  In  "  Chance  and  Luck  " 
Mr  Richard  A.  Proctor  estimates  that  the  iV  per  cent, 
commission  paid  on  "cover"  transactions  practically 
amounts  to  6^  per  cent,  on  the  speculator's  money. 
Further  he  very  conclusively  demonstrates  how  rarely 
such  speculators  clear  any  profit. 

The  risk  incurred  at  roulette  is  mathematically  defined, 
and  never  varies  by  the  smallest  conceivable  fraction.  On 
the  Stock  Exchange  so  great  are  the  interests  which 
engender  misrepresentation,  the  booming  of  those  who 
wish  to  sell,  the  slanderous  abuse  of  those  who  want  to 


buy,  that  by  far  the  safest  plan  is  to  speculate  in  the 
opposite  sense  to  the  advice  received.  Monte  Carlo,  like 
the  Stock  Exchange,  may  tempt  to  gambling,  but  it  does 
not  ci'eate  an  atmosphere  of  misrepresentation.  No  amount 
of  lies  will  produce  a  series  of  reds  or  even  of  blacks. 

The  construction  of  the  Monte  Carlo  roulettes  renders 
cheating  absolutely  impossible,  though  faked  roulettes  have 
been  employed  in  secret  gambling  hells.  The  "  Rules  and 
Usages  "  of  the  Stock  Exchange  do  not  prevent  all  manner 
of  frauds,  and  the  promotion  of  bogus  companies  has 
become  a  fine  art.  ^Vhen  the  Water  Gas  Company  came 
to  grief  in  1894  the  public  obtained  some  insight  into  such 
proceedings.  They  learned  that  brokers  in  the  country 
were  asked  to  order  three  times  as  many  shares  as  they 
required,  and  promises  were  made  that  only  a  third  of 
what  they  asked  for  would  be  allotted  to  them.  These 
facts  were  brought  before  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  in 
March  1896,  and  it  was  then  further  elicited  that  the 
brokers  in  league  were  advised  not  to  sell  till  after  a 
special  settlement.  By  this  means  the  shares  were  cornered 
and  the  price  forced  up  twenty-one  points  in  a  month.  But 
it  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  volume  to  deal  with  Stock 
Exchange  swindling,  whether  British  or  foreign. 

What  is  called  speculation  on  'Change — what  is,  to  all 
intents  and  purposes,  mere  gambling — not  only  entails  a 
terrible  waste  of  intelligence,  energy  and  time,  but  is 
the  cause  of  daily  ruin  and  of  innumerable  suicides.  The 
author  of  "  The  Gambling  World  "  relates,  for  instance, 
that  after  the  great  exhibition  at  \^ienna  there  was  such 
a  sudden  difference  in  the  prices  of  certain  securities 
bought  and  sold  on  the  Vienna  Bourse  that  in  the  space 
of  two  months  there  were  no  fewer  than  thirty-three 
suicides  in  Austria  alone,  all  being  attributed  to  this 
crisis  on  'Change.  And  in  England  how  many  suicides  did 
the  Liberator  frauds  cause  ?  On  that  occasion  about 
£2,000,000  of  money  disappeared  under  the  very  noses 
of  the  directors.  Lying  prospectuses  and  cooked  balance- 
sheets  all  helped  to  ensnare  the  public.  About  the  same 


time  a  banking  firm  collapsed  in  the  city.  The  loss  was  set 
down  at  £600,000,  and  this  money  had  been  deposited  for 
the  most  part  by  poor  and  thrifty  people.  The  head  partner 
committed  suicide,  and  therefore  the  Treasury,  we  are  told 
by  the  same  author,  stopped  the  prosecution.  Why  ?  The 
investors,  poor  souls,  got  one  shilling  in  the  pound.  It 
would  be  interesting  to  inquire  whether  any  of  these 
defrauded  investors  are  disposed  to  sign  a  petition  for 
closing  the  casino  at  Monte  Carlo,  or  whether  they  would 
prefer  that  something  should  be  done  to  exercise  a  better 
and  more  effective  control  over  the  financial  transactions 
that  take  place  Avithin  the  historic  precincts  of  the  city  of 

Gambling  is  undoubtedly  an  evil,  and  its  suppression 
would  be  a  benefit  to  humanity ;  but  the  most  dishonest 
and  dangerous  forms  of  gambling  should  be  dealt  with 
first.  People  must  not  be  ensnared  into  gambling  ventures 
under  the  pretext  of  bona  fide  and  honourable  investments. 
Where  gambling  is  practised  in  the  broad  daylight,  under 
immutable  and  cleai-ly  defined  conditions  that  render 
deception  or  cheating  impossible,  the  conditions  begin  to 
differ.  When,  further,  it  is  found  that  a  large  part  of  the 
profits  are  devoted  to  the  relief  of  taxation  and  to  the  special 
benefit  of  the  poor ;  and  tliat  to  obtain  these  profits  no 
one  is  tempted  to  play,  no  bogus  prospectuses  are  issued 
to  allure  investors ;  we  may,  perhaps,  conclude  that  this 
is  a  form  of  gambling  we  can  continue  to  tolerate  till 
such  time,  at  least,  as  gambling  on  'Change  and  on  the 
turf  has  been  definitely  abolished. 

What  is  here  recorded  of  France  and  England  applies 
to  other  nations.  All  live  in  glass  houses,  and  none  can 
afford  to  throw  stones.  Thus,  for  example,  to  take  but  one 
single  and  recent  incident :  McChirc's  Magazine  for 
October  1911  publishes  an  account  of  the  "recall"  at 
Seattle,  written  by  Mr  Burton  J.  Hendrick.  Here  the 
mayor  before  his  election  in  1910  promised  to  have  a 
"restricted  area"  for  gambling,  prostitution  and  kindred 
social  evils.  In  the  execution  of  this  promise,  Seattle  itself 


became  a  "  restricted  area  "  of  vice  for  the  north-western 
states.  The  Northern  Club,  the  great  gambUng  emporium, 
earned  200,000  dollars  in  fifty-four  days :  not  a  bad  be- 
ginning. One  of  the  largest  houses  of  ill-fame  netted  for 
its  proprietors  from  10,000  to  12,000  dollars  per  month. 
The  chief  of  the  police  received  ten  dollars  a  month  from 
each  woman  in  its  employ,  and  as  there  were  nearly  a 
hundred  of  them  it  made  a  good  income.  A  huge  venture 
was  started  called  the  Hillside  Improvement  Company, 
where  the  largest  home  of  vice  was  to  contain  250  rooms 
with  suitable  occupants,  so  as  to  bring  in  half-a-million 
dollars  a  year.  But  the  Public  Welfare  League  succeeded 
in  getting  a  petition  for  the  "  recall "  of  the  mayor 
signed  by  the  required  25  per  cent,  of  the  electors. 
AVomen  voters,  especially  workgirls  and  shopgirls,  being 
the  principal  victims,  helped  largely.  When,  as  the  result 
of  this  petition,  a  decent  mayor  and  chief  of  police  were 
appointed,  2000  or  3000  men  and  women  of  the  least 
desirable  description  left  Seattle. 

But  enough.  No  one  defends  gambling,  the  directors 
of  the  Monte  Carlo  casino  not  excluded.  It  is  all  very 
well  to  play  when  it  is  only  play,  but  when  people  lose 
more  than  they  can  afford  it  ceases  to  be  play.  When 
an  innocent  amusement  thus  degenerates  into  gambling 
it  is  universally  condemned.  Therefore  if  this  can  be 
restricted  or  prevented,  well  and  good ;  but  let  there  be 
no  hypocrisy  about  it,  no  picking  motes  out  of  other 
people's  eyes  and  neglecting  the  beam  in  one's  own.  It 
w^ould  be  unjust  and  bad  policy  to  attack  that  which 
is  most  honest  and  best  controlled  while  we  have  at  home 
sinks  of  iniquity  that  are  still  untouched. 



OBVIOUSLY  the  abolition  of  public  gaming 
establishments  in  France  greatly  enhanced  the 
fortunes  of  the  German  watering-places  on  or 
near  the  Rhine.  At  most  of  these  resorts  there  were 
gaming-tables,  and  under  the  pretext  of  drinking  the 
waters  a  large  number  of  people  indulged  their  gambling 
proclivities.  Even  William,  the  first  Emperor  of  United 
Germany,  used  in  his  younger  days  to  play  at  Aix-la- 
Chapelle ;  and  it  is  related  that  on  one  occasion  he  gave 
all  his  winnings  to  a  distressed  officer  who  was  watching 
him.  But  now  the  French  also  came  to  the  German 
resorts ;  not  only  the  gamblers,  but  bankers  with  their 
roulette-tables  and  their  large  capital.  Skilled  croupiers 
trained  in  prosperous  French  gambling  houses  established 
themselves  on  German  territory.  Nevertheless  it  requires 
men  of  special  genius  and  enterprise  to  create  what  is 
now  understood  by  the  term  casino.  Thus,  for  instance, 
the  Romans  had  discovered  the  virtue  of  the  waters  at 
Baden-Baden  and  named  the  place  Civitas  Aurelice 
Aqiieims.  The  modern  world  only  began  to  realise  that 
there  were  valuable  mineral  waters  at  Baden-Baden  when 
in  1808  a  "  Conversationshaus  "  was  opened  and  gaming- 
tables set  up.  The  same  may  be  said  of  Wiesbaden,  where 
the  Romans  also  discovered  the  waters,  though  they  were 
not  extensively  utilised  till  the  Kursaal,  with  its  celebrated 
twenty-four  Doric  columns,  was  built  in  1810.  Much  may 
be  said  about  the  beautiful  surrounding  scenery  and  the 
real  benefit  to  be  derived  from  the  mineral  springs ; 
but  neither  Baden-Baden  nor  Wiesbaden  would  ever 


have  acquired  their  modern  popularity  had  it  not  been 
for  the  enterprise  and  genius  of  such  men  as  Benazet, 
Dupressoir  and  other  managers  who  knew  how  to  spend 
and  pay  in  a  lavish,  regal  manner.  Thus  though  but 
the  lessee  of  the  gaming-tables,  M.  Benazet  was 
generally  recognised  as  the  uncrowned  monarch,  and 
popularly  known  as  le  roi  de  Bade.  His  personal  appear- 
ance helped  to  justify  this  sobriquet.  He  had  a 
commanding  presence,  jet-black  hair,  a  large,  hooked  nose, 
but  his  was  the  Arab,  not  the  Jewish,  type.  By  a  strange 
idiosyncrasy,  which  was  much  noticed  and  created  not 
a  little  amusement,  his  vanity  was  concentrated  on  his 
silk  stockings,  which  he  never  failed  to  show  off. 

Aided  by  his  striking  personality,  but  still  more  by  his 
personal  tact,  ]\I.  Benazet  became  a  general  favourite,  and 
people,  as  it  were,  held  their  breath  when  his  name  was 
mentioned.  It  seemed  to  spell  gold  and  things  that 
glittered.  He  personified  all  that  was  comprised  in  the 
name  Baden-Baden,  and  these  two  words  had  become 
a  magic  formula.  What  could  success,  rewarded  by  a 
holiday,  mean,  if  not  a  few  weeks  at  Baden-Baden  ?  The 
conversation  house,  though  it  had  been  rebuilt  in  1824, 
could  not  satisfy  the  Oriental  conception  of  luxury  that 
dwelt  in  M.  Benazet's  imagination.  Consequently,  in  1854, 
it  was  greatly  enlarged,  with  ambitious  architectural 
developments  and  most  gorgeous  decoration.  So  also  at 
Wiesbaden,  in  1862,  was  the  Kursaal  rebuilt  in  palatial 
style,  and  many  other  towns  sought  fortune  by  establishing 
Kursaals  with  gambling-tables.  These  flourished  more 
or  less  at  Schwalback,  Kissingen,  Ems,  Spa  in  Belgium, 
but  close  to  the  Prussian  frontier,  and  many  other  places. 
A  gaming  saloon  was  opened  even  at  a  railway  station,  at 
Kathen,  but  it  acquired  such  a  bad  reputation  that  it  was 
closed  in  1845  by  the  Duke  of  Anhalt-Kothen. 

While  these  developments  were  taking  place  two 
Frenchmen  were  watching,  and  wondering  whether  they 
might  venture  to  participate  in  the  tide  of  emigration 
which  had  carried  so  many  promoters  of  gambling  houses 

WATER    CURES    AND    GAMBLING         283 

from  France  to  Germany.  These  were  the  twin  brothers, 
Louis  Joseph  and  Francois  Blanc.  They  were  born  at 
Courthezon  in  the  department  of  Vaucluse,  and  their 
father  seems  to  have  had  some  business  connected  with 
the  Bordeaux  Exchange.  In  any  case,  the  two  brothers, 
while  in  no  wise  wealthy,  possessed  a  small  capital  which 
they  were  eager  to  invest  in  some  specially  profitable 
manner.  The  successful  career  of  M.  Benazet  and  men  of 
his  stamp  was  to  them  an  enlightening  example.  Fortun- 
ately no  one  had  discovered  or  thought  of  Homburg. 
This  was  the  more  remarkable  as  it  possessed  great 
advantages  ;  for  the  weaker  and  the  more  impecunious 
the  government  the  easier  the  negotiations.  The  Grand 
duchy  of  Baden  and  the  duchy  of  Nassau,  with 
Wiesbaden  as  its  capital,  were  both  important  princi- 
palities, especially  when  compared  with  the  landgraviate 
of  Hesse- Homburg. 

The  landgraviate  was  created  under  Prince  Frederick  I. 
in  1622,  and  the  present  princely  residence  was  built  by 
his  successor,  Frederick  IL,  better  known  as  the  Silver 
Leg.  It  was  not  till  176G  that  the  Landgrave  Frederick 
Louis  began  to  call  attention  to  the  mineral  springs 
whicli  ultimately  became  the  real  and  permanent  source 
of  the  town's  fame  and  fortune.  The  landgrave  even 
succeeded  in  attracting  some  German  princes  to  Homburg, 
but  they  were  all  too  poor  to  be  of  much  use.  Greater  by 
far  was  the  achievement  of  the  next  reigning  prince,  for 
he  married  Princess  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  King  George 
in.  of  England.  The  British  princess  brought  with  her  a 
solid  £10,000  a  year  to  add  to  the  20,000  florins  which 
constituted  the  Civil  List  of  the  reigning  sovereigns  of 
Hesse-Homburg.  The  brothers  of  the  landgrave  had 
only  6000  florins  a  year,  and  to  increase  this  very  modest 
income  had  to  serve,  some  in  the  Prussian,  others  in  the 
Austrian  army.  Ultimately  they  or  their  descendants 
fought  against  each  other  during  the  Austro-Prussian  War 
of  1866.  The  £10,000  from  the  British  Civil  List,  a  sum 
we  could  ill  afford  at  the  time,  was  the  first  gleam  of  real 


prosperity  that  shone  on  the  landgraviate.  Gardens  and 
walks  were  laid  out ;  some  old  houses  were  pulled  down 
and  other  improvements  effected.  The  people  in  their 
gratitude  named  their  principal  spring  the  Elisabeth- 
brunnen,  after  the  British  consort  of  the  landgrave.  At 
last  visitors  were  sufficiently  numerous  for  an  official 
record  to  be  kept.  The  first  of  these  documents  is  dated 
1834.,  and  that  year  there  were  155  visitors  to  Homburg. 
Two  years  later  this  figure  was  almost  doubled,  for  294 
visitors  went  to  Homburg  in  1836  ;  and  1839  saw  a  still 
greater  increase,  the  number  reaching  829. 

A  great  change  was  now  approaching  :  the  construction 
of  railways  had  begun.  The  German  gambling  resorts, 
already  profiting  largely  by  the  abolition  of  public 
gaming  houses  in  France,  had  reason  to  anticipate  still 
greater  advantages  from  the  more  rapid,  more  easy  and 
cheaper  mode  of  travelling  promised  by  the  railways.  The 
brothers  Blanc  determined  to  secure  a  firm  footing  in 
time  to  benefit  by  this  boon  when  it  came.  They  had  not, 
it  is  true,  sufficient  capital ;  but  if  luck  favoured  them  at 
first  their  position  for  the  future  would  be  secui'e.  They 
put  on  as  bold  an  appearance  as  possible ;  and  by  good 
fortune  they  had  to  deal  with  a  new  landgrave,  who  was 
much  oppressed  by  the  financial  difficulties  of  his  little 
principality.  Larger  countries  than  his  had  been  lifted 
out  of  poverty  and  insignificance  by  the  presence  of  a 
well-conducted  Kursaal ;  and  perhaps  the  brothers  Blanc 
were  the  right  men  to  effect  such  a  transformation.  The 
Landgrave  Philip  gave  them  permission  to  establish 
gaming-tables,  but  their  slender  resources  obliged  them  to 
begin  in  a  very  modest  manner.  It  was  in  1841  that  the 
roulette  wheel  spun  round  in  Homburg  for  the  first  time, 
in  a  small  house  close  to  the  Ludovic  spring,  which  is 
now  used  for  an  institute  of  mechano-therapeutics. 

To  this  day  the  old  inhabitants  of  Homburg  recall 
the  advent  of  the  two  brothers  with  their  roulette-tables, 
regret  their  departure,  and  laugh  over  the  many  clever 
things  they  did.  The  modern  glories  of  Monte  Carlo  shed 

THE    EDICT    OF   NANTES  285 

a  lustre  over  Homburg.  But  for  Homburg  there  would 
have  been  no  Monte  Carlo ;  indeed  if  M.  Francois  Blanc 
had  not  married  a  native  of  the  landgraviate  it  is  very 
probable  that  the  uninhabited  hill  of  the  Spelugnes  would 
only  be  known  for  the  caverns  after  which  it  is  named. 
It  required  the  genius  of  a  Francois  Blanc  to  convert 
this  arid  hill  of  the  caves  into  Monte  Carlo.  While 
indulging  in  speculations  as  to  what  might  not  have 
been,  it  may  be  permissible  to  go  a  step  farther  back  and 
to  argue  that  if  Louis  XIV.  of  France  had  not  revoked 
the  Edict  of  Nantes  there  would  have  been  no  Monte 
Carlo.  By  this  act  of  intolerance,  which  bears  the  date  of 
1685,  Louis  XIV^.  drove  some  300,000  Huguenots  out  of 
France.  Many  of  thein  were  excellent  workers,  yet  they 
were  compelled  to  go  and  enrich  by  their  labour  the 
industries  of  other  countries.  A  few  of  the  fugitives 
obtained  land  and  created  a  small  French  village  on  the 
outskirts  of  Homburg.  They  could  not  of  course  remain 
French  subjects  for  a  century  and  a  half,  but  they  still 
retained  the  French  language  and  many  Fi'ench  customs. 
Among  the  descendants  of  these  old  Huguenot  exiles, 
occupying  a  very  humble  position,  in  spite  of  his  ancient 
lineage,  was  one  Gaspard  Henzal.  He  married  Catherine 
Stemler,  who  gave  birth,  on  the  23rd  September  1833,  at 
Friedrichsdorf  ( Homburg),  to  a  daughter,  duly  christened 
Marie  Charlotte.  When  this  little  daughter  grew  up  she 
was  taught  French  in  memory  of  her  French  descent,  and 
as  the  brothers  Blanc  knew  very  little  German  they  were 
glad  to  accept  her  services  to  help  in  translating  and  in 
housekeeping.  Not  much  time  elapsed  before  she  found 
means  of  rendering  herself  almost  indispensable.  Being 
both  clever  and  good-looking,  she  ultimately  became  so 
great  a  favourite  that  the  position  was  quite  compromising. 
Attempts  were  made  at  separation,  with  the  usual 
accompaniment  of  tears  and  wild  counsels  of  despair.  In 
reality,  though  at  first  unwilling  to  admit  the  fact, 
M.  Fran9ois  Blanc  was  by  this  time  deeply  in  love  with  his 
young  housekeeper,  but  feared  she  was  of  too  lowly  a 


position  and  too  ignorant  to  be  his  wife.  Besides,  he  was 
so  much  older,  and  he  had  two  sons,  Charles  and  Camille. 
At  last,  as  Mademoiselle  Henzal  was  really  very  intelli- 
gent, and  M.  Francois  Blanc  felt  he  could  not  cure 
himself  of  his  love,  he  offered  to  marry  her  if  she  would 
first  go  to  a  High  School  and  be  properly  educated.  These 
terms  were  accepted  with  enthusiasm,  and  the  future 
Madame  Blanc  profited  to  the  utmost  by  the  education 
she  received.  It  was  on  the  20th  June  1854,  at  the  Town 
Hall  of  the  Second  District  [arrondissemerit)  of  Paris,  that 
Mademoiselle  Henzal  was  married  to  M.  Fran<,'ois  Blanc, 
and  by  her  devotion  and  wise  advice  she  soon  repaid  her 
husband  for  all  the  trouble  he  had  taken. 

In  some  respects  Madame  Blanc  showed  herself  as 
capable  of  advising  and  of  ruling  as  M.  Francois  Blanc 
himself.  Madame  Blanc  was  notably  well  able  to  look 
into  the  future,  and  persistently  warned  M.  Blanc  that 
gambling  would  be  abolished.  In  vain  M.  Blanc  assured 
her  that  the  Government  of  Hesse-Homburg  had  given 
him  every  guarantee ;  Madame  Blanc  as  persistently 
retorted  by  inquiring  who  had  guaranteed  Hesse-Homburg. 
Madame  Blanc  had  the  perspicacity  to  see  that  such 
petty  principalities  would  not  last  much  longer.  To  her 
German  unity  was  no  dream  but  an  approaching  reality. 
The  roar  of  the  cannon  of  Sadowa  was  not  needed  to 
awaken  her  to  the  danger  of  the  situation.  Three  years  previ- 
ously— ^that  is,  in  1863 — M.  Francois  Blanc  had  already 
secured  the  Monaco  concession,  and  it  was  Madame  Blanc 
who  made  this  choice  and  insisted  that  it  would  be  quite 
possible  to  transfer  to  Monaco  the  glories  of  Homburg. 
Now,  but  for  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  there 
would  have  been  no  French  Huguenot  settlement  near 
Homburg  ready  to  provide  a  fascinating  interpreter.  If 
M.  Francois  Blanc  had  married  someone  with  other  tastes 
it  is  not  likely  that  he  would  have  invested  his  fortune  in 
the  principality  of  Monaco.  Hence  it  may  be  argued  that 
but  for  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  it  is  prob- 
able there  would  have  been  no  Monte  Carlo.  This  may 


be  said  with  all  the  more  confidence  as  no  one  else  was 
capable  of  creating  the  Monte  Carlo  casino.  Several  others 
had  tried  before  M.  Blanc  came  to  Monaco,  and  had 
signally  failed. 

To  return  to  the  fortunes  of  the  Blanc  brothei's 
and  their  earlier  efforts,  it  soon  became  evident  that 
M.  Fran(;ois  Blanc  was  destined  to  take  the  lead,  for  he 
showed  himself  to  be  an  enterprising  manager,  a  profound 
financier  and  an  able  diplomat.  Nevertheless,  if  luck  had 
not  been  in  his  favour  in  the  first  instance,  the  venture 
might  have  failed  for  want  of  capital.  Even  to  this  day  it 
is  still  related  by  the  old  inhabitants  of  Homburg  that  at 
first  all  the  roulem/x  in  the  till  did  not  contain  gold  coins. 
By  holding  one  end  of  a  genuine  joulcmhv  and  giving  the 
other  end  a  sharp  rap  on  the  table  the  paper  tears  in  the 
middle  and  the  gold  pieces  drop  out.  Care  was  taken,  now 
and  again,  to  perform  this  interesting  operation  so  as  to 
inspire  confidence  and  to  conceal  the  fact  that  some  of 
the  rouleavx  only  contained  a  round  piece  of  wood.  The 
croupier  could  easily  tell  by  the  weight  which  were  the 
real  and  which  the  dummy  roideamv.  When,  however, 
the  winnings  began  to  accunmlate,  gold  was  substituted  for 
wood,  as  there  was  no  further  need  to  employ  dummies. 

This  little  stratagem  on  the  part  of  the  bank  was 
innocence  itself  compared  with  the  fraudulent  practices 
attempted  by  some  of  the  players.  They  also  played  with 
rouleaux,  but  these  were  sometimes  made  with  false  coins 
carefully  mixed  with  lead  so  as  to  weigh  the  same  as  gold. 
To  defeat  this  manoeuvre  the  bank  cut  away  small  portions 
of  the  paper  so  that  a  part  of  some  of  the  gold  coins  could 
be  seen.  This  was  soon  imitated,  real  coins  being  placed 
opposite  the  holes  and  false  ones  in  the  space  between. 
Thus  it  came  about  that  the  use  of  rouleaux  was  entirely 
abolished.  They  were  popular  in  times  gone  by  and  very 
convenient  for  manipulating  large  sums,  but  they  lent 
themselves  too  readily  to  various  forms  of  swindling. 
When  there  is  so  much  money  lying  loose  on  a  table  it 
is  not  surprising  if  thieves  and  swindlers  gather  round, 


feeling  that  there  surely  must  be  some  way  of  purloining 
a  little  of  it. 

Among  the  first  visitors  to  the  roulette  newly  estab- 
lished at  Homburg  there  came  from  the  great  castle  that 
overshadows  the  neighbouring  town  of  Hanau  the  Kur- 
furst  von  Hessen.  This  gentleman  was  an  all-important 
local  notability,  somewhat  impetuous  and  reckless.  He 
soon  contrived  to  lose  100,000  gulden  at  roulette,  and  this 
was  the  commencement  of  the  Blanc  brothers'  good  fortune. 
It  was  believed  at  the  time  that  this  sum  was  larger  than 
the  original  capital  they  were  able  to  invest  in  the  venture. 
Now  there  would  be  no  difficulty  in  replacing  the  wooden 
rouleaux  by  real  gold.  Yet  the  advantage  thus  gained  at 
a  time  when  it  was  most  needed  was  soon  to  be  converted 
into  a  serious  and  permanent  loss  for  the  town  of 
Homburg.  The  Kurfiirst  von  Hessen,  having  gambled 
away  all  his  disposable  cash,  applied  to  the  proprietor  of 
the  gambling  concession  for  a  loan,  so  that  he  might  win 
it  back  again.  But  IVIessieurs  Blanc  did  not  see  the  matter 
in  quite  the  same  light.  They  were,  on  the  contrary,  con- 
gratulating themselves  on  having  bridged  over  the  great 
difficulty  and  peril  of  commencing  a  business  with  in- 
sufficient capital.  They  had  enough  experience  to  know 
that  a  gambler  never  wins  his  money  back  ;  for,  however 
lucky  he  may  be,  he  always  continues  playing  till  the  luck 
changes  and  he  once  more  loses  everything.  How  then 
would  the  Kurfiirst  von  Hessen  repay  the  money  he 
proposed  to  borrow  ? 

These  were  the  days  when  all  princely  families  that 
respected  themselves  thought  they  were  in  honour  bound 
to  imitate  the  palace  of  Versailles  by  having  an  orangerie. 
Orange-trees  to  bring  out  in  the  garden  during  summer, 
to  lock  up  in  a  hothouse  in  the  winter,  were  pre-eminently 
the  fashionable  mark  of  distinction.  In  his  castle  at  Hanau, 
the  Kurfiirst  von  Hessen  had  a  very  fine  portable  orange 
grove,  and  the  Blanc  brothers  rightly  concluded  that  these 
orange-trees  would  impart  an  air  of  distinction  to  the 
casino  they  already  thought  of  building.   The  ultimate 


result  was  that  the  aristocratic  orange-trees  were  pledged 
for  a  loan  of  vulgar  money,  and  this  to  the  extent  of 
40,000  gulden.  In  spite,  however,  of  such  reinforcements 
in  hard  cash,  the  Kurfiu-st  von  Hessen  never  won  back 
his  100,000  gulden,  and  died  before  he  was  able  to  repay 
the  loan  on  the  orange-trees.  His  successor  was  very 
angry.  His  pride  of  estate  was  sorely  wounded  by  the 
absence  of  the  orange-trees.  They  were  the  heirlooms  of  a 
great  and  aristocratic  family,  and  were  never  intended  to 
grace  the  approaches  of  a  roulette-table.  The  new  Kurfiirst 
von  Hessen  proudly  declared  that  he  meant  to  have  the 
orange-trees  back,  and  despatched  a  haughty  message  to 
that  effect.  A  very  polite  reply  was  returned.  The  casino 
administration  was  charmed,  and  most  willing  to  restore 
tlie  orange-trees,  as  soon  as  the  40,000  gulden  advanced 
were  repaid.  The  negotiations  now  degenerated  into  a 
quarrel,  for  as  the  Lord  of  Hanau  had  neither  money  nor 
law  on  his  side,  all  he  could  do  was  to  use  strong  language 
and  swear  vengeance. 

Unfortunately  an  early  opportunity  of  revenge 
occurred.  Railways  were  now  being  constructed  in  all 
directions,  and  it  was  proposed  to  connect  Homburg  with 
Frankfort  by  rail.  Such  a  line  would  have  to  pass  through 
a  part  of  the  Kurfiirst  von  Hessen's  estate,  and  here  the 
opportunity  of  revenge  presented  itself.  The  nobleman 
at  once  assumed  an  attitude  of  virtuous  indignation  and 
would  not  allow  a  foot  of  his  land  to  be  touched.  His 
estate  should  not  be  desecrated  by  noisy,  smoking  railway 
trains  filled  with  gamblers  from  all  parts  of  the  world. 
As  a  result  of  this  miserable  quarrel  every  person,  whether 
a  gambler  or  a  poor  peasant  going  to  market,  who  has 
occasion  to  travel  by  train  between  Homburg  and  Frank- 
fort must  follow  a  roundabout  route  so  as  to  avoid  the 
estates  of  the  Kurfiirst  von  Hessen.  If  the  line  could 
have  been  constructed  across  these  estates  the  journey 
from  Frankfort  to  Homburg  would  take  about  twenty 
instead  of  thirty-five  minutes.  The  gambling  at  Homburg 
has  long  since  been  abolished ;  nevertheless  this  delay  is 


still  endured  because  once  upon  a  time  a  petty  German 
lordling  lost  his  temper  over  a  gambling  debt  of  40,000 

It  should  also  be  noted  that  the  other  parties  to  the 
quarrel  nearly  lost  the  orange-trees.  If  the  orange  blossom 
is  the  symbol  of  matrimony,  and  if,  as  generally  admitted, 
gamblers  are  not  good  husbands,  it  is  quite  in  keeping 
with  their  meaning  that  the  orange-trees  should  not  have 
prospered  in  the  vicinity  of  gambling-tables.  In  any  case, 
they  began  to  sicken  even  unto  death  till  another  British 
princess  came  to  favour  the  fortunes  of  Homburg.  The 
late  Empress  F'rederick,  eldest  daughter  of  her  late 
Majesty  V'^ictoria,  Queen  of  England,  who  was  at  that 
time  Crown  Princess  of  Prussia,  bought  the  orange-trees 
and  had  them  transferred  to  her  garden  at  Kronberg. 
Here  a  skilled  gardener  restored  them  to  health. 

The  first  year  after  the  installation  of  roulette  at 
Homburg  the  number  of  visitors  was  doubled  ;  but  this 
did  not  mean  much,  for  it  only  amounted  to  1732.  Five 
years  later,  however,  in  1847,  it  was  5187,  and  in  1830 
rose  to  10,105.  This  for  some  time  seemed  to  be  about 
the  high-water  mark,  for  in  1865  the  number  of  visitors 
had  only  increased  to  12,473.  Nevertheless  this  was  quite 
sufficient  to  ensure  the  fortunes  of  Homburg  and  the 
Blanc  family.  JNIr  Percy  Fitzgerald,  in  his  "  Fatal  Zero,  a 
Homburg  Diary,"  gives  a  picture  of  the  popularity  of  the 
town  in  the  sixties.  His  clever  study,  written  to  show 
how  a  sanctimonious  prig  is  likely  to  become  the  worst 
gambler  of  the  whole  company,  affords  also  some  insight 
into  the  allurements  and  attractions  of  the  gay  town.  As 
a  contrast  to  this  somewhat  severe  and  serious  book,  but 
dealing  with  the  same  period,  we  have  the  amusing 
frivolities  in  which  the  late  George  Augustus  Sala  ex- 
celled. "  Make  your  Game"  is  the  title  of  his  book,  and 
in  it  Sala  describes  himself  as  the  "  man  with  the  iron 
chest."  Doubtless  this  was  the  coffer  constructed  to  carry 
away  the  treasure  to  be  secured  at  Homburg  by  the  aid  of 
the  wonderful  system  he  had  studied  so  deeply.  What  this 

SALA   AT    HOMBURG  291 

system  was  is  best  described  in  Sala's  own  inimitable 
words.  He  had  "  applied  it  in  theory  at  home,  both  to 
roulette  and  rouge  ct  iioir ;  then  essayed  it,  as  he  termed 
it,  with  '  blank  cartridge,'  using  haricot  beans  in  lieu  of 
money,  and  carefully  debiting  and  crediting  hiniself  with 
the  loss  and  profit ;  he  had  worked  out  hundreds  of 
diagrams  on  paper,  entirely  to  his  own  satisfaction,  and  at 
one  time  stood  to  win  no  less  than  seventy-one  thousand 
six  hundred  and  tliree  haricot  beans ;  and  finally,  he 
arrived  at  the  mature  conclusion  that  his  system  was 
really  infallible,  and  that,  properly  played,  it  must  as 
infalhbly  bring  liim  in  a  large  fortune.  The  munificence 
of  his  intentions,  at  this  stage  of  his  enthusiastic  castle- 
building,  with  respect  to  the  already-mentioned  Julia,  could 
only  be  equalled  by  the  Monte  Christo-like  extravagance 
of  his  plans  for  purchasing  landed  estates  in  Devonshire, 
baronial  titles  in  Germany,  and  for  releasing  the  sumptu- 
ous diamonds  of  his  family  from  the  tribulation  under 
which  they  had  so  long  lain  at  the  hands  of  certain  com- 
mercial firms  of  Lombard  extraction.  The  red-nosed  man, 
in  fact,  had  secretly  determined,  as  soon  as  his  fortune 
was  made,  to  '  have  his  rights,'  and  '  show  the  world  what 
he  was  made  of ' " 

The  wonderful  system,  if  indeed  it  ever  had  any  other 
existence  than  that  born  of  journalistic  imagination, 
utterly  failed  to  work.  The  author  confesses  that  "the 
chandeliers  and  the  money-clinking  got  into  his  head, 
somehow,  and  confused  it."  Therefore  he  concludes  with 
the  following  excellent  piece  of  advice  : — 

"  Consider  all  these  things,  my  son,  and  be  wise  ere 
you  steam  up  the  Rhine  towards  Homburg-von-der- 
Hode  ;  for  if  you  go  there,  and  be  made  of  ordinary  flesh 
and  blood — I  am  not  writing  for  oy.sters  or  icebergs — you 
must  play,  and  will  in  all  probability  leave  your  skin 
behind  you. 

"  Of  course  there  are  the  people  who  have  won,  do 
win,  and  will  win  in  Homburg,  and  at  Baden  and  else- 
where. There  are  the  tremendous  and  almost  superhuman 


runs  of  luck  such  as  no  bank  can  foresee  or  withstand  ; 
such  as  enriched  the  notorious  Baron  de  Worms  and  gave 
a  hundred  thousand  francs  clear  profit  apiece  to  two 
players  who  did  not  in  the  least  need  such  a  bonus — the 
late  Prince  Lucien  Bonaparte,  and  the  Austrian  General 
Haynau,  of  detestable  memory.  Then — there  is  no  use  in 
denying  it — there  are  the  people  who  are  born  to  be  lucky 
at  games  of  chance,  and  who,  at  whatsoever  game  they 
play — loo,  poker,  roulette,  or  blind  hookey — can  almost 
be  certified  to  come  off  the  winners.  But,  en  revanche, 
these  lucky  ones  generally  outstep  the  boundaries  of  their 
luck  by  greedy  persistence  or  by  audaciously  rash  specula- 
tions. They  ride  the  free  horse  to  death,  tire  out  the 
patience  of  Fortune  and  are  ruined  in  the  long  run." 

Sala  and  his  companions  did  not  make  their  game 
very  successfully  at  roulette  but  they  made  some  very 
amusing  pen-and-ink  sketches.  One  of  these,  representing 
a  corner  of  the  roulette-table,  is  here  reproduced.  Standing 
behind,  to  the  left  of  an  old  lady  with  corkscrew  curls, 
is  G.  A.  S.  himself  frowning  at  his  waning  fortunes.  The 
stout  gentleman  with  the  flowing  moustache  is  the  late 
Horace,  better  known  as  "  Ponny,"  Mayhew.  In  the 
pocket  of  his  capacious  waistcoat  he  always  carried 
a  goodly  store  of  sixpenny  bits.  If  anyone  in  his  presence 
said  something  humorous  or  made  a  good  joke  he  at  once 
handed  him  over  a  sixpenny  bit,  and  nothing  would  induce 
him  to  take  it  back.  On  the  other  hand,  having  thus 
relieved  his  conscience,  he  had  no  further  scruples  in 
sending  the  joke  to  Punch.  The  third  member  of  the 
party,  called  "  the  slim  gentleman,"  comes  next.  He  may 
be  recognised  by  his  long  liair,  nose  and  tie.  This  was 
none  other  than  the  elder  Vizetelly,  irreverently  called 
Wizenbelly  in  press  circles,  who  for  many  years  was  one 
of  the  leading  artists  on  the  staff  of  The  lUusti'cited 
London  Xezvs.  The  interesting  trio,  having  failed  to 
break  the  bank,  contented  themselves  by  writing  nursery 
rhymes  about  the  whole  process,  of  which  the  following 
are  some  samples : — 


=="-         c: 

m':     3: 


"  A  flat  he  would  a-gambling  go. 
Heigh  ho  !  says  Roulette, 
Whether  the  banker  would  let  him  or  no ; 
With  his  raky,  shaky  croupier  and  cards. 
Heigh  ho,  sa3s  Antony  Roulette." 

Then  we  are  told  that 

"  Humpty  Dumpty  laid  on  the  Noir — 
Humpty  Dumpty  lost ;  and  he  swore 
Not  all  his  gold  watch,  pin,  sleeve-buttons  and  chain. 
Can  pay  Humpty's  loss  at  the  Kursaal  again." 

Finally  we  are  invited  to  note  "  how  vigorous  is  the 
metrical  flow  of 

"  '  High  diddle  fiddle,  Roulette's  all  a  diddle. 
When  you  win  you  jump  out  of  your  skin  ; 
But  the  banker  he  laughs  to  see  such  sport. 
And  the  croupe  runs  arvaij  iiilh  the  tin.'  " 

Sometimes,  however,  as  Sala  admits  in  the  passage 
just  quoted,  it  is  the  player  who  "runs  away  with  the  tin." 
Fortunately  for  the  Blanc  family,  the  players  with 
phenomenal  luck  only  came  after  ordinary  gamblers  had 
lost  so  much  that  such  an  onslaught  could  be  faced 
without  fear.  As  notorious  in  his  day  as  the  "  Wells  who 
broke  the  Bank  at  Monte  Carlo,"  there  was  Garcia's  run 
on  red  at  Homburg.  With  £80  this  adventurer,  for  he 
had  no  better  reputation  than  the  Wells  of  Monte  Carlo, 
won  £20,000  on  red.  An  Englishman  who  was  playing  at 
the  same  time,  and  who  very  naturally  supposed  that  Garcia 
was  forcing  his  luck  and  that  the  series  of  reds  could  not 
continue  much  longer,  well-nigh  ruined  himself  by  backing 
black.  In  "  Chance  and  Luck "  the  late  Richard  A. 
Proctor,  editor  oi  Knordedge,  alludes  to  Garcia's  wonderful 
luck.  The  distinguished  astronomer,  mathematician  and 
Egyptologist  quotes  the  following  description  of  Garcia's 
triumphs  at  Homburg,  who  "  commenced  his  gambling 
career  by  staking  very  small  sums ;  but,  by  the  most 
extraordinary  luck,  he  was  able  to  increase  his  capital 


to  such  an  extent  that  he  now  rarely  stakes  under  the 
maximum,  and  ahnost  always  wins.  They  say  that  when 
the  croupiers  see  him  place  his  money  on  the  table,  they 
immediately  prepare  to  pay  him,  without  waiting  to  see 
if  he  has  actually  won,  and  that  they  have  offered  him 
a  handsome  sum  down  to  desist  from  playing  while  he 
remains  here.  Crowds  of  people  stand  outside  the  Kursaal 
doors  every  morning,  awaiting  his  arrival,  when  he  comes 
following  him  into  the  room,  and  staking  as  he  stakes. 
When  he  ceases  playing  they  accompany  him  to  the  door, 
and  shower  on  him  congratulations  and  thanks  for  the 
good  fortune  he  has  brought  them.  See  how  all  the 
people  make  way  for  him  at  the  table,  and  how  deferential 
are  the  subdued  greetings  of  his  acquaintances  !  He  does 
not  bring  much  money  with  him,  his  luck  is  too  great 
to  require  it.  He  takes  some  notes  out  of  a  case,  and  places 
maximums  on  black  and  couJeur.  A  crowd  of  eager  hands 
are  immediately  outstretched  from  all  parts  of  the  table, 
heaping  up  silver  and  gold  and  notes  on  the  spaces  on  which 
he  has  staked  his  money,  till  there  scarcely  seems  room 
for  another  coin,  while  the  other  spaces  on  the  table  only 
contain  a  few  florins  staked  by  sceptics  who  refuse  to  believe 
in  the  count's  luck."  He  wins  ;  and  the  narrative  proceeds 
to  describe  his  continued  successes  until  he  rises  from  the 
table  a  winner  of  100,000  francs  at  that  sitting. 

According  to  one  version,  Garcia's  luck  turned ; 
he  had  lost  everything  except  £6000 ;  when  his  luck 
returned  he  had  another  series  on  red,  winning  fourteen 
times  in  succession,  and  retired  with  £50,000 ;  some 
say  more.  It  is  difficult,  however,  to  ascertain  what 
precisely  happened.  Though  most  of  the  books  written 
on  the  subject  allude  to  Garcia's  wonderful  luck  the 
accounts  differ  at  least  in  matters  of  detail.  The  author 
of  "  The  Gambling  World "  says  that  after  winning 
£70,000  at  Homburg  one  year  he  returned  the  next 
season  and  lost  £80,000.  After  that  this  author  relates 
that  he  went  altogether  to  the  bad,  frequenting  private 
gambling  hells,  where  he  got  into  disgrace.  On  the  other 


hand,  one  of  the  old  casino  employees  now  at  INIonte 
Carlo,  but  formerly  at  Homburg,  told  me  that  he  knew 
Garcia  very  well  and  that  he  won  3,000,000  francs, 
or  £120,000.  In  1869  Garcia  was  at  Monte  Carlo.  He 
was  a  Spaniard,  and  ultimately  retired  from  the  world 
to  join  the  Trappist  Order,  with  whom  he  died. 

In  1866  the  war  broke  out  between  Russia  and  Austria, 
and  then  Madame  Blanc's  prescience  was  fully  vindicated. 
Hesse-Homburg  might  guarantee  the  casino,  but  after 
the  battle  of  Sadowa  there  remained  no  power  willing 
and  capable  of  guaranteeing  Hesse-Homburg.  Frankfort 
and  all  the  surrounding  country,  including  Homburg, 
was  swallowed  up  by  Prussia  at  a  single  mouthful.  The 
landgrave  of  Hesse-Homburg  was  abolished.  Its  capital, 
Homburg,  became  simply  a  town  in  the  krcis  or  district 
of  Ober-Taunus  and  an  integral  part  of  the  kingdom 
of  Prussia.  But  gambling  houses  had  been  abolished  in 
the  kingdom  of  Prussia  long  ago.  However,  some  respect 
had  to  be  shown  to  vested  interests.  Then  it  was  thought 
only  decent  to  give  the  casino  time  to  provide  means  for 
the  payment  of  its  own  funeral,  and  everyone  agreed  that 
it  was  well  entitled  to  a  most  expensive  and  first-class 
funeral.  The  casino  was  therefore  allowed  to  continue  till 
the  31st  of  December  1872,  but  it  had  to  pay  an  annual 
tax  of  £24,000  as  Hombiu'g,  denuded  of  the  resources  the 
casino  brought,  would  need  a  reserve  fund  to  bury  its  old 
life  and  start  on  a  new  existence.  Therefore  visitors  were 
still  made  welcome,  and  in  spite  of  the  impending  end 
continued  to  increase  till  their  number  in  1869  amounted 
to  19,843.  Even  in  1870,  during  the  Franco-German  War, 
there  were  10,841  visitors.  The  next  year,  regardless  of 
the  bitterness  caused  by  the  war,  there  came  18,867 
visitors;  and  1872  was  the  record  year,  with  its  list  of 

This  was  the  culminating  point :  on  the  1st  of  January 
1873  workmen  only  were  admitted  to  the  casino,  so  that 
the  gaming-tables  might  be  removed.  On  all  sides  the 
situation  was  viewed  with  blank  despair.  The  French,  who 


had  so  greatly  contributed  to  the  elegance  and  gaiety  of 
Homburg,  would  certainly  not  come,  nor  the  Russians, 
the  Italians,  nor  the  wealthy  diamond  lords  from  South 
America.  No  one  would  come  unless  it  were  a  few  quiet 
English  folks  just  to  drink  the  waters.  Nevertheless 
£150,000  out  of  the  tax  the  casino  administration  had 
been  made  to  pay  was  invested  at  5  per  cent,  interest. 
This  constituted  an  endowment  for  the  upkeep  of  the 
palatial  casino,  the  magnificent  park  and  gardens  and  all 
the  many  improvements  for  taking  the  waters.  Entertain- 
ments could  still  be  given,  though  there  was  not  money 
enough  to  pay  for  the  best  artists  and  performers.  As 
the  visitors  could  no  longer  contribute  by  playing  roulette, 
a  direct  tax  is  imposed  on  them.  It  used  to  be  sixteen, 
now  it  is  twenty  marks  or  shillings  for  every  visitor  who 
remains  more  than  three  days  at  Homburg.  But  what 
would  the  town  have  done  if  it  had  been  obliged  to 
provide  its  own  parks  and  build  its  casino  ? 

Of  course  the  old  style  of  prosperity  has  departed,  but 
sufficient  remains  to  show  that  after  all  Homburg  did  not 
depend  exclusively  on  gambling.  To  the  great  surprise  of 
the  inhabitants,  9287  visitors  came  during  the  first  year 
after  the  abolition  of  the  games.  In  1860,  when  gambling 
was  in  full  activity,  there  was  nearly  the  same  number  of 
visitors — namely,  9570.  In  twelve  years,  with  the  aid  of  the 
resources  derived  from  the  games,  the  number  of  visitors 
increased  to  21,001.  When  this  aid  was  no  longer  forth- 
coming, during  the  twelve  years  that  followed  the  abolition 
of  gambling,  the  increase  of  visitors  to  Homburg  only 
reached  the  figure  of  11,079.  This  was  in  1885,  and  since 
then  the  progress  has  continued  at  the  same  slow  rate. 
These  figures  are  of  equal  importance  to  those  who  favour 
and  those  who  oppose  the  abolition  of  the  gaming  at 
Monte  Carlo.  They  show  that  at  Homburg,  as  is  un- 
doubtedly the  case  to-day  at  Monte  Carlo,  there  is  a 
considerable  number  of  visitors  who  went  and  still  go 
there  not  to  gamble  but  in  spite  of  the  gambling.  Visitors 
continue  to  frequent  Homburg  for  the  sake  of  its  waters 


as  they  would  continue  to  spend  the  winter  at  Monte 
Carlo  for  the  sake  of  its  climate  and  beauty.  Nevertheless, 
neither  Homburg  nor  Monte  Carlo,  nor  the  Riviera 
generally,  would  have  been  so  extensively  patronised  by 
those  who  do  not  gamble  but  for  the  celebrity  given  to 
these  places  by  M.  Fran9ois  Blanc  and  his  successors. 



EV^EN  before  the  annexation  by  France  of  Nice  and 
Savoy,  comprising  therein  the  rebelUous  JNIone- 
gasque  communes  of  Menton  and  Roquebrune, 
Charles  III.  wisely  recognised  that  the  only  future  for  his 
little  principality  was  its  conversion  into  a  pleasure  and 
health  resort.  His  hold  on  four-fifths  of  the  principality 
was  precarious.  What  with  Sardinian  emissaries  striving 
to  foment  dissatisfaction  so  as  to  create  a  pretext  for 
annexation,  and  the  real  causes  of  complaint — the  ex- 
cessive taxation,  combined  with  the  unrelieved  prospect 
of  prolonged  poverty — the  Monegasques  had  been  in  a 
rebellious  frame  of  mind  ever  since  1848.  Something  had 
to  be  done  to  relieve  taxation,  to  lessen  the  causes  of 
discontent  and  make  the  people  understand  that  they  had 
every  advantage  in  remaining  an  independent  principality 
instead  of  allowing  themselves  to  be  absorbed  by  the 
King  of  Piedmont.  Obviously,  money  was  wanted,  and 
money  is  made  in  manufacturing  centres,  where  com- 
munication is  rapid  and  easy ;  not  in  out-of-the-way, 
inaccessible  and  purely  agricultural  districts  like  Monaco. 
What  the  principality  produced  could  not  be  readily  dis- 
posed of  as  there  was  no  easy  means  of  transport.  Boys 
trod  on  the  finest  peaches  to  get  the  stones  because  the  fruit 
itself  was  too  heavy  to  carry  to  places  where  it  might  be 
sold.  Few  of  the  inhabitants  had  ever  seen  such  a  thing 
as  a  gold  coin ;  but  Prince  Charles  knew  something  of 
the  golden  harvest  reaped  by  the  casinos  of  Baden-Baden, 
Wiesbaden  and  other  places.  As  an  alternative  between 
the    dismemberment    and     continued     poverty    of    the 



principality,  a  casino,  if  an  evil,  seemed  by  far  the  lesser 
evil.  Perfection  in  this  world  being  unknown,  perhaps  true 
wisdom  resides  in  the  ability  to  recognise  the  lesser  evil  of 

Casinos,  however,  are  not  to  be  had  for  the  asking. 
At  Hyeres,  many  years  ago,  I  met  a  gentleman  who 
gambled  away  all  his  money  at  Baden-Baden.  When  thus 
ruined  he  called  on  M.  Benazet  and  explained  that  having 
lost  all  his  money  playing  against  the  bank,  he  now 
wished  to  place  himself  on  the  other  side  and  work  for 
the  bank.  Glad  to  recruit  a  gentleman  of  good  education 
and  distinguished  manners,  JNl.  Benazet  willingly  employed 
him.  In  the  course  of  time  his  coui-age  and  industry  were 
duly  rewarded,  and  now  he  was  in  a  position  to  come  to 
Hyeres  so  as  to  obtain  a  concession  to  start  a  casino  in 
that  town.  Then  it  was,  after  hearing  these  preliminary 
explanations,  that  I  was  made  to  understand  what  a  very 
difficult  thing  it  is  to  organise  and  manage  a  casino. 
Indeed,  it  seems  to  be  quite  a  technique  in  itself,  and  I 
was  assured  that  many  years  of  work  in  the  lower  grades 
of  the  service  were  necessary  before  it  was  safe  to  assume 
the  supreme  command.  Apparently  it  was  for  want  of  any 
such  apprenticeship  that  the  early  casinos  at  Monaco  were 
egregious  failures. 

The  first  to  make  the  attempt  were  M.  Napoleon 
Langlois  and  M.  Albert  Aubert.  The  latter  was  a 
journalist,  and  contributed  to  the  comic  paper,  the 
Charivari — not  that  such  literary  ability  is  any  evidence 
of  capacity  in  casino  management.  Nevertheless  these 
two  partners  managed  to  found  a  society  with  a  capital  of 
£100,000,  and  in  185G  obtained  a  concession  from  Prince 
Charles  which  was  to  last  thirty  years.  They  secured  as 
premises  the  rather  large  house — large  for  those  days 
— which  faces  the  palace  and  overlooks  the  great  square. 
This  building  still  exists,  and  now  serves  as  the  barracks 
of  the  palace  guards.  Here,  on  the  14th  of  October  18.50, 
the  roulette  wheel  was  sent  spirming  round  for  the  first 
time  in  the  principality.  If  ultimately  this  proved  to  be 


the  wheel  of  fortune,  at  first  it  only  brought  ruin.  The 
initiators  soon  got  tired,  and  were  very  pleased  to  hand 
over  all  their  privileges  to  another  society.  The  repre- 
sentative of  this  was  the  Marquis  d'Arnesano,  and  fresh 
blood  was  infused  into  it  in  the  person  of  M.  Frossard  de 
Lilbonne.  The  new  combination  got  into  harness  on  the 
15th  of  November  1857,  yet  by  the  31st  of  December  of 
the  same  year  they  had  sold  out  to  M.  Daval.  Thus  in 
one  year  and  two  months  the  casino  changed  proprietors 
three  times.  Evidently  the  old  employee  of  M.  Benazet  I 
had  met  at  Hyeres  was  quiet  right  when  he  insisted  that 
it  required  special  knowledge,  and  above  all  special  tact, 
to  run  a  casino. 

M.  Daval  seems  to  have  been  the  first  manager  who 
possessed  the  right  sort  of  instinct.  He  at  least  understood 
that  a  casino  could  not  prosper  in  silence.  Like  a  show 
at  the  fair,  there  must  be  a  big  drum  outside.  Therefore 
M.  Daval  determined  upon  a  new  inauguration  and  a 
splendid  banquet.  All  the  notabilities,  functionaries,  artists, 
literary  men  anywhere  within  reach  must  not  only  be 
invited  but  brought  to  Monaco  in  carriages  specially  hired 
for  the  purpose.  There  was  to  be  a  lavish  display  of 
ribbons  on  the  harness  of  the  horses  combining  the 
Monegasque  and  the  French  colours,  and  thus  each 
can-iage  was  in  itself  a  good  advertisement.  Then  there 
were  the  speeches  at  the  banquet,  which  of  course  would 
be  reported  far  and  wide.  Finally,  as  a  climax.  Prince 
Charles  himself  was  to  appear  at  the  dessert.  With  over- 
flowing bowls,  everyone  drank  to  everyone  else,  and  above 
all  to  the  success  of  the  casino  and  its  new  manager. 
In  spite  of  greater  dash  and  ability,  M.  Daval  had  to  give 
up  the  struggle  in  less  than  two  years,  and  died  miserably 
in  a  hospital  at  Marseilles. 

Play  did  not  continue  all  the  time  in  the  same  building, 
but  was  transferred  to  a  house  grandiloquently  called 
"  The  Palace,"  which  belonged  to  ]\L  Dumond,  the  former 
partner  of  M.  de  \'^illemessant  of  Figcuo  fame.  This 
building,  with  appropriate  alterations,  now  serves  for  the 

Till-;  Croupikrs  of  the  old  Monegasquk  Gambling  Tables  watching 

Front  a  conteittporary  lirmviii^ 


Government  Offices  overlooking  the  Place  de  la  Visitation. 
Close  by  there  stood  the  Cafe  dii  Soleil,  about  which 
sinister  stories  are  told.  Though,  in  these  early  days,  a 
minimum  stake  of  two  francs  was  allowed,  there  were 
players  who  had  not  even  this  sum  remaining.  They  then 
congregated  at  the  cafe  and  played  for  pennies  or  half- 
franc  pieces,  till  at  last  someone  would  so  far  redeem 
his  fortunes  as  to  be  the  possessor  of  a  complete  two- 
franc  piece ;  then  he  could  return  to  the  casino  and  have 
one  more  chance.  But  even  players  with  only  two-franc 
pieces  to  risk  were  quite  rare.  Hours  would  go  by  and  no 
one  come  to  play.  The  croupiers,  weary  of  waiting,  would 
go  out  and  walk  about  smoking  cigarettes.  At  last 
someone  had  the  liappy  idea  of  placing  a  telescope  on  the 
ramparts.  Through  this  glass  a  good  watch  could  be  kept 
on  the  road,  and  if  anyone  appeared,  or  a  carriage  came 
in  sight  that  suggested  the  approach  of  players,  it  would 
be  time  enough  for  the  croupiers  to  go  back  to  the  casino 
and  take  their  accustomed  places  at  the  roulette-table. 
The  illustration  representing  croupiers  at  Monaco  watching 
for  players  is  reproduced  from  M.  Charles  Limousin's 
bright  little  book,  the  "  Guide  du  Joueur,"  published 
in  1899. 

Not  only  did  the  casino  remove  from  what  is  now 
the  barracks  to  the  present  Government  House,  it  also 
went  down  to  the  Condamine  during  the  winter  months, 
and  occupied  one  of  the  rare  dwellings  that  existed  amid 
the  violets  grown  for  Rimmel's  perfumery.  This  was  the 
Villa  Belle- Vue,  which  the  casino  christened  Palais  de  la 
Condamine.  It  still  exists,  just  off  the  rue  Grimaldi,  witli 
its  back  against  the  railway  line  and  not  far  from  the 
gorge  of  St  Devote.  But  more  ambitious  projects  were 
entertained.  If  the  casino  was  to  be  a  success,  new 
buildings  would  have  to  be  constructed,  and  above  all 
hotels  and  villas  must  be  built  where  the  visitors,  if 
anything  ever  induced  them  to  come,  might  find  com- 
fortable accommodation.  There  were  the  Sp(^lugnes,  arid 
rocks  (so  named  from  the  word   spehmca,  cavern)  con- 


taining  caves  which  were  supposed  to  have  served  as 
sepulchres  in  times  gone  by.  The  end  of  these  barren  rocks 
is  washed  by  the  sea.  It  was  a  good  place  to  find  sea- 
urchins,  mussels  and  other  shell-fish  of  delicate  flavour. 
In  1828,  Carlo  Alberto,  King  of  Sardinia  and  Piedmont, 
father  of  Victor-Emmanuel,  the  first  King  of  United 
Italy,  lent  a  number  of  convicts  to  the  Prince  of  Monaco 
in  order  that  they  might  build  the  road  from  Monaco  to 
Menton,  stipulating  that  the  prince  should  feed  them 
while  they  were  at  work.  The  Count  de  Rey  was  then 
proprietor  of  the  Spelugnes,  a  bare  and  worthless 
property,  and  he  had  an  ingenious  idea.  When  the  road  to 
JNIenton  was  finished,  he  obtained  leave,  in  his  turn,  to 
employ  the  convicts.  Under  his  direction  they  gathered 
earth  wherever  earth  could  be  gathered,  and  deposited 
it  upon  the  bare  rocks  of  the  promontory  of  the  Spelugnes. 
As  soon  as  he  had  thus  secured  enough  earth,  the  count 
planted  vines,  fig,  orange  and  lemon  trees.  By  1835  land 
was  bearing  a  plentiful  harvest  of  fruit.  To-day,  if  the 
gardens  at  Monte  Carlo  are  so  beautiful,  a  grateful  thought 
might  perhaps  be  spared  for  those  poor  convicts  who 
rendered  this  possible  by  laboriously  carrying  the  fertile 
earth  up  to  the  summit  of  the  barren  rocks. 

Now  the  directors  of  the  casino  cast  longing  eyes  on 
this  spot,  perhaps  because  of  its  beautiful  situation,  but 
more  probably  because  the  land  brought  up  by  the 
convicts  had  not,  in  spite  of  the  lemon-trees,  acquired  any 
great  value.  In  the  Condamine,  where  the  flowers  were 
grown  for  a  celebrated  perfumery,  it  would  cost  much 
more  to  buy  building  sites.  Besides,  the  Count  de  Rey 
was  willing  to  sell.  Thus  it  came  about  that  on  the  13th  of 
May  18.58  the  foundation  stone  of  the  Monte  Carlo  casino 
was  laid,  though  in  those  days  this  name  had  not  yet 
been  chosen.  Prince  Charles,  not  discouraged  by  the 
previous  failures,  sent  his  son  and  heir,  only  ten  years  old, 
to  lay  the  foundation  stone.  It  appears,  according  to  the 
records,  that  it  was  raining  most  violently  all  the  time, 
but  the  young  prince  acquitted  himself  of  his  functions 


so  well  that  it  was  proposed  to  call  the  new  casino  the 
Eli/sce  Alberto. 

Messieurs  Lefevre,  Griois  and  Jagot,  who  had  suc- 
ceeded INI.  Daval  as  proprietors  of  the  casino  concession, 
secured  the  collaboration  of  M.  Godineau  de  la  Bretonnerie, 
an  architect  of  recognised  merit.  But  there  were  many 
difficulties  in  store.  The  very  next  year  came  the  war  that 
ended  at  Solferino.  Italy  and  France  were  fighting  Austria, 
and  on  the  18tli  of  January  1895  the  Sardinian  steamer 
Mulfatauo  arrived  at  Monaco  to  embark  the  Piedmontese 
garrison.  These  troops  were  now  needed  at  Turin  in  view 
of  the  approaching  war.  Freed  from  this  restraint,  plots 
and  counter-plots  prospered  in  the  principality.  In  the 
meanwhile,  the  building  of  the  casino  was  turning  out 
ill.  As  the  walls  rose  from  their  rocky  foundation  the  rock 
itself  began  to  give  way.  The  architect  reported,  however, 
that  the  foundations  were  sound  enough  but  that  bad  build- 
ing materials  had  been  employed.  A  fierce  quarrel  ensued, 
and  the  architect,  utterly  disgusted,  packed  his  trunks 
and  left  not  only  Monaco  but  Europe.  It  is  said  he  went 
to  Abyssinia,  wliere  he  became  a  cabinet  minister  in  the 
government  of  King  Theodorus.  All  these  difficulties  and 
the  threatened  war  did  not  help  on  the  casino  business, 
and  there  was  much  trouble  in  finding  money  to  pay  the 
workmen  engaged  on  the  new  building.  The  fact  that  the 
workmen  were  now  clamouring  for  their  wages  was 
skilfully  utilised  to  suggest  an  attack  on  Monaco,  with 
the  prospect  of  pillaging  the  palace  and  of  proclaiming 
the  revolution,  though  it  is  not  quite  clear  for  what 
purpose  a  revolution  was  to  be  effected.  Doubtless 
different  leaders  had  different  programmes. 

On  the  6th  of  February  1859  an  armed  mob  was  per- 
ceived marching  upon  the  town.  But  the  National  Guards 
were  quickly  assembled.  The  gates  of  the  old  town  were 
closed  and  cannon  brought  to  bear  upon  the  approaches. 
When  they  were  near  enougli,  the  prince's  aide-de-camp, 
Viscount  Grandsaigne,  with  some  armed  followers, 
sallied  forth  to  meet  the  mob.   But  the  latter,  who  had 


hoped  to  surprise  the  town,  at  once  lost  heart  and  threw 
down  their  arms.  About  fifty  would-be  rebels  were 
arrested,  and  the  leaders  condemned  to  terms  of  imprison- 
ment varying  from  six  months  to  two  years  ;  but  they 
were  all  liberated  by  the  prince  before  the  conclusion  of 
their  sentences.  Such  disturbances  naturally  helped  to 
retard  the  construction  of  the  casino.  It  was  not  till  the 
month  of  May  1862  that  the  new  building  on  the  pro- 
montory of  the  Spelugnes  was  at  last  inaugurated.  It  was 
but  a  modest  structure,  something  like  a  rather  large 
villa.  Such  as  it  was,  it  stood  almost  alone.  Free  gifts  of 
land  had  been  offered  to  those  who  would  undertake  to 
build  some  sort  of  dwelling  on  the  sites ;  not  a  single 
person  accepted  the  offer.  Thus  fifty-two  years  ago  land 
at  Monte  Carlo  was  to  be  had  for  nothing,  and  to-day  it 
is  as  valuable  as  if  situated  in  a  central  part  of  Paris  or 
London.  Yet  just  at  the  time  when  people  were  asked  to 
accept  this  land  as  a  gift  the  railway  from  Marseilles, 
then  in  course  of  construction,  had  already  reached 
Cagnes,  which  is  only  a  few  miles  on  the  other  side  of 
Nice.  Notwithstanding  tliis  approach  of  the  railway,  no 
one  seems  to  have  foreseen  the  great  effect  that  it  would 
have  on  the  prosperity  of  the  principality. 

It  was  the  difficulty  of  communication  that  killed  all 
the  enterprises  attempted.  There  was  no  direct  road  from 
Nice.  The  Corniche  road,  though  very  picturesque,  was 
very  long  and  circuitous.  It  was  only  in  the  year  1860 
that  an  approximatively  regular  service  by  sea  was  estab- 
lished. An  old  ramshackle  steamer  called  the  Palmaria 
went  from  Nice  to  Monaco  and  back  every  day,  "  weather 
permitting."  It  took  two  hours  to  travel  fifteen  miles, 
and  the  Pahnai-'ui  never  ventured  out  at  all  if  the  sea 
looked  unfavourable.  As  for  punctuality,  the  captain  was 
always  willing  to  wait  if  there  was  a  chance  of  securing 
an  extra  passenger,  and  it  was  quite  a  common  thing  to 
see  people  come  i-unning  down  to  the  Condamine  waving 
their  handkerchiefs  and  shouting  to  the  steamer  to  wait 
for  them.  After  a  year  or  two  the  Palmaria  w^as  withdrawn 






POLITICAL    FAILURE    OF    CASINO        305 

and  replaced  by  a  more  seaworthy  boat  christened,  for 
the  occasion,  the  Cluwles  III.  This  ship  could  actually 
accommodate,  with  some  semblance  of  comfort,  sixty  pas- 
sengers, and  it  was  just  as  well  that  it  did  not  take  more. 
At  the  Spelugnes  there  were  but  two  modest  hotels  and 
restaurants — the  Hotel  de  Paris,  parent  of  the  present 
palatial  and  costly  resort,  and  the  Hotel  d'Angleterre, 
which  occupied  the  site  of  the  modern  JMonte  Carlo  post 
office.  The  Hotel  de  Paris  was  run  by  the  casino 
administration,  and  soon  became  the  Providence  of  un- 
fortunate players.  Over  and  over  again  those  who  had  lost 
went  to  the  Hotel  de  Paris,  dined  first,  and  then  confessed 
they  had  no  money.  Nothing  much  was  said  ;  the  bill  was 
placed  in  a  well-filled  drawer  to  be  ultimately  entered  in 
the  profit  and  loss  account. 

All  this  time,  it  cannot  be  said  that  the  casino  had 
been  of  much  political  use.  It  had  brought  no  great 
prosperity.  Tliere  was,  at  any  rate,  not  enough  improve- 
ment to  induce  the  comnmnes  of  Menton  and  Roquebrune 
to  abandon  their  rebellious  attitude  towards  the  Prince  of 
Monaco.  Tlierefore  when,  after  the  war  of  1859,  Nice  and 
Savoy  were  handed  over  to  France,  the  two  communes, 
as  we  have  seen,  voted  in  favour  of  being  included  in  this 
annexation.  Thus  the  policy  of  sanctioning  the  establish- 
ment of  a  casino  failed  in  its  main  purpose ;  it  did  not 
save  tlie  principality  from  dismemberment.  Neverthe- 
less the  time  was  now  approaching  when  it  would 
bring  the  long-anticipated  and  oft-deferred  prosperity, 
and  this  to  an  extent  that  has  exceeded  the  wildest 

Towards  the  end  of  the  year  1862,  M.  Fran9ois  Blanc 
happened  to  be  in  Paris,  and  M.  Ijcfebvre,  then  manager 
of  the  casino,  asked  one  of  his  friends  to  sound  him  with 
a  view  to  his  purchasing  the  Monaco  concession.  M.  Blanc 
was  very  guarded  in  his  answer,  saying  that  he  would 
make  iiKpiiries  and  consider  the  matter.  What  ensued 
was  originally  related  by  M.  Marie  de  Saint-Germain,  a 
poet  who,  since  1860,  came  during  the  winter  to  Monaco 


for  the  sake  of  his  health.  His  brief  description  of  the  all- 
important  transaction  has  been  repeated  by  almost  every 
person  who  has  written  on  the  subject.  The  fact  is  that 
the  old  story  cannot  be  avoided,  as  everyone  wants  to 
know  in  detail  how  M.  Francois  Blanc  became  the  pos- 
sessor of  the  casino.  It  was  on  the  31st  of  March  1863 
that  M.  Blanc,  having  finally  made  up  his  mind,  called  on 
M.  Lefebvre  at  his  office.  Then,  as  M.  Marie  de  Saint- 
Germain  tells  us,  M.  Blanc  said  : 

"  You  want  to  sell  your  concession  and  I  am  willing  to 
buy  it.  Now  think  the  matter  over.  I  will  come  "back  at 
three  o'clock  for  I  must  catch  the  steamer  that  leaves  at 
four  o'clock  and  I  want  the  affair  to  be  settled  before  I 
return  to  Nice." 

The  price  agreed  upon  was  £68,000,  to  be  paid  in  three 
drafts  on  the  Bank  of  France.  M.  de  Pagau,  the  Secretary- 
General  of  the  Government,  was  hastily  called  upon  to 
submit  the  proposal  to  Charles  III. ;  and,  as  M.  Francois 
Blanc's  reputation  had  travelled  before  him,  everyone  was 
eager  to  conclude  the  bargain.  M.  Blanc  was  not  delayed ; 
he  caught  his  steamer  and  returned  in  good  time  to  Nice, 
everything  having  been  satisfactorily  settled. 

On  the  1st  of  April  1863  M.  Blanc  formed  the  com- 
pany known  as  La  Societc  unoniimc  des  Bains  de  Mer  et  dn 
Cercle  dcs  Etrangers  a  Monaco.  Thus,  in  the  a  ery  title 
of  the  company,  it  is  particularly  specified  that  the  casino 
is  to  be  a  club  for  foreigners  and  not  for  the  public  in 
general.  The  concession  was  to  last  fifty  years,  the  capital 
was  to  consist  of  £600,000  divided  into  30,000  shares  of 
£20  each.  So  widespread  was  the  reputation  M.  Blanc 
had  acquired  by  reason  of  his  successful  management  of 
the  Homburg  casino  that  there  was  a  great  demand  for 
the  shares.  Many  very  illustrious  persons  were  anxious  to 
place  their  money  in  M.  Blanc's  keeping,  and  to  share  the 
profits  he  was  likely  to  make.  Though  some  of  them  were 
by  profession  teachers  of  morality  they  do  not  seem  to 
have  taken  any  special  trouble  to  ascertain  whether 
roulette    might    be    considered    a    reforming    influence. 




THE    BIRTH    OF    MONTE    CARLO         307 

Among    the    first   to    purchase   casino   shares   was    the 
cardinal  who  afterwards  became  Pope  Leo  XIII. 

It  was  not  till  the  1st  of  June  18G6  that  Prince 
Charles  issued  an  ordinance  dividing  his  principality  once 
again  into  three  towns.  Instead  of  Monaco,  Roquebrune 
and  JSIenton,  as  formerly,  there  would  be  INIonaco,  the 
Condamine  and  IMonte  Carlo.  The  district  from  the 
valley  of  St  Devote  right  over  the  hill  and  promontory  of 
the  Spelugnes  to  the  eastern  end  of  the  principality  and 
the  road  called  Franciosi  was  henceforth  to  be  called 
Monte  Carlo.  M.  Blanc,  it  is  true,  was  still  busy  at  Hom- 
burg,  but  it  was  nevertheless  clear  that  when  the  railway 
reached  the  principality,  there  now  being  no  lack  of 
capital  to  develop  its  resources,  a  great  and  rapid  growth 
would  take  place.  Rural  districts  would  become  urban 
districts,  and  the  two  new  communes  would  have  a 
sufficient  population  to  justify  their  existence  as  com- 

The  first  casino  built  by  M.  Godineau  de  la  Breton- 
nerie  for  M.  Daval  and  his  successors  occupied  the  site 
and  was  scarcely  larger  than  what  is  now  known  as  the 
atrium.  The  vestibule  in  front  of  the  atrium  did  not  then 
exist.  This  was  built  many  years  later.  In  the  plan  of  the 
casino  I  ha\e  endeavoured,  by  adding  dates  to  the  different 
sections,  to  give  the  history  of  the  growth  of  the  casino  at 
a  glance.  The  date  18G1  occurs  twice,  and  is  placed  where 
in  the  first  casino  two  extremities  were  walled  off.  The 
central  portion,  now  called  the  atrium,  contained  the  old 
concert  and  ball  room  ;  at  one  end  were  the  roulette-tables 
and  at  the  other  the  smoking  and  reading  rooms.  The 
accompanying  illustration  of  the  north  side  of  the  casino 
in  the  early  sixties  shows  that  it  was  but  a  modest  building, 
standing  in  the  midst  of  a  scene  of  desolation,  newly  made 
roads  bordering  flower-beds  where  nothing  had  had  time 
to  grow.  It  was  not  till  1872  that  an  important  addition 
was  made  to  the  casino.  This  was  called  the  Moorish 
Room,  and  was  the  work  of  the  architect,  M.  Dutrou.  It 
was  considered  very  original  and  attractive  at  the  time, 


and  was  so  large  that  there  was  ample  room  for  five 
roulette  or  trciite-ct-quarante  tables.  To-day,  however,  it 
has  been  much  altered  and  redecorated.  All  trace  of 
Moorish  art  has  disappeared,  and  it  is  now  known  as  the 
Salle  Schmit. 

When  the  Salle  Mauresque  was  built  the  casino 
terraces  were  also  constructed,  and  preceded  the  building 
of  the  opera  or  theatre,  thus  providing  a  suitable  site  for 
that  great  monument.  Another  illustration  will  give  some 
idea  of  the  aspect  of  the  casino  on  its  south  side,  that 
which  overlooks  the  sea.  The  photograph  was  taken  at  a 
later  period,  when  some  of  the  plants  had  grown.  On  one 
side  of  the  original  building,  to  the  right  of  the  picture, 
can  be  seen  a  small  portion  of  M.  Dutrou's  new  gaming- 
room,  the  Salle  Mauresque.  The  photograph,  therefore, 
was  taken  after  1872  but  before  1878. 





UP  to  1878  the  casino  had  no  theatre;  only  a 
concert-room  or  festival  hall,  which  measured  no 
more  than  100  feet  in  length  and  40  feet  in  width. 
Nor  was  this  hall  lofty ;  the  ceiling  was  but  26  feet  from 
the  floor.  Here  M.  Rom^o  Accursi,  who  conducted  the 
band  during  the  summer  season  at  the  casino  of  Vichy, 
organised  the  concerts  given  during  the  Monte  Carlo 
winter  season.  Ultimately  his  orchestra  numbered  some 
seventy  performers,  and  even  in  those  early  days  they 
were  all  excellent  musicians.  In  the  evening  this  concert 
hall  was  often  converted  into  a  ballroom.  On  other 
occasions  a  few  actors  and  actresses,  notably  from  the 
Palais  Royal  Theatre,  and  Madame  Judic  from  the 
Theatre  des  Varietds,  Paris,  came  down  and  performed 
some  of  their  best  parts.  This  helped  to  accentuate  the 
need  of  a  theatre.  At  Baden-Baden,  under  the  rule  of  the 
great  Benazet,  the  same  thing  had  happened.  First  there 
were  concerts  ;  then  it  became  necessary  to  build  a  theatre. 
Here,  from  1866  up  to  the  war  of  1870,  some  of  the  most 
popular  plays  were  performed  by  the  best  actors.  This  was 
not  sufficient.  Soon  the  theatre  of  the  Baden-Baden 
casino  acquired  such  a  high  reputation  that  original 
plays  were  written  expressly  to  be  produced  for  the  first 
time  on  its  boards. 

Monsieur  Fran(,'ois  Blanc  could  not  rest  satisfied  with 
a  small  concert-room ;  besides,  as  audiences  increased, 
people  began  to  grumble.  The  railway  to  Monaco  was 
opened  in  1868.  C)ne  year  after  the  war,  in  1872,  the 
number  of  passengers  booking  to  Monaco  was  160,949. 


By  1875,  only  three  years  later,  the  number  rose  to 
215,017.  Something  had  to  be  done,  and  this  on  a  large 
scale  ;  but  in  July  1877  death  overtook  M.  Francois  Blanc 
before  anything  definite  had  been  decided  upon.  Madame 
Blanc,  however,  who  had  been  her  husband's  good  genius 
on  more  than  one  occasion,  was  well  qualified  to  preserve 
the  spirit  of  enterprise  and  the  generous  traditions  which 
distinguished  JNl.  Francois  Blanc's  administration.  The 
determination  to  build  a  theatre  was  upheld,  and  it  was 
further  resolved  that  the  casino  itself  should  be  greatly 
embellished.  The  little  concert-room  was  comfortable 
enough,  but  absolutely  devoid  of  any  architectural  preten- 
sions, and  the  casino,  in  spite  of  the  Moorish  decorations 
of  its  new  gaming-room,  was  quite  an  ordinary,  common- 
place building. 

To  decide  upon  building  is  an  easy  matter,  particularly 
when  there  is  enough  money  in  hand  to  carry  out  such 
a  resolution.  It  is  not  so  easy  to  determine  the  style  of 
the  building  and  to  secure  the  services  of  a  competent 
architect.  Obviously  it  would  be  advantageous  to  have 
something  original ;  something  that  would  make  people 
talk  and  cause  disputes  between  different  schools  of  art. 
Controversies  of  this  description  had  just  taken  place  over 
the  new  Grand  Opera  at  Paris,  more  especially  about 
the  sculpture  on  the  exterior ;  notably  Carpeaux's  group 
representing  "  La  Danse."  It  may  be  remembered  that  one 
indignant  critic  threw  a  bottle  of  ink  at  the  nude  figures, 
and  of  course  this  outrage  greatly  enhanced  the  popularity 
of  the  sculptor  and  of  his  work.  Now  it  so  happened  that 
M.  Francois  Blanc  had  indirectly  been  of  great  service 
to  M.  Charles  Gamier,  the  architect  of  the  Grand  Opera. 
The  building  was  planned  and  the  greater  part  constructed 
during  the  latter  days  of  the  Second  Empire,  but  the  war 
and  the  Revolution  came  before  the  work  was  finished. 
After  the  calamitous  results  of  the  war,  the  Government 
was  more  concerned  in  reconstituting  the  French  nation 
than  in  completing  the  opera  house.  Yet  if  this  and  other 
similar  public  works  could  be  carried  forward  with  borrowed 




PARIS    OPERA    AND    M.    BLANC  311 

money  the  Government  would  gladly  give  its  assent.  The 
nation  was  so  heavily  burdened  with  war  taxes  that  it 
could  not  afford  to  do  more  than  pay  interest  on  loans 
raised  for  such  purposes.  A  law  was  enacted,  that  bears 
date  of  the  24th  March  1874,  authorising  the  Ministry  of 
Public  Works  to  borrow  from  financial  societies  or  from 
private  individuals  the  money  necessary  to  complete  the 
building  and  decoration  of  the  Grand  Opera.  Thereupon 
M.  Francois  Blanc  came  forward  and  offered  to  lend  the 
necessary  money.  A  decree  was  issued,  dated  10th  May 
1874,  signed  by  Marshal  Mac-Mahon  as  President  of  the 
Republic,  and  by  M.  R.  de  Larcy  as  Minister  of  Public 
Works,  accepting  from  M.  Francois  Blanc  a  loan,  at 
6  per  cent,  interest,  of  4,900,000  francs  (£196,000)  to  be 
spent  in  the  completion  of  the  new  Grand  Opera.^ 

From  the  very  first  M.  Franc^ois  Blanc  felt  that  the 
possession  of  wealth  entailed  great  responsibilities  and 
duties  which  were  not  to  be  met  by  the  occasional  despatch 
of  a  cheque  to  some  charitable  institution.  Wealth  must 
be  invested  in  such  a  manner  as  to  render  service,  and  it 
may  well  be  claimed  that  the  whole  world  has  benefited 
by  the  completion  of  the  Paris  Grand  Opera.  It  is  only 
necessary  to  go  to  one  of  the  performances  to  see  that 

^  This  is  the  actual  text  of  the  decree  : 

"  Le  Conseil  d'Etat  entendu  ; 
"  Decrete 
"Article  1". — Est  et  deraeure  approuvce   radjudication   passee,  le 
28  Avril  187-i,  par  le   Ministre  des  Travaux  Publics  pour  Texecution  de 
la  loi  duj  24  Mars  1874,  relative  a  I'achevement  du  nouvel  Opera. 

"En  consequence  est  acce])tee  definitivenient  roffre  faite  par  le  sieur 
Blanc  Francois  d'avances  a  I'Etat  la  soninie  de  4,900,000  francs  au  taux 
de  6  per  cent,  et  aux  conditions  enoncees  tant  dans  la  dite  loi  que  dans 
I'arrete  sus-vise. 

"Article  2. — Le  Ministre  des  Travaux  Publics  est  eharg^  de  Texecution 
du  present  decret. 

"  Fait  i  Paris,  le  10  Mai  1874. 

"  Marechal  de  Mac-Mahon, 
"  Due  DE  Majenta. 
"  Par  le  President  de  la  Republique, 
"  Le  Ministre  des  Travaux  Publics, 

"  R.  DE  Larcy." 


there  are  almost  as  many  foreign  as  French  spectators. 
Whatever  may  be  said  of  the  performances,  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  the  building  is  one  of  the  most  magnificent 
and  original  edifices  ever  constructed  for  theatrical  pur- 
poses. The  architect  was  given  a  free  hand,  and  of  this 
permission  he  made  the  fullest  use.  Though  going  yearly 
to  Italy  to  seek  inspiration  amid  the  masterpieces  of 
ancient  architecture  and  of  the  Renaissance,  M.  Charles 
Gamier  conceived  a  style  of  his  own.  He  has  a  theory 
and  a  reason  for  every  detail,  and  it  has  taken  him  twenty- 
five  years  of  unremitting  labour  to  create  this  school.  It 
is  a  mixture  of  display,  extravagant  display,  and  of 
realism.  Thus  the  Grand  Opera  viewed  from  the  outside 
shows  in  a  realistic  manner  what  is  contained  within.  The 
monumental  staircase,  which  reaches  only  the  first  floor, 
and  the  crush-room  situated  on  that  floor,  are  both  in  the 
front,  and  this  is  the  lowest  part  of  the  building.  But 
the  dome  over  the  auditorium,  and  the  loftier  roof  over 
the  stage  enable  those  who  are  outside  and  at  a  sufficient 
distance  to  distinguish  which  are  the  different  parts  of  the 
house.  The  decorations  inside,  however,  were  more 
generally  criticised.  To-day  people  are  better  accustomed 
to  the  style,  and  time  has  toned  down  its  glaring  effects. 
The  unlimited  gilding  on  the  somewhat  wild  and  extra- 
vagant designs  no  longer  shines  so  brightly.  Still,  whatever 
fault  may  be  found  with  the  style  of  decoration,  it  faith- 
fully represented  the  genius  of  the  time.  It  was  brilliant 
and  garish,  as  were  the  latter  days  of  the  Second  Empire. 
All  was  pomp  and  ostentation.  There  was  nothing  severe 
or  classical  about  it,  and  it  needed  no  special  cultivation 
of  the  eye  or  the  mind  to  appreciate  its  magnificence. 
Still  it  is  only  fair  to  say  that  Napoleon  III.  insisted  that 
the  new  Hotel-Dieu  should  be  finished  before  the  new 
opera.  When  inaugurating  this  immense  hospital,  the 
emperor  made  some  allusion  to  the  fact,  saying  that  we 
must  first  provide  an  asylum  for  the  relief  of  pain  before 
we  build  a  palace  of  pleasure. 

If  ever  an  architect  wrote  history,  then  by  building  in 

HISTORY    IN    STONE  313 

Paris  itself  the  new  opera,  Charles  Garnier  related  in  letters 
of  stone  the  history  not  only  of  the  apotlieosis  of  the 
Second  Empire,  but  also  of  its  decline  and  fall.  The  Paris 
Grand  Opera  remains  a  monument  of  great  historical 
interest.  The  style,  especially  with  regard  to  decoration, 
is  not,  it  may  be  hoped,  appropriate  to  the  French  nation 
and  its  great  political  and  intellectual  capital,  but  it 
accurately  records  the  short  period  of  shallow  frivolity 
into  which  the  people  lapsed  after  more  than  a  century 
of  heroic  endeavour. 

If  the  style  of  decoration  introduced  at  the  new  opera 
fails  to  suggest  the  generous  initiati\e  of  the  I'aris  of  the 
Great  Revolution  ;  if  it  does  not  recall  the  commercial 
Marais  and  the  industrious  faubourgs  with  their  teeming 
population  of  tradesmen  and  highly  skilled  artisans ;  nor 
yet  the  Paris  of  the  Latin  Quarter,  with  its  world-famed 
university,  its  men  of  science  and  of  genius,  its  writers, 
statesmen  and  philosophers,  still,  it  reflects  accurately 
enough  the  love  of  extravagant  show  that  can  be  ap- 
preciated easily,  without  intellectual  effort,  by  the  cosmo- 
politan crowd  of  pleasure-seekers  who  have  peopled  a 
town  of  their  own  witliin  the  Paris  of  the  true  Parisian. 
Now  it  so  happened  that  while  M.  Fran9ois  Blanc  lent 
the  money  required  to  finish  the  Paris  opera  house, 
cosmopolitan  I'aris — which,  be  it  always  borne  in  mind, 
Parisians  energetically  repudiate  —  was  beginning  to 
acquire  the  habit,  during  the  winter,  of  occasionally 
seeking  pleasure  and  sunshine  at  ISIonte  Carlo.  What 
could  be  more  natural  than  that  the  architect  of  the  Paris 
Grand  Opera  should  be  consulted  with  regard  to  the 
proposed  (irand  Theatre  at  Monte  Carlo  i  IVI.  Charles 
Garnier  had  publicly  expressed  his  gratitude  to  M.  Francois 
Blanc  for  having  rendered  the  completion  of  the  Paris 
opera  possible.  If  M.  Garnier's  style  was,  perhaps,  as 
indicated  above,  not  sufficiently  severe,  classic  and  serious 
for  a  great  and  historic  capital  such  as  Paris,  it  was,  on 
tlie  contrary,  admirably  suited  to  Monte  Carlo.  Monaco, 
with   its   austere   battlements,   with   its  ancient  history. 


might  with  reason  have  objected  to  Charles  Garnier  and 
all  his  works ;  but  Monte  Carlo,  with  no  history  whatso- 
ever, built  on  an  uninhabited  promontory,  and  only  seeking 
to  attract  wealthy  idlers  from  every  part  of  the  world, 
was  the  very  place  of  all  others  where  his  style  and  genius 
would  be  most  appreciated. 

M.  Charles  Garnier  readily  consented.  At  the  end  of 
April  1878  he  was  able  to  submit  his  designs  to  Madame 
Blanc  ;  they  were  accepted,  and  then  a  wonderful  work 
was  accomplished.  By  the  end  of  October  the  building 
was  completed  and  handed  over  to  the  decorators,  sculptors 
and  painters.  This  was  no  ordinary  task,  and  it  was 
necessary  to  work  day  and  night  without  a  moment's 
respite.  A  plan  also  had  to  be  devised  to  secure  equal 
comfort  and  an  equally  good  view  for  all  the  seats  in  the 
theatre.  In  short,  there  were  to  be  only  orchestra  stalls,  a 
special  box  for  the  prince,  and  six  other  boxes.  No  idea  was 
entertained  of  charging  for  admittance,  and  it  was  thought 
that  as  all  the  seats  were  gratuitous  they  should  all  be 
equally  good.  The  theatre  must  be  easily  accessible 
from  within  the  casino  and  from  without.  For  concerts 
in  the  afternoon  there  must  be  daylight,  for  evening 
performances  there  must  be  gas,  as  electricity  was  not 
yet  available.  Builders  of  theatres  usually  do  not  contem- 
plate the  possibility  of  daylight  representations.  In 
London  and  elsewhere  what  feeble  light  may  be  admitted 
by  the  windows  is  excluded,  and  artificial  light  employed 
during  even  matinee  performances.  At  Monte  Carlo,  on 
the  contrary,  the  windows  are  so  large  and  lofty  that 
a  daylight  concert  can  easily  be  given.  Indeed,  there  is 
often  too  much  light,  and  yellow  blinds  as  large  as  the 
sail  of  a  ship  have  to  be  lowered  to  soften  the  glare  of  the 
southern  sun. 

An  enormous  army  of  workers,  artisans  and  artists,  had 
to  be  brought  down.  Some  portions  of  the  old  building 
were  promptly  demolished.  Holes  were  blown  in  the  rock 
with  dynamite  as  the  quickest  way  of  digging  for  deeper 
foundations.    Lofty   scaffolding    rose   from   the    ground, 


engines  snorted  and  puffed,  lifting  the  stones,  that  had 
for  the  most  part  come  all  the  way  from  Aries.  As  it  was 
warm  weather,  the  concerts  were  given  in  the  open  air, 
and  served  to  cheer  the  workmen  as  well  as  to  entertain 
the  visitors.  It  was  a  strange  scene,  the  illuminations  for 
the  concert  mingled  with  the  flaring  torches  of  the 
building  works ;  the  notes  of  the  musical  instruments 
combined  with  the  sounds  of  the  engines  and  the  hammers. 
The  idlers  and  the  workers  were  side  by  side,  each  with 
artificial  light  striving  to  convert  night  into  day.  It  is  to 
be  hoped  that  the  gamblers  were  well  satisfied  when  they 
saw  how  the  money  they  had  lost  was  giving  useful 
employment  to  a  great  concourse  of  workmen.  In  six 
months  the  bold  outline  of  the  theatre,  with  its  two 
graceful  towers  which  have  become  the  principal  land- 
mark of  Monte  Carlo,  could  be  seen  through  a  maze  of 

In  designing  a  building,  and  particularly  its  frontage, 
the  effect  will  be  either  gay  or  sombre  according  to  the 
number  of  windows,  doors,  arcades,  columns — that  is  to 
say,  of  breaks  in  the  dull  severity  of  the  walls.  The  greater 
the  facilities  of  entry,  the  more  hospitable  the  building 
appears.  Its  inhabitants  evidently  do  not  wish  to  wall 
themselves  off  from  the  world,  and  it  is  easy  to  imagine 
that  there  must  be  plenty  of  light  and  gaiety  within.  This 
is  precisely  the  effect  realised  by  the  frontage  of  the 
Monte  Carlo  theatre.  Three  lofty  windows  that  are  more 
like  arcades,  for  they  consist  of  columns  upholding  arches, 
fill  the  centre  of  the  facade.  They  convey  the  idea  that 
their  purpose  must  be  to  illuminate  some  vast  and  splendid 
hall.  Immediately  above,  like  a  jewelled  belt  around  the 
building,  runs  a  broad  frieze  in  mosaic.  It  is  the  work  of 
M.  Facchina,  of  ^^enice.  This  mosaic,  and  the  use  of  the 
Monaco  art  })ottery-ware,  constitute  a  polychrome  decora- 
tion rarely  seen  outside  buildings  in  northern  latitudes, 
but  very  popular  in  Italy,  and  well  suited  to  the  climate 
of  Monte  Carlo.  The  design  of  the  mosaic  (head  repre- 
senting "  Comedy  "  and  "  Tragedy  ")  is  not  original,  but  its 


effect  is  very  bright  and  pleasing.  The  httle  cubes  of  gold 
seem  to  catch  fire  in  the  sunlight,  and  how  deep  and 
luminous  are  the  sapphire  blues,  purples  and  violets ; 
how  delicate  and  translucent  the  lilac,  the  turquoise  and 
the  emerald-green.  Aided  by  distance,  and  by  the  brilliant 
sunshine,  these  little  coloured  cubes  seem  veritable  precious 

The  boldest  innovation,  in  which  Gamier  outstepped 
anything  he  had  done  before,  was  the  construction  of  the 
two  lofty  towers.  What  could  be  the  use  of  these  square 
turrets  ?  As  steeples  of  a  church  or  minarets  of  a  mosque 
they  might  serve  a  purpose.  If  comedy  and  music  are 
worthy  to  be  heard  in  a  temple,  there  was  no  connection 
intended  between  the  theatre  of  the  Monte  Carlo  casino 
and  a  church  of  any  denomination  whatsoever.  Why  then 
have  steeples  ?  The  answer  is  simple.  Every  tall,  narrow 
building  is  not  a  steeple.  A  lighthouse  is  not  a  steeple. 
The  towers  of  the  theatre  have  a  small  dome,  large 
windows,  a  lantern  above  the  dome,  but  no  place  for 
hanging  bells.  There  is,  however,  a  balcony,  from  whence 
a  magnificent  view  can  be  obtained.  Here  is  the  object, 
here  is  the  purpose — that  of  seeing,  and  above  all  of  being 
seen  at  a  distance.  Far  out  at  sea.  from  the  ships  as  they 
pass,  sailors  and  passengers  cannot  fail  to  recognise  the 
frontage  of  the  Monte  Carlo  casino,  with  its  broad 
terraces ;  and  rising  high  above  them  the  bold  facade  and 
lofty  towers  of  Charles  Garnier's  chef-iVceuvre.  Two  or 
three  strokes  of  pencil  or  pen  from  an  artist's  hand  will 
render  the  outline  of  these  two  towers  and  the  great 
domed  roof  of  the  theatre  between  them.  This  is  sufficient. 
Monte  Carlo  is  at  once  recognised.  Just  as  the  West- 
minster clock  tower  suggests  London ;  the  tower  of  St 
Angelo,  Rome ;  the  towers  of  Notre-Dame,  Paris ;  so, 
in  an  equally  unmistakable  manner,  do  the  towers  of 
Charles  Garnier's  theatre  proclaim  Monte  Carlo.  To  build 
towers  to  a  theatre  was  doubtless  a  very  unorthodox 
eccentricity,  but  it  has  served  a  very  useful  purpose.  Then, 
after  all,  no  one  can  say  they  are  not  graceful ;  all  must 


I'.AST    \lliW    1)1-     nil.    (lAKNIKU    Tl  I  KATK  li  :     lA'.IM.    SVKAIl     I'.KK  M  I  AK  HT  S 

Staiuk  ok  Som; 


acknowledge  that  they  harmonise  admirably  with  tlie  rest 
of  the  building  and  greatly  enhance  its  general  monu- 
mental effect. 

The  three  bull's-eye  apertures  above  the  frieze  are 
more  susceptible  of  criticism.  They  are  somewhat  heavy, 
and  there  are  too  many  shields,  lyres,  masks,  employed 
as  decorative  motives ;  but  this  is  the  inherent  fault  of 
the  Gamier  style ;  it  is  overdone.  It  is  in  the  general 
design  of  a  building,  rather  than  in  the  detail  of  its 
ornamentation,  that  Garnier  excels.  Nowhere  is  this  more 
evident  than  within  the  theatre  itself  The  effect  on  those 
who  enter  the  auditorium  for  the  first  time  must  be  most 
startling.  There  is  gold,  gold,  and  yet  more  gold.  Friezes 
and  garlands,  frescoes,  shields,  embossed  work,  such  a 
crush  and  a  crowd  of  gilded  ornamentation,  that  the  mind 
fails  to  grasp  what  it  all  means.  However,  in  time,  the 
eye  discerns  in  the  vaulted  roof  Boulanger's  "  Music," 
Lix's  "  Comedy,"  Feyen-Perrin's  "  Song,"  and  Clairin's 
"Dance."  The  first  of  these  pictures  is  classical,  the 
second  mythological,  the  third  inspires  reverence,  but 
Clairin's  "  Dance  "  reflects  the  real  spirit  of  a  casino,  and 
suggests  a  moment  of  reckless  enjoyment.  Between  these 
pictures,  as  if  supporting  the  vaulted  roof  on  their  backs, 
are  four  giant  figures  of  "  Renown  "  in  bronze  and  gold,  by 
the  sculptor,  J.  Thomas.  They  are  powerful  young  women, 
physically  capable  of  upholding  the  celestial  vault  spread 
above  them,  and  they  seem  to  perform  this  function  quite 
seriously.  Immediately  below  them  are  two  young  lads 
with  no  clothes,  not  even  a  little  gilding,  uncomfortably 
seated  on  a  narrow  ledge,  looking  as  if  they  had  come  out 
of  a  swimming-bath.  There  is  nothing  ideal  about  them  ; 
their  hands  and  feet  especially  are  absolutely  realistic.  No 
one  has  been  able  to  explain  why  these  boys  are  perched 
up  there ;  but  presumably  they  know  the  secret,  since 
they  look  quite  happy.  They  do  not  seem  to  be  in  the 
least  troubled  about  the  public,  towards  whom  they  tiu-n 
the  soles  of  their  feet.  Their  want  of  clothes  may  be 
excused  on  the  gi'ound  that  they  are  high  enough  up  to 


be  among  the  gods,  but  why  such  a  regrettable  lack  of 
manners  ? 

Above  the  naked  boys,  between  the  draped  and 
golden  figures  of  "  Renown,"  are  rows  of  elaborately  decor- 
ated bull's-eye  windows,  the  design  culminating  at  the 
summit  in  a  head.  These  heads,  moulded  by  M.  Chabaud, 
symbolise  various  orders  of  music^ — pastoral,  martial, 
hunting,  dance  music,  etc.,  etc. 

The  theatre  is  longer  than  it  is  broad.  Opposite  the 
stage  is  situated  a  galler}^  containing  the  prince's  box. 
This  is  the  west  end,  and  here  there  is  a  magnificent 
door  opening  at  the  angle  made  by  the  road  and  the 
terraces.  The  door  is  seldom,  if  ever,  used  by  the  public, 
being  reserved  as  a  private  entrance  to  the  prince's  box. 
No  one  can  pass  it  without  admiring  the  two  superb 
Nubian  slaves  which  are  sheltered  under  the  doorway, 
and  serve  as  candelabras,  each  holding  crystal  crescents 
above  their  heads.  They  are  among  the  finest  specimens 
of  M.  Chabaud's  work  as  a  sculptor.  Above  the  entrance 
is  a  small  balcony  which  can  be  reached  from  the  prince's 
box  and  where  fresh  air  may  be  enjoyed  between  the  acts. 
It  contains  an  original  and  graphic  statue  of  "  Industry," 
by  M.  Cordier.  A  hardy  woman  of  the  people,  with 
herculean  muscles,  rests  her  vigorous  arms  on  her  hammer 
with  an  air  of  proud  confidence.  She  feels  that  all  the 
world  depends  on  her  efforts.  Her  clothing  is  simple — 
merely  a  skin  apron.  The  companion  statue  is  an  idealistic 
and  dreamy  conception  of  sculpture,  by  M.  Godebski. 
Close  by,  the  angles  of  the  masonry  are  ornamented  with 
two  statues  of  "  Music "  and  '*  Dance,"  by  JNI.  Cordier. 
The  usual  entrance  to  the  theatre  is  from  the  atrium ; 
the  central  door  is  flanked  by  two  caryatides  in  Floren- 
tine bronze.  One  of  tliese — "  Music  " — is  the  work  of 
M.  Bayard  de  la  Vingeterie  ;  the  other — "  Literature  " — is 
by  M.  Aizelin.  Some  of  Jean  Goujon's  decoration  of  the 
Hotel  Carnavalet  in  Paris  has  been  imitated  in  the  design 
of  the  group  which  protects  the  arms  of  Monaco  above 
this  door.  M.  Mathieu  was  the  sculptor. 

WlCsr    \'1KW    OF    TilK    (lAKMKK    TllKAlKE:     l'ACIN(;    Gll.STAVIC    DoUli's    SXAl  UE 

OI--  Danck 


The  peculiar  feature  of  the  construction  of  the  Rlonte 
Carlo  theatre  is  that  though  the  whole  scheme  and  design 
are  the  outcome  of  M.  Charles  Garnier's  genius,  he  called 
in  a  great  number  of  collaborators  and,  entrusting  to  each 
some  detail,  gave  him  full  freedom  to  deal  with  it  ac- 
cording to  his  fancy.  But  even  more  remarkable  than  this 
was  the  strange  idea  of  setting  artists  to  work  at  an  art 
other  than  their  own.  Thus  he  insisted  that  the  great 
tragedian,  Sarah  Bernhardt,  should  be  responsible  for  a 
statue  representing  "  Song " ;  and  that  the  celebrated 
painter,  Gustave  lioro,  should  contribute  as  a  pendant 
another  statue  representing  "  The  Dance."  There  was 
almost  as  much  talk  about  this  as  about  the  towers.  Why 
put  spires  or  minarets  to  a  theatre  ?  Why  give  an  actress 
and  a  painter  sculpture  to  do,  when  there  were  so  many 
properly  qualified  sculptors  only  too  eager  to  undertake 
such  a  task  ?  In  all  the  studios,  in  artistic  circles,  among 
all  the  art  critics,  endless  discussions  ensued.  On  the 
higher  terrace,  in  niches  under  the  two  towers  that  have 
caused  such  widespread  debate,  are  to  be  found  the 
statues  that  were  also  so  much  discussed.  Nor  were  these 
amateur  sculptors  content  with  one  statue.  Gustave  Dore 
has  placed  at  the  foot  of  "  Tiie  Dance "  a  cupid,  with 
dimpled  and  well-rounded  limbs,  duly  armed  with  his 
fatal  bow  and  arrow.  Sarah  Bernhardt's  winged  songstress 
did  not  satisfy  her ;  she  added  a  young  girl  sitting  at  the 
feet  of  the  singer.  Those  not  versed  in  the  technique  of 
the  art  see  nothing  to  criticise  in  either  of  the  statues, 
but  much  has  been  said  against  the  left  leg  of  Sarah 
Bernhardt's  young  girl.  Much  exception,  too,  has  been 
taken  to  the  arrangement  of  the  drapery,  which  is  fastened 
up  on  the  shoulders  with  something  of  a  butterfly  effect, 
a  1(1  ,7apo/i(i/.se. 

But  criticism  is  easy,  and,  admitting  that  better 
statues  could  have  been  obtained,  they  would  never  be 
half  so  interesting.  The  fact  that  these  statues  were 
contributed  by  great  artistic  celebrities,  but  celebrities 
who  were  not  sculptors,  cannot  fail  to  excite  universal 


curiosity.  Thus  it  comes  to  pass  that  everyone  who  goes 
to  Monte  Carlo  makes  a  point  of  discovering  the  where- 
abouts of  the  statues  by  Sarah  Bernhardt  and  Gustave 
Dore.  Unfortunately,  they  have  been  ill-treated  by  time 
and  weather.  Finished  hui-riedly,  to  be  ready  for  the 
opening  of  the  new  theatre,  they  could  only  be  moulded 
in  clay  and  cast  in  plaster.  There  are  no  ironworks  at 
Monaco  to  cast  statues  in  bronze,  nor  was  it  possible  to 
carve  them  in  marble.  The  statues,  therefore,  are  in  plaster. 
To  preserve  them,  they  have  been  painted  over ;  but  the 
sun  has  cracked  and  blistered  the  paint,  and  some  of  it  is 
peeling  off.  "  Song  "and  "  Dance  "  seem  both  to  be  suffer- 
ing from  a  severe  attack  of  eczema. 

The  building,  we  have  seen,  was  begun  in  April  1878, 
and  handed  over  to  the  decorators  and  upholsterers  in 
October.  By  the  commencement  of  the  following  year  it 
was  completed,  and  the  solemn  inauguration  took  place 
on  the  25th  of  January  1879.  Needless  to  say,  this  was 
a  brilliant  ceremony.  Even  the  artistic  design  of  the  pro- 
gramme was  quite  in  the  Charles  Garnier  style,  includ- 
ing the  two  towers,  the  subject  of  so  much  controversy, 
and  the  two  naked  boys  who  persist  in  showing  the  soles 
of  their  feet.  But  this  time  they  were  usefully  employed 
blowing  long  trumpets,  and  if  uncomfortably  seated,  they 
were  provided  with  wings  so  that  they  could  fly  away. 
It  was  at  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  the  24th  of 
January  that  M.  Romeo  Accursi  and  his  orchestra  first 
entered  the  new  theatre.  The  place  was  still  encumbered 
by  ladders,  ropes,  pieces  of  sculpture  and  ornamentation. 
Charles  Garnier  and  his  family,  all  the  directors  of  the 
casino,  young  architects,  artists,  newspaper  reporters, 
great  theatrical  or  operatic  celebrities  were  there  to 
rehearse  for  the  morrow's  opening  performance.  The  cele- 
brated tenor,  Capoul,  was  the  first  to  clamber  on  the  stage, 
where  he  strutted  about  with  evident  satisfaction,  Madame 
INIiolan-Carvalho  sang  to  an  accompaniment  of  hammers 
driving  in  nails.  Other  women  now  came  forward  ;  they 
had  not  melodious  voices,  but  they  had  strong  arms,  and 


big  pails  and  mops  and  brushes.  It  was  their  business  to 
see  that  the  theatre  should  be  thoroughly  clean  for  the 
opening  day,  and  the  musicians  who  wanted  to  rehearse 
felt,  in  spite  of  their  European  reputations,  that  at  such  a 
moment  they  \vere  merely  secondary  personages. 

By  the  evening  of  the  25th  everytliing  was  ready. 
Prince  Charles  III.  entered  the  regal  box  for  the  first 
time.  The  six  hundred  orchestra  stalls  were  occupied  by 
celebrities  of  literature,  art,  the  press  and  society.  The 
Marseillais  poet,  J.  Aicard,  had  written  a  prologue,  which 
was  recited  by  Sarah  Bernhardt.  The  poem  told  of  a 
sleeping  beauty  who  reposed  in  one  of  the  caves  under  the 
hill  of  Monte  Carlo.  ^VU  the  noise  of  the  exploding  mines 
and  of  the  seven  months  of  labour  in  building  the  theatre 
had  failed  to  rouse  her.  But  now  comes  M.  Romeo 
Accursi  with  his  admirable  orchestra ;  the  melodious 
sound  awakens  the  beautiful  nymph  after  a  sleep  of 
centuries.  She  had  seen  the  paintings  of  Polygnotus  and 
Apelles,  the  statues  of  Phidias  and  Praxiteles,  the  great 
temples  of  antiquity,  and  now  she  opens  her  eyes  to 
witness  a  resuscitation  of  the  arts  and  to  bring  green 
palms  "to  the  builder  of  the  marvellous  palace." 
*■  Artists,"  she  exclaims,  "  I  have  gathered  pahns  to 
crown  your  heads.  Blessed  be  you  all !  you  who  have 
awakened  the  gods  !  ' 

At  these  words  the  whole  audience  rose  and  turned 
towards  Charles  Garnier,  who  with  his  family  occupied  a 
box  at  the  far  end  of  the  theatre.  A  great  ovation  ensued. 
Garnier  was  summoned  to  the  prince's  box,  and  the  Cross 
of  Conunander  of  the  Order  of  Saint  Charles  was  sus- 
pended by  its  ribbon  round  the  neck  of  the  illustrious 
architect.  This  was  done,  on  behalf  of  Prince  Charles  III., 
by  her  Iloyal  Highness  the  Duchess  Florestine  d'Urach- 
Wiirtemberg.  The  same  evening  Mesdames  Miolan 
Carvalho  and  Judic,  and  Messiems  Diaz  de  Soriae  and 
Capoul  sang.  It  will  be  .seen  that  from  the  very  first 
there  appeared  on  tlie  stage  of  Monte  Carlo  some  of  the 
most  celebrated  singers,  actors  and  artists  of  Europe. 



IT  may  be  said  that  the  building  of  the  Garnier  Theatre 
was  the  chmax  which  decided  the  fortunes  of  the 
casino.  No  money  was  spared,  and  many  ingenious 
devices  were  adopted  to  ensure  that  the  utmost  pubUcity 
should  be  given  to  the  affair.  This  accomplished,  success 
was  assured,  and  has  now  assumed  such  proportions  as  to 
threaten  embarrassment  by  its  very  completeness.  At  first 
it  was  said  that  the  theatre  was  too  large  for  the  casino : 
now  it  was  found  that  the  casino  was  too  small  for  the 
theatre  and  for  the  public  it  attracted.  While  Garnier  was 
startling  the  world  by  the  original  structure  of  his  theatre, 
tlie  architect  Dutrou,  who  six  years  before  had  added  the 
Salle  INIauresque  to  the  old  casino,  knocked  the  central 
part  of  this  elementary  structure  to  pieces,  and  built  the 
atrium  in  its  stead.  He  also  added  a  small  vestibule  in 
front  of  the  old  entrance.  Before  two  years  had  expired, 
it  was  already  evident  that  the  Salle  Renaissance  and  the 
Salle  Mauresque — now  called  the  Salle  Schmit — with  their 
seven   roulette   and    trente-et-quaruntc  tables,   no  longer 
sufficed.  Once  more  Charles  Garnier  was  asked  to  lend  the 
casino  the  lustre  of  his  name  and  the  aid  of  his  genius. 
He  consented ;  and  in  1880  built  the  Salle  Garnier.  The 
chief  original  feature  in  this  room  is  the  subject  of  the 
paintings  which  decorate  the  walls.  They  consist  of  female 
figures  representing  the  sports  then  popular.  One  of  the 
finest  of  the  pictures,  illustrating  croquet — a  game  that 
seems  to-day  to  be  almost  forgotten — is  by  Clairin. 

Now  ensued  a  period  of  comparative  inaction,  which 
continued  for  nearly  a  decade.  In  1889  the  celebration  of 


THE    1789    CENTENARY  323 

the  centenary  of  the  French  Revolution  was  to  take  place. 
The  Universal  Exhibition  in  Paris  would  attract  visitors 
from  all  parts  of  the  world.  The  ridiculous  attempt  to 
boycott  the  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  downfall  of  the 
Bastille,  with  the  regime  of  Icttres  de  cachet,  privilege  and 
autocracy,  was  sure  to  fail.  The  fact  that  some  monarchical 
governments  refused  to  take  part  in  the  exhibition  made 
the  great  mass  of  the  people  all  the  more  eager  to  be 
present,  and  Monte  Carlo  was  sure  to  feel  the  effect  of 
this  rush  to  Paris.  In  1888  the  number  of  tickets  issued 
to  travellers  for  the  principality  was  394,433  :  the  year  of 
the  celebration  of  the  centenary  of  the  French  Revolution 
it  was  503,397.  The  year  following,  1890,  when  there  was 
no  celebration,  the  number  fell  to  403,082. 

By  the  year  1889  the  entrance  vestibule  of  the  casino 
had  been  much  enlarged,  giving  more  space  for  the  cloak- 
room and  offices,  and  yet  anotlier  and  a  very  beautiful 
gaming-room  had  been  added.  It  is  called  the  Salle  Touzet, 
after  its  architect.  The  decorations  are  nearly  as  ex- 
travagant as  if  designed  by  Garnier ;  the  paintings 
represent  Folly,  Fortune,  Night  and  Morning.  It  is  difficult 
to  see  whether  any  subtle  moral  is  involved  in  the  choice 
of  such  subjects ;  but  in  any  case  players  are  not  often 
disposed  to  look  at  pictures.  When  once  a  person  is 
absorbed  in  roulette  or  trente-et-fjuarante,  the  fine  arts 
are  lost  upon  him.  But  they  are  not  lost  on  those  who  do 
not  play,  or  who  play  rarely  and  only  for  small  sums. 
Such  persons  do  exist ;  they  can  be  met  even  in  the  rooms 
devoted  exclusively  to  play.  Perhaps  it  is  thought  that 
some  will  frequent  the  rooms  because  of  their  beauty,  not 
intending  to  play.  If  they  do,  it  happens  more  often  than 
not  that  they  end  by  yielding  to  the  temptation,  and  risk 
at  least  a  small  stake.  For  their  sakes  it  is  to  be  hoped 
that  they  will  lose,  for  then  they  will  be  less  tempted 
to  renew  the  experiment. 

When,  after  the  building  of  the  Salle  Touzet,  the 
demand  for  more  room  and  still  more  room  continued, 
it   was    determined    that    this    time,   instead   of  further 


elongating  the  casino  an  attempt  should  be  made  to  extend 
it  laterally.  In  1903  a  large  hall  and  two  smaller  ones 
were  added  on  the  south  side,  facing  the  sea.  They  are 
named  after  their  architect,  Schmit.  It  is  in  the  large  hall 
that  the  celebrated  painting  of  the  three  Florentine  Graces 
will  be  found.  The  ceilings  of  the  two  smaller  rooms  are 
also  beautifully  decorated.  The  subject  of  one  of  these 
paintings,  by  Galleli,  is  "  Dreams."  It  is  here  reproduced. 

In  1906  a  gallery  was  built  on  the  northern  side,  so  as 
to  give  a  little  moi-e  room,  and  finally  an  extensive  addition 
was  made  in  1910. 

By  that  time  great  alteration  in  the  social  conditions 
of  life  at  Monte  Carlo  had  taken  place,  and  the  evolution 
in  the  building  of  the  casino  corresponded  with  the  modern 
developments.  We  have  seen  that  the  number  of 
passengers  who  booked  for  the  principality  amounted 
in  1889  to  half-a-million ;  by  1902  they  just  exceeded  a 
million,  and  in  1909  the  number  was  1,483,570.  This  of 
course  meant  a  complete  change  in  the  social  position  and 
character  of  the  majority  of  visitors.  The  democracy  had 
permeated  even  Monte  Carlo.  Aristocrats  and  very 
distinguished  personages  still  frequented  the  casino,  but 
they  were  lost  in  the  crowd.  In  the  earlier  days  every- 
thing was  free.  To  put  a  price  on  the  seats  at  the  concerts 
or  other  entertainments  was  contrary  to  all  traditions. 
That  some  of  the  visitors  played  was  sufficient  for  every- 
one to  be  welcomed  and  given  free  admittance.  The 
magnificent  theatre,  with  its  wonderful  display  of  decora- 
tion, was  open  once  or  twice  a  day  to  anyone  who  chose 
to  enter.  Here  one  of  the  best  orchestras  of  Europe  could 
be  heard  from  .540  orchestra  stalls,  each  as  good  and  as 
comfortable  as  the  other.  There  were  no  privileged  seats 
and  no  privileged  persons ;  no  sifting  of  those  who  could 
afford  to  pay  from  those  who  could  not.  The  casino  made 
enough  money  to  pay  for  all.  But  to-day  it  makes  so 
very  much  more  money  that  it  is  far  less  generous ;  such 
is  the  destructive  effect  of  too  much  success. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  must  be  admitted  that  with  the 

ARRIVAL    OF    THE    MASSES  325 

present  crowd,  if  performances  were  gratuitous  it  is  not  a 
beautiful  theatre,  holding  barely  six  hundred  spectators,  that 
would  be  required,  but  something  more  like  a  hippodrome. 
To-day,  even  though  twenty  francs  a  seat  is  charged  for 
operatic  performances  and  five  francs  for  the  classical 
concerts,  other  performances  have  to  be  organised  else- 
where. The  beautiful  hothouses  belonging  to  INIadame 
Blanc,  where  horticultural  rarities  were  cultivated  with 
such  success,  have  been  pulled  down  to  make  room  for 
the  Palais  des  Beaux  Arts.  This  edifice,  close  to  the 
Hotel  de  Paris,  consists  of  a  central  hall  130  by  58  feet, 
with  a  vaulted  glass  roof  which  gives  a  good  light  for  the 
exhibitions  of  painting  and  sculpture  and  the  horticultural 
shows  that  are  held  here.  At  the  end  of  the  hall  is  a  large 
platform,  which  is  useful  for  meetings  and  various 
ceremonies.  From  the  right  side  of  this  hall  opens  a 
smaller  room,  where  some  of  the  best  pictures  are  usually 
hung  at  the  annual  "  Salon "  ;  and  on  the  left  a  small 
theatre  has  been  built  for  light  plays  and  operettas  and 
for  lectures.  The  first  Exhibition  of  Fine  Arts  took  place 
in  1892,  under  the  presidency  of  Jerome  and  Carol  us 
Duran.  Among  some  of  the  celebrated  artists  who  have 
assisted  at  these  annual  exhibitions  may  be  mentioned 
Alma-Tadema,  Burne-.Jones,  Detaille,  Bonnat,  Bartholdi, 
Munkiicsy,  J.  P.  Laurens,  Stevens,  J.  L.  Stewart  and 

While  thus  building  annexes  outside  its  original 
premises,  the  casino  still  continued  to  expand  on  its  first 
site.  But  the  time  had  come  for  a  radical  change  of  policy. 
The  happy  e(iuality  of  the  early  days  could  not  be 
maintained  with  the  huge  crowds  that  now  frequented 
the  casino.  A  first  attempt  to  discriminate  was  made  by 
establishing,  in  a  small  room  upstairs,  what  was  called  the 
Cvrclc  Privc.  The  infatuation  of  players  may  be  judged 
by  the  talk  that  arose  when  this  select  gaming-table  was 
abolished.  People  said  that  it  did  not  pay  because  it  was 
frequented  almost  exclusively  by  experienced  players, 
who  risked  only  small  sums  and  ceased  playing  as  soon  as 


they  had  won  something  worth  having.  Obviously,  if  there 
are  such  wise  players  they  can  play  in  this  manner  in  the 
public  rooms  as  well  as  in  a  private  room.  Whether  the 
bank  wins  less  at  one  table  or  more  at  another  does  not  in 
the  least  matter,  so  long  as  the  average  shows  a  good 
profit.  The  fact  is  that  the  Cercle  Prive  was  abolished 
because  the  casino  sought  to  divert  the  crowd  by  creating 
the  Sporting  Club.  Here  none  is  admitted  unless  he 
belongs  to  a  good  club  in  his  own  countiy  and  can  show 
a  receipt  proving  that  he  has  paid  his  subscription.  As  a 
further  attraction  the  game  of  baccarat  is  allowed  at  the 
Sporting  Club,  and  there  is  also  good  music  provided  by  a 
string  band.  This  does  serve  to  draw  away  some  from  the 
casino,  and  yet  the  crowd  is  still  too  great. 

In  further  increasing  the  size  of  the  casino,  a  new 
scheme  was  adopted.  The  casino  had  already  extended 
eastward  as  far  as  it  could  go  on  level  soil.  It  had 
reached  the  edge  of  the  hill ;  another  extension  would 
necessitate  building  on  the  slope.  This  fact  suggested  that 
to  keep  the  new  hall  level  with  its  predecessors  a  base- 
ment must  be  constructed.  Thus  the  size  of  the  casino 
might  be  increased  downward  as  well  as  laterally.  Here 
a  new  casino,  with  new  rules,  would  come  into  existence. 
The  Salle  Touzet  would  be  withdrawn  from  the  public 
and  connected  with  the  new  saloon  about  to  be  built,  and 
in  the  basement  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  a  small  and  select 
concert  hall  could  be  constructed.  This  would  constitute 
the  private  part  of  the  casino.  In  1911  the  charge  for 
admission  was  £2  for  the  season  ;  this  was  increased  in 
1912  to  £4.  The  new  wing  of  the  casino  was  built  by 
JSI.  Medecin,  and  was  completed  in  1910. 

The  private  portion  of  the  casino  is  so  large  as  to  be 
sufficient  by  itself  to  form  what  would  in  most  countries 
be  considered  a  spacious  casino.  Apparently  there  will 
never  be  room  enough  or  enough  tables.  The  more  the 
casino  provides  the  more  people  come.  Neither  the 
imposition  of  a  charge  for  admission  nor  the  doubling 
of  this  charge  has  checked  the  increase  of  visitors.  There 




are  two  reasons  that  make  it  worth  while  to  pay  for 
entrance  to  this  private  and  privileged  part  of  the  casino  : 
a  scientific  method  of  ventilation  has  been  applied,  and 
every  day  exquisite  music  is  rendered  by  the  string 
orchestra  under  the  leadership  of  M.  Louis  Ganne.  These 
concerts,  sometimes  given  both  in  the  afternoon  and  the 
evening,  are  perfect  in  their  way,  and  enjoy  the  highest 
favour  among  those  who  are  sufficiently  educated  in 
music  to  appreciate  them.  The  concert-room  is  rather 
low,  but  carefully  ventilated.  The  air  inlets,  disguised  as 
sculptured  bosses,  may  be  seen  in  two  corners  of  the 
oblong  ceiling  ;  an  air-shaft  runs  round  the  room  convey- 
ing a  current  of  air  to  all  parts,  but  too  high  up  to  cause 
any  draughts.  On  the  floor  against  the  wall  may  be  noted 
the  thermo-automatic  machines.  A  similar  contrivance 
will  be  found  in  the  gaming-rooms  upstairs.  Here,  as  the 
mercury  of  a  thermometer  rises  or  falls,  it  automatically 
opens  or  closes  a  valve.  When  the  temperature  has 
reached  the  desired  point  the  valve  is  closed  by  the  rising 
mercury,  and  this  prevents  the  steam  from  entering  the 
heat  radiators.  The  satin  and  velvet  seats,  the  curtains 
and  carpets,  are  all  crimson  of  a  rich,  bright  tone,  contrast- 
ing with  the  sober  oak  panelling  and  the  orchestra  plat- 
form. Roimd  the  edge  of  the  blue-grey  ceiling  a  few  red 
and  yellow  flowers  strike  a  note  of  gaiety  without  too 
much  colour.  The  electric  lights  are  masked  with  crystals 
that  add  to  the  general  sense  of  glitter  and  brightness, 
in  brilliant  contrast  to  the  sombre  colouring  of  the  hall. 
The  effect  is  that  of  restfulness  amid  deep  and  vivid 
colour ;  but  not  so  much  rest  as  to  become  somnolence, 
so  much  richness  as  to  become  gaudiness,  or  so  much 
brightness  as  to  disturb  the  sense  of  repose  necessary  to 
the  full  enjoyment  of  refined  music. 

The  Salle  Touzet  upstairs  was  built  before  the  system 
of  ventilation  was  introduced,  therefore  it  does  not  act  so 
well  as  in  the  last  and  more  recent  room,  where  architect 
and  ventilating  engineer  worked  together.  Ever  since  the 
casino  has  existed,  bitter  complaints  have  been  made  con- 


cerning  the  foulness  of  the  atmosphere.  It  is  true  that  the 
pubhc  is  in  this  matter  at  once  ignorant  and  unreasonable, 
ftlany  persons  imagine  that  heat  is  a  proof  of  the  absence 
of  ventilation,  others  mistake  draughts  for  ventilation. 
But  few  realise  that  true  ventilation  consists  in  changing 
the  air  imperceptibly  and  yet  sufficiently  to  provide  one 
cubic  foot  of  air  per  person  per  second.  On  the  other 
hand,  if  the  air  travels  more  than  three  feet  per  second,  it 
will  cause  inconvenience,  leading  probably  to  the  closing  of 
the  air  inlets  and  the  total  destruction  of  the  ventilating 
system.  Therefore  inlets  have  to  be  very  large  so  that 
they  may  deliver  the  volume  of  air  needed  slowly  and 
not  occasion  a  draught,  or  else  they  must  be  far  enough 
away  for  the  air  to  be  well  diffused  before  it  reaches  those 
present.  If  the  accompanying  illustrations  are  examined 
it  will  be  noticed  that  all  round  the  glass  roof  of  the  Salle 
Touzet,  and  at  the  angle  of  the  ceiling  and  the  wall  of  the 
Salle  Nouvelle,  runs  a  band  which  may  be  taken  to  be 
part  of  the  ornamentation.  In  reality  it  is  perforated 
throughout  and  serves  to  admit  air.  Near  the  floor  against 
the  wall,  brass  gratings  will  be  seen :  these  are  the  outlets 
leading  to  a  shaft  that  goes  up  to  the  roof  of  the  casino. 
The  intake  for  air  is  on  the  terrace  and  faces  the  sea.  The 
air  does  not  merely  pass  over  steam  pipes  that  raise  its 
temperature.  It  is  drawn  along  by  a  Blackman  revolving 
fan  to  the  mixing  room.  Here  the  air  is  filtered,  washed 
and  moistened  by  passing  first  through  a  cloth  and  then 
through  a  fine  spray  of  water.  The  fan  can  project  forward 
60,000  cubic  metres  of  air  per  hour,  and  this  is  much 
moi'e  than  is  needed.  Finally,  there  is  a  small  room 
containing  four  ozonisers,  where  10,000  volts  at  high 
tension  can  be  produced.  Each  ozoniser  can  give  half- 
a-milligramme  of  ozone  per  square  metre  (about  35  cubic 
feet)  to  10,000  cubic  metres  per  hour.  After  this  the  air 
goes  to  a  heating-room.  Unfortunately  a  great  mistake 
has  been  made.  The  ventilating  engineer  does  not  seem 
to  have  realised  the  difference  between  the  JMonte  Carlo 
climate  and  that  of  more  northern  latitudes.  He  declared 






that  when  it  was  freezing  outside  the  temperature  would 
be  more  than  50°  Fahr.  inside ;  but  it  does  not  freeze 
outside,  and  the  result  is  that  the  temperature  runs  up 
to  from  G4°  to  74°  inside.  Visitors  are  too  warm,  and 
complain  that  there  is  no  ventilation.  There  is,  on  the 
contrary,  ample  ventilation.  The  passage,  diffusion  and 
ozonisation  of  the  air  is  perfectly  accomplished,  but  there 
is  overheating.  The  heat  radiators  should  be  convertible 
into  refrigerators.  This  will  increase  the  cost  considerably, 
but  it  will  have  to  be  done  sooner  or  later ;  and  the  other 
parts  of  the  casino  will  also  have  to  be  ventilated. 

The  new  and  last  built  hall  or  gaming-room  is 
decorated  in  Empire  style  ;  indeed  it  is  sometimes  called 
la  Salle  Empire.  Consequently  the  colours  used  are  mainly 
green  and  gold.  There  is  something  severe,  majestic  and  im- 
pressively handsome  in  these  decorations.  Designs  in  brass 
on  a  green  wall  have  a  very  artistic  effect,  rich  and  durable. 
The  ceiling  is  lofty,  white  predominating,  except  where 
paintings  represent  the  four  principal  divisions  of  the  day. 
There  are  fine  lustres  and  ground-glass  openings  in  the 
ceiling  that  give  a  soft  light  in  the  daytime.  With  its 
scientific  ventilation,  its  lofty  dimensions  and  artistic 
decorations,  this,  the  last  addition  to  the  casino,  is  one  of 
the  most  beautiful  rooms  ever  built. 

Three  reproductions  from  photographs  will  give  some 
idea  of  the  new  and  private  part  of  the  casino,  to  which 
only  subscribers  are  admitted.  The  outside  view  shows 
how  this  addition  has  been  built  on  sloping  ground,  so 
that  there  is  a  basement  containing  the  new  small 
concert  -  room.  The  two  other  photographs  show  the 
interiors  of  the  Salle  Touzet  and  the  Nouvelle  Salle  or 
Salle  Empire.  The  chronological  map  indicates  that  a 
slight  widening  was  effected  in  1906  by  the  building  of 
a  gallery  on  the  northern  side,  where  a  cafe  and  a  lounge 
afford  the  players  means  of  obtaining  light  refreshments 
without  having  to  go  outside. 

In  the  additions  of  late  years  a  new  method  of  pro- 
cedure has  been  adopted.  The  Benazet  and  Francois  Blanc 


traditions  reached  their  apogee  with  the  Garnier  Theatre. 
Then  nothing  was  spared.  Money  was  no  object.  The 
maximum  of  talent  and  of  pubhcity  alone  was  desired ; 
these  secured,  the  money  Avould  come  of  its  own  accord. 
A  little  more  or  a  little  less  perhaps — what  did  it  matter  ? 
There  would  always  be  more  than  enough.  It  will  be 
easily  understood  with  what  eagerness  artists  especially 
sought  to  serve  such  masters.  The  curse  of  all  art  is  the 
oft-repeated  injunction  that  the  M^ork  must  be  done 
cheaply ;  Garnier,  however,  was  alloAved  to  employ  the 
finest  artists,  the  most  skilful  workmen,  and  to  do 
everything  in  the  best  style.  For  Garnier  everything  was 
made  in  Paris.  When,  however,  M.  Schmit  began  to 
build,  the  iron  rafters,  for  instance,  were  brought  to 
Monaco  in  their  crude  state  to  be  prepared  and  finished 
on  the  spot.  M.  Touzet  took  more  than  six  months  to 
build  his  part  of  the  casino,  because  he  had  neither  the 
resources  nor  the  money  given  to  Garniei".  All  was  done 
much  more  cheaply.  Efficient  artists  were  employed,  but 
no  celebrities ;  there  was  no  Garnier  to  commission 
Clairin  for  the  paintings.  The  best  known  of  the  new 
school  of  artists  recently  engaged  is  M.  Galleli.  Though 
more  lofty,  the  Garnier  Theatre  occupies  much  less 
ground  than  the  structures  built  since  that  time — that  is, 
since  1878.  But  the  recent  buildings  have  caused  no 
sensation.  They  are  beautiful,  they  answer  their  purpose  ; 
but  they  have  not  opened  the  floodgates  of  controversy, 
they  have  not  advertised  the  casino,  they  had  not  the 
genius  of  a  Francois  Blanc  behind  them. 

There  is  a  phase  of  recent  expansion  that  redeems 
the  casino  administration  to  some  extent  from  the  ridicule 
the  title  of  their  company  did  not  fail  to  evoke.  With 
amusing  persistence  they  would  insist  on  calling  them- 
selves the  society  for  sea-baths — Socicte  anonyme  des 
Bains  de  Mcr  et  du  Cercle  des  Etrcuigas.  It  sounded  so 
very  innocent,  though  sea-baths  might  have  been 
obtained  without  the  tremendous  business  of  forming  a 
limited  financial  company,  which  is  implied  by  the  French 



words  Societe  anonyme.  But  the  extraordinary  part  of 
this  big  business  is  that  in  spite  of  the  huge  capital  readily 
subscribed  the  joint-stock  company  never  after  all  managed 
to  organise  any  sea-baths.  There  is  a  long,  low  building 
that  skirts  the  extreme  south-west  corner  of  the  port,  and 
here  there  used  to  be  some  baths  called  les  Thermes 
Valentia,  for  which  the  casino  was  responsible.  But  instead 
of  bathing  in  the  sea,  the  very  few  people  who  went  there 
had  to  bathe  in  the  port.  Fourteen  years  ago,  before  the 
Shone  ejectors  were  installed  in  this  very  corner,  the 
sewage  of  the  Condamine  flowed  into  the  port.  The  iron 
pipes  which  prolonged  the  sewers  into  the  water  could  be 
seen  close  to  the  spot  roped  off  for  bathers  to  swim  in. 
Now  that  the  sewage,  raised  by  the  Shone  ejectors,  no 
longer  contaminates  the  water,  the  port  improvement 
works  have  brought  a  number  of  workmen  on  the  spot, 
and  there  is  an  increase  in  the  shipping.  Therefore  if 
to-day  we  have  no  sewage  we  have  more  ships ;  and  at 
any  rate  to  bathe  in  a  port  is  not  what  is  generally  under- 
stood by  sea-bathing.  Many  persons  who  persisted  hired 
a  boat  and  rowed  out  to  sea  to  enjoy  a  swim.  Some 
preferred  the  less  heroic  dip  from  the  small  beach  at  the 
Bas-Mcndin.  In  either  case  they  took  their  sea-bath  quite 
independently  of  the  great  company  which  was  floated 
nominally  for  the  purpose  of  providing  the  means  of 
bathing  in  the  sea.  With  all  the  millions  of  money  this 
company  has  possessed  it  has  never  in  the  whole  course  of 
its  triumphant  career,  now  covering  half-a-century,  been 
known  to  give  a  genuine  sea-bath  to  any  person  whatso- 
ever. That  it  has  been  instrumental  in  providing  sea- water 
to  put  in  a  batliing-tub  must  be  admitted,  but  what  is 
understood  by  Bains  dc  Mer  is  bathing  in  the  open  sea 
from  a  beach. 

Though  this  is  just  possible  in  the  Bay  of  Larvotto, 
the  space  is  restricted.  For  various  reasons  sea-bathing  is 
not  popular  in  the  principality.  Besides,  Monaco  is,  in  the 
main,  a  winter  resort  and,  even  on  the  Mediterranean, 
there  are  not  many  people  who  care  for  bathing  in  the 

332  ]\IONACO    AND    MONTE    CARLO 

open  air  during  the  winter.  But  now  the  casino  has 
redeemed  the  promise  the  company's  title  imphes  by 
fav^ouring  at  least  some  sort  of  bathing.  It  has  built  a 
thermal  or  hydropathic  establishment  of  the  highest  class. 
As  if  to  emphasise  the  fact  that  this  is  its  work,  the  baths 
are  on  the  casino  premises,  at  the  extreme  end  of  the 
celebrated  terraces.  Their  position  is  shown  in  the 
illustration  here  given,  and  it  will  be  noted  in  what  a 
handsome  white  stone  building  they  have  been  housed.  It 
would  be  a  mistake,  however,  to  suppose  that  the  building 
has  but  one  storey.  It  has  two  or  three  storeys,  only  instead 
of  rising  up  they  descend  the  side  of  the  cliff  to  the  sea 
below.  This,  however,  causes  a  grave  defect.  Constructed 
as  they  are  against  the  rock,  the  rooms  afford  no 
possibility  of  being  thoroughly  ventilated,  for  in  the 
absence  of  mechanical  processes  no  through  draught  can 
be  obtained.  This  is  all  the  more  serious  for  carbonic  acid 
gas  and  sulphuretted  hydrogen  escape  into  the  atmosphere 
as  the  result  of  the  hydropathic  treatment  of  some  of  the 
patients.  In  all  other  respects  the  baths  are  well  appointed 
and  luxurious.  Outside  there  is  a  fashionable  bar,  where 
strollers  on  the  casino  terraces  may  go  to  drink  any  of 
the  most  celebrated  mineral  waters  ;  these  are  all  stocked 
here  to  gratify  the  cosmopolitan  tastes  of  the  numerous 
visitors.  The  chief  feature  of  the  entrance  hall,  and,  from 
the  point  of  view  of  art,  of  the  whole  building,  is  the 
large  picture  facing  the  door.  This  represents  water,  or 
rather  the  spirits  of  water,  the  undines,  gambolling  among 
the  rocks  and  gliding  down  the  rapids.  It  is  painted  by 
that  artist  of  the  new  school  to  whom  allusion  has  just 
been  made,  M.  Galleli  of  Rome. 

Inside,  under  the  direction  of  Doctor  Albert  Konried, 
Imperial  Councillor,  almost  every  form  of  treatment  can 
be  obtained.  Of  course  there  are  ordinary  fresh-water  and 
sea-water  baths.  There  are  all  sorts  of  Turkish  and  vapour 
baths  ;  massage  under  water,  partial  or  complete  massage  ; 
carbonic  acid,  electric  light,  hydro-electric  baths  ;  treat- 
ment with  electricity  and  X-rays.  The  Zander  or  medico- 



mechanical  methods  are  fully  provided  here.  Skilled 
attendants  are  at  the  disposal  of  the  patients,  and  a 
complete  cure  can  be  carried  out  with  every  com- 
fort and  luxury.  Though  this  is  not  the  promised  sea- 
bathing, which  after  all  is  not  particularly  wanted,  it 
is  a  great  inducement  to  those  who  wish  to  combine 
hydropathic  with  climatic  treatment. 



WE  have  seen  how  rapid  was  the  expansion  and 
how  great  the  success  of  the  casino.  It  now 
becomes  necessary  to  explain  how  this  vast 
enterprise  has  been  conducted  since  its  first  success  was 
assured  by  the  skilful  management  of  ISI.  Francois  Blanc 
and  the  extension  of  the  railway  to  the  principality. 
M.  Fran9ois  Blanc  died  on  the  27th  July  1877,  at  Loueche, 
in  the  Valais,  Switzerland,  where  he  went  for  a  little  rest. 
He  had  then  attained  his  seventy-first  year,  but  his  widow 
was  much  younger.  Madame  Blanc  now  became  the 
principal  shareholder,  and,  having  actively  assisted  her 
husband  in  the  management,  remained  at  the  head  of 
affairs.  We  have  seen  that  it  was  under  her  auspices  that 
the  Garnier  casino  was  built  and  the  best  traditions  of 
casino  management  faithfully  maintained.  Madame  Blanc 
did  not,  however,  long  survive  M.  Francois  Blanc,  but 
died  at  Moutiers,  in  Savoy,  on  the  25th  July  1881.  By 
the  14th  of  December  1882  the  Casino  Company  was 
reconstituted.  The  number  of  shares  was  doubled,  raising 
the  capital  from  £600,000  to  £1,200,000,  divided  into 
60,000  shares  of  £20.  Of  these  the  Blanc  family  held  no 
fewer  than  52,000.  At  the  same  time  M.  Camille  Blanc, 
the  eldest  son  of  M.  Francois  Blanc,  was  appointed  Chief 
Director  of  the  company.  As  the  success  already 
achieved  went  on  increasing  with  giant  strides,  it  was 
felt  that  something  must  be  done  to  prolong  the  con- 
cession. According  to  M.  Charles  Limousin,  who  seems 
to  have  been  especially  well  informed  in  all  that 
concerns    the    principality,   a    meeting    of    shareholders 







THE    NEW  PORT  335 

was  held  on  the  11th  of  January  1898,  and  agreed 
to  terms  which  were  signed  on  tlie  16th  of  January 
by  his  Excellency,  INI.  llitt,  Governor-General  of  the 
principality,  and  by  M.  Camille  Blanc,  representing  the 
casino  shareholders.  According  to  this  agreement  the 
concession  was  confirmed  for  another  term  of  fifty  years, 
dating  this  time  from  the  1st  of  April  1898  to  the  1st  of 
April  1948.  But  the  casino  was  to  contribute  on  a  much 
larger  scale  to  public  purposes.  P^irst  a  sum  of  £400,000 
was  to  be  paid,  and  at  the  expiration  of  the  old  treaty — that 
is,  in  1913— £600,000.  Further,  a  contribution  of  £200,000 
was  to  be  given  towards  the  construction  of  the  harbour 
so  that  there  should  be  every  convenience  for  commercial 
navigation  and  for  pleasure  yachts.  Already  the  quay  to 
tlie  west  of  the  port  is  completed,  with  a  fine  break- 
water and  lighthouse  at  the  end.  Near  the  beginning  of 
the  quay  a  tunnel  has  been  pierced  through  the  rock  of 
Monaco  so  that  trains  can  be  run  close  up  to  the  ship- 
ping. The  new  breakwater  or  jetty,  which  affords  a  pleas- 
ant and  breezy  walk,  is  510  feet  long.  That  on  the  other 
side,  the  casino  side,  will  be  of  the  same  length  ;  it  is  not 
yet  finished,  nor  are  the  quays.  The  latter  are  intended 
for  yachts.  The  space  between  the  two  jetties  for  the 
ships  to  enter  is  330  feet,  and  the  water  at  the  entrance  is 
260  feet  deep.  The  commercial  quay  is  1290  feet  long  and 
100  feet  broad.  The  quay  on  the  other  side  will  be  of  the 
same  width,  but  shorter,  and  in  the  middle  of  it  there  will 
be  a  mole  about  360  feet  long  and  100  feet  wide.  The 
average  width  of  the  port  is  1350  feet,  and  the  wall  of  the 
quay  on  the  commercial  side  descends  22  to  23  feet  below 
the  surface  of  the  water.  It  is  therefore  anticipated  that 
large  ships  will  be  able  to  come  alongside. 

The  casino  has  not  only  to  contribute  to  the  port ;  it 
must  also  give  £24,000  a  year  towards  the  engagement 
of  the  best  singers  for  the  twenty-four  annual  operatic 
performances.  This  is  a  subsidy  of  £1000  for  each  perform- 
ance. There  are  further  charges  for  the  construction  of 
new  roads,  the  upkeep  of  existing  thoroughfares  and  other 


matters  with  wliich  the  comfort  of  the  pubUc  is  intimately 
concerned.  All  these  charges  do  not  prevent  the  steady 
increase  in  the  value  of  the  casino  shares,  now  worth 
about  ten  times  their  original  price. 

While  M.  Camille  Blanc  is  the  Chief  Director  of  the 
financial  company  that  holds  the  purse-strings,  the  casino 
itself  is  governed  by  a  director-general  and  three  directors. 
M.  L.  JNIaubert  is  director  of  what  is  called  "  the  Interior 
Service."  This  comprises  the  games,  the  commissariat  of 
surveillance  or  police,  and  the  employees.  These  functions 
are  so  various,  delicate  and  numerous  that  this  director 
has  to  remain  at  his  post  from  the  early  morning  till  late 
at  night.  What  can  be  the  advantage  in  becoming  the 
director  of  so  prosperous  a  business  and  yet  enjoying  so 
little  leisure  is  beyond  my  understanding.  In  building  up 
a  business,  when  success  is  not  yet  certain,  hard  work,  and 
even  overwork,  may  be  necessary.  But  success  should 
mean  leisure — that  is,  the  joy  of  having  time  to  devote 
to  all  manner  of  things  that  are  not  associated  with 
any  sort  of  sordid,  personal  interest.  In  this  department 
there  are  several  sub-directors  and  general  inspectors  who 
are  the  intermediaries  between  the  directors  and  the 
strangers  who  frequent  the  casino.  These  inspectors  and 
sub-directors  report  every  day  whatever  happens  in  the 

M.  A.  Martiny  is  director  of  what  is  called  the 
Exterior.  He  is  a  civil  engineer,  and  his  duty  is  to  watch 
over  all  the  works  undertaken  or  assisted  by  the  casino  in 
various  parts  of  the  principality.  He  will  have,  for  instance, 
to  discuss  wdth  the  Board  of  Works  Department  of  the 
Government  the  nature  of  the  new  system  of  drainage 
that  must  be  applied  to  the  principality,  and  what  share 
of  this  undertaking  shall  be  borne  by  the  casino.  IM.  J. 
Sereron  is  at  the  head  of  the  Financial  Department,  and 
it  is  hardly  necessary  to  explain  his  functions.  Finally,  last 
but  certainly  not  least,  M.  Frederic  Wicht  is  the  Director- 
General.  He  attends  to  every  department ;  decides  what 
should  be  done  when  any  perplexing  question  arises,  or 













THE    DIRECTORS    OF   THE    CASINO      337 

convokes  the  three  other  directors  to  consult  with  him. 
The  four  directors  together  constitute  the  administrative 
committee.  They  are  more  Hkely  to  meet  when  a  question 
raised  in  one  service  may  possibly  affect  the  other  services  ; 
but,  apart  from  such  formal  gathering,  they  are  in  daily 
communication  with  each  other.  Their  respective  offices 
are  all  in  the  casino  building. 

From  one  point  of  view  the  most  important  position 
at  the  casino  is  held  by  M.  le  Direvteur  des  Jeiuv ;  for 
he  rules  supreme  over  the  gaming-rooms  and  the  gaming- 
tables. His  office  is  just  behind  the  police  or  commis- 
sioners' department,  where  all  have  to  apply  for  admission 
tickets,  by  the  side  of  the  gaming  saloons  and  above 
the  doctor's  room  or  surgery.  A  small,  almost  invisible, 
door  separates  him  from  the  nearest  roulette-table.  At 
his  desk  any  exceptional  noise  arising  in  the  gaming- 
rooms  could  be  heard,  and  it  would  be  only  a  matter 
of  a  few  seconds  before  the  Chief  Director  appeared  to 
decide  what  had  best  be  done.  Nevertheless  any  sound 
other  than  the  clink  of  silver  and  gold,  accompanied  by 
conversations  in  moderate  tones  and  the  usual  announce- 
ments concerning  the  game,  is  rarely  heard.  The  order  and 
discipline  maintained  is  so  perfect  that  it  is  very  seldom 
anyone  ventures  to  make  a  disturbance.  Sometimes,  how- 
ever, a  person  may  be  seized  with  a  violent  attack  of 
hysterical  screaming  or  laughter.  In  such  circumstances 
it  is  convenient  to  have  the  surgery,  to  which  the  patient 
is  swiftly  conveyed,  close  at  hand.  The  director  can  be 
promptly  summoned  if  other  than  medical  advice  is 
needed.  But  it  is  from  the  opposite  side  of  his  office  that 
the  more  numerous  calls  are  made.  Here  file  past  all  day 
long  the  applicants  for  admission,  and  here  is  the  most 
elaborate  system  of  book-keeping  so  that  "  undesirables  " 
may  be  easily  detected  and  summarily  expelled.  On  such 
occasions  protests,  at  times  rather  vociferous,  are  apt  to  be 
made,  and  then  again  the  chief  is  there  ;  out  of  sight  and  out 
of  hearing,  but  within  a  few  feet.  As  all  the  disputes  that 
arise  are  personal  matters,  they  are  delicate  and  difficult 


to  deal  with.  Much  patience,  tact  and  unruffled  courtesy 
are  needed  to  settle  them  in  such  a  manner  as  to  maintain 
the  high  reputation  of  the  establishment. 

The  exclusion  of  visitors  from  the  casino  or  the 
refusal  to  grant  admission  is  a  matter  that  has  always 
given  rise  to  much  controversy.  There  is  no  regular  police 
inside  the  casino,  but  functionaries  called  commissaires  or 
commissioners.  They  are  under  a  legal  oath,  and  have  the 
right  to  arrest  people,  conduct  them  to  the  door  and  hand 
them  over  to  the  i-egular  police  outside.  No  one,  however, 
is  thrown  out  of  the  casino  unless  he  misbehaves  him- 
self. If  it  is  found  that  some  person  has  gained  admission 
who  has  no  business  there,  it  generally  suffices  to  watch 
him  carefully  till  he  leaves  and  then  refuse  to  renew  his 
entrance  ticket  when  he  presents  himself  again.  The  ideal 
principle  governing  admittances  is  that  no  one  should 
enter  who  cannot  well  afford  to  lose  all  the  money  in  his 
pockets.  Short  of  an  inquisition  into  the  private  affairs 
of  every  player  it  is  quite  impossible  to  apply  such  a  rule. 
But  in  any  case  no  one  in  the  neighbourhood  is  allowed 
to  ruin  himself  All  persons  established  in  the  principality, 
even  if  they  belong  to  the  liberal  professions,  such  as 
medical  practitioners,  are  vigorously  excluded  from  the 
gaming-rooms.  Nor  are  any  inhabitants  of  the  surround- 
ing French  Department  of  the  Alpes-Maritimes  admitted 
unless  they  belong  to  a  high-class  club.  It  is  not,  how- 
ever, with  such  as  these  that  difficulties  arise.  Again  all 
holders  of  funds  are  excluded,  however  high  their  position 
may  be.  For  instance,  the  Public  Treasurer  for  the  Alpes- 
]\Iaritimes  is  not  allowed  to  enter  the  gaming-rooms.  Nor 
are  priests  or  officers  in  uniform  admitted  ;  and  officers 
who  do  not  wear  their  uniform,  but  come  from  neighbour- 
ing French  and  Italian  garrisons,  are  also  excluded.  Yet 
all  this  has  been  quietly  accepted. 

The  exclusions  from  the  casino  being  in  a  measure 
based  on  the  agreement  with  the  Government,  they  are 
regularly  reported  to  the  authorities.  At  the  commissariat 
of  the  Government  for   the   surveillance  of  joint-stock 




companies  all  such  details  have  to  be  reported,  together 

with  the  full   receipts  of  these  companies.    Thus   what 

the    casino    receives    and    the    details    concerning    the 

people  it  excludes  are  as  well  known  to  the  Government 

as  to  the  directors  at  the   casino.   This   guarantees   the 

public  against  all  limited  companies  and  such  enterprises. 

With  regard  to  expulsions,    each    report    made  covers  a 

period  of  fifteen  days,  and  in  the  season  some  twenty-five 

'  to  thirty-five  expulsions  are  made  in  a  fortnight.  As  there 

are  so  few  visitors,  comparatively  speaking,  in  the  summer 

months,  it  is  less  easy  for  undesirables  to  escape  detection. 

Consequently,  proportionately  speaking,  a  larger  number 

are  excluded.  Thus  in  fifteen  days  of  June  1911  no  fewer 

than  fourteen  persons  were  excluded,  or  nearly  half  the 

number  usually  expelled  during  the  most  crowded  winter 

months.    One   among    tliem    was    a   man    of  very  good 

appearance,    who    could    speak    several    languages.    He 

generally  staked  two  louis  at  a  time,  and  with  imaccount- 

able  foolishness  always  played  at  the  same  table.  Therefore 

when  an  exceptional  mnnber  of  bad  louis  was  found  at 

this  table  and  not  at  the  other  tables  it  was  easy  to  watch 

the  players.  The  individual  in  question  kept  counterfeit 

louis  in  his  ticket  pocket  and  good  ones  in  his  waistcoat 

pocket.   He  staked  two  at  a  time  so  as  to  hide  the  bad 

under  the  good.  \Vhen  questioned,  he  of  course  displayed 

the  good  money,  but  the  coDuiiissairc  who  arrested  him 

insisted  on  looking  into  the  other  pocket.   Though  the 

player  liad  given  a  false  name,  his  real  name  and  history 

were  ascertained  through  the  anthropometric  bureau. 

Looking  over  lists  of  persons  excluded  we  find  that 
the  most  frequent  cause  assigned  for  such  procedure  is  "  ini 
pn.s  (le  /iioi/cits,"  or  ''  cpuration."  A  considerable  number  of 
persons  loiter  about  in  tlie  rooms,  and  it  is  difficult  to  say 
for  what  purpose.  They  do  not  play ;  they  must  have 
satisfied  their  curiosity  as  mere  visitors.  It  becomes 
evident  that  they  have  not  the  means  to  play,  and  in  the 
crowded  condition  of  the  rooms  it  is  necessary  to  make  a 
clearance.  Persons  have  been  excluded  for  threatening  to 


commit  suicide  or  for  getting  too  excited  and  making  a 
noise.  Others  are  sent  away  because  they  have  given  a 
false  name.  Others  again  are  reported  by  the  poHce  as 
suspicious  characters  or  because  they  have  been  expelled 
from  a  club.  The  Paris  police  especially  send  a  full  de- 
scription of  rogues  of  various  kinds.  Then  if  a  person 
claims  a  stake  which  is  not  his  he  will  be  watched,  and  if 
this  happens  often  he  is  refused  further  admission  to  the 
casino.  One  man  was  excluded  for  picking  up  from  the 
floor  and  keeping  a  louis  which  obviously  did  not  belong 
to  him  ;  another  because  he  frequented  the  company  of 
a  band  of  German  swindlers ;  yet  another  because  he 
had  been  formerly  convicted  for  theft.  One  individual  was 
accused  of  possessing  a  cardboard  louis,  which  seems 
innocent  enough,  for  surely  it  would  be  impossible  to  play 
with  a  piece  of  cardboard,  whatever  its  shape  and  colour. 
Another  had  seventeen  coins  bearing  the  head  of  Ferdinand 
II.  ;  they  were  all  perfectly  good  and  sound,  but  such 
coins  are  no  longer  current.  Suspicion  was  excited  in  his 
case  because  he  persisted  in  speaking  English  but  with  a 
German  accent. 

"  Rrpresentant  de  Commerce  " — that  is  to  say,  "  com- 
mercial traveller  "  or  agent — is  frequently  inscribed  in  the 
reports  as  the  reason  for  refusing  to  renew  an  admission 
card.  The  administration  fears  thatpersons  who  have  money 
which  does  not  belong  to  them  may  attempt  to  win  back 
their  own  losses  with  it.  This  anxiety  about  those  who  may 
play  with  their  employers'  money  adds  a  shade  of  proba- 
bility to  the  incredible  but  amusing  anecdote  told  con- 
cerning the  captain  of  a  German  ironclad  anchored  at 
V-^illefranche.  This  officer,  so  the  story  goes,  lost  not  only 
his  money  but  also  the  money  with  which  he  was  to  pay 
his  crew.  He  thereupon  simply  but  firmly  demanded  of 
the  directors  that  they  should  give  it  back.  If  not,  he  would 
bring  his  ship  round  and  bombard  the  casino.  As  an 
officer  and  a  gentleman,  he  could  not  survive  the  exposure 
which  was  sure  to  follow  if  the  money  were  not  returned  ; 
but  to  save  others  from  the  same  fate  he  might  just  as 


well  blow  up  the  casino  first.  There  would  be  time  enough 
afterwards  for  him  to  blow  out  his  own  brains. 

In  the  face  of  the  Ciipenick  imposture,  which  is  no 
legend  but  a  true  story,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  such  a 
command,  howev^er  preposterous,  would  be  strictly  obeyed. 
It  will  not  be  forgotten  that  at  Ciipenick  an  individual 
dressed  himself  as  a  captain  and  ordered  some  soldiers  to 
arrest  the  mayor  and  the  members  of  the  municipality  of 
that  little  town.  They  were  to  hand  over  to  him  tlie  muni- 
cipal cash-box,  which,  together  with  the  accounts,  he  would 
examine  while  they  took  their  prisoners  to  Berlin.  \A'^ith 
true  military  discipline,  all  these  orders  were  faithfully 
carried  out,  and  it  was  not  until  the  soldiers  reached  Berlin 
with  their  prisoners  that  the  trick  was  discovered.  But 
the  most  refreshing  part  of  the  adventure  was  the  intense 
delight  witli  which  it  M'as  received  by  the  entire  German 
people,  and  the  popularity  the  "  Captain  of  Ciipenick  "  at 
once  acquired.  It  will  be  remembered  that  among  many 
other  marks  of  sympathy  showered  upon  him,  several 
ladies  wrote  letters  offering  to  marry  the  popular  impostor 
as  soon  as  he  was  liberated  from  prison.  The  German 
people  converted  this  notorious  case  into  a  national 
manifestation  against  the  absurdity  of  the  unreasoning 
discipline  imposed  by  militarism.  But  with  such  unreason- 
ing discipline  on  board  the  many  ironclads  that  anchor 
at  V^illefranche,  the  directors  of  the  casino  might  well 
feel  inclined  to  hesitate  before  admitting  officers  to  the 

Originally,  in  the  time  of  Charles  III.,  the  idea  was 
to  maintain  what  might  be  termed  a  sort  of  buffer  state 
between  the  Government  and  the  casino.  There  were 
no  direct  personal  dealings  between  the  prince  and  the 
casino  directors.  Now  this  intermediary  office  has 
developed  into  something  that  is  undefined  but  much 
more  useful.  It  is  a  sort  of  Board  of  Trade  defending 
public  interests  against  the  encroachments  of  private 
companies.  Thus,  to  affirm  the  principle  of  government 
control,   its   representative   has   an   office  at   the   casino. 


He  does  not  intei'fere  with  internal  affairs  or  with 
the  management,  but  he  overlooks  all  the  official  docu- 
ments and  sees  that  efficient  measures  are  taken  against 
fire,  and  that  all  the  laws,  rules  and  ordinances  of  the 
principality  are  carried  out.  For  such  a  post  a  person  of 
unimpeachable  honour  and  high  position  is  necessary.  In 
his  hands  are  centred  the  accounts  of  all  the  companies ; 
he  can  check  any  illicit  proceeding,  and  he  has  to  know 
down  to  the  last  centime  all  the  receipts  made  by  the 

To  return,  however,  to  the  question  of  expulsions 
from  the  casino :  as  a  proof  of  the  admirable  manner  in 
which  the  books  are  kept  and  of  the  wonderful  memory 
of  some  of  the  officials,  an  interesting  incident  may  be 
mentioned  which  occurred  in  the  presence  of  this  high 
functionary.  One  of  the  reasons  frequently  given  for 
refusing  to  issue  or  to  renew  a  card  of  admission  is  that 
the  applicant  is  recognised  as  having  on  some  occasion, 
perhaps  many  years  ago,  applied  for  what  is  popularly 
called  the  viatiquc  or  viaticum — that  is,  a  loan  of  money 
for  travelling  expenses  on  leaving  Monte  Carlo.  Those 
who  play  with  large  stakes  are  watched  so  that  they  may 
be  known,  and  this  assistance  is  readily  given,  should  they 
ask  for  it.  Before  the  war  of  1870  a  young  English 
medical  student  went  to  INIonte  Carlo,  and  lost  nearly  all 
his  fortune,  about  £1000.  He  was  obliged  to  apply  for  the 
viatiquc  to  enable  him  to  reach  home.  Subsequently  he 
went  to  Australia,  and  made  a  large  fortune.  Four  or  five 
years  ago  he  returned  to  Europe  and  went  to  JNIonte 
Carlo.  He  had  quite  forgotten  the  little  loan  he  had  never 
refunded.  Not  so  M.  Clement,  one  of  the  sub-directors  of 
the  games.  Though  nearly  forty  years  had  elapsed  he 
recognised  the  erstwhile  medical  student.  The  Govern- 
ment representative,  present  at  the  time,  assures  me  that 
the  receipt  signed  in  1870  was  found  in  less  than  ten 
minutes.  Of  course  the  wealthy  Australian  did  not  demur 
for  a  moment  to  repaying  the  money  he  owed,  but,  on  the 
contrary,  was  delighted  at  being  found  out  so  quickly,  and 

WTIAT    THE    CASINO    WINS  343 

overwhelmed  with  admiration  for  the  wonderful  organisa- 
tion of  the  casino  police.  One  or  two  of  the  employees 
have  been  forty-five  years  in  the  service,  and  several 
thirty-five  years,  ^'^ery  little  escapes  notice,  and  those  who 
go  to  the  principality  are  better  known  and  better  watched 
than  if  they  were  in  any  other  part  of  the  world. 

Of  course  the  Government  control  is  very  useful  in 
collecting  the  necessary  materials  for  the  drawing  up 
of  official  statistics.  But  for  such  a  control,  the  figures 
given  concerning  the  various  enterprises  carried  out  in  the 
principality  and  the  nationality  of  the  shareholders  would 
be  difficult  to  obtain.  Naturally  the  greatest  interest  is  felt 
in  the  prosperity  of  the  casino,  and  the  figures  generally 
tell  of  increased  success.  Thus  last  year  the  gross  receipts 
exceeded  39,000,000  francs  but  did  not  quite  reach  the 
round  figure  of  40,000,000,  or  £l,GOO,000.  But  this 
year — that  is,  the  administrative  year  ending  the  31st  of 
March  1912 — the  receipts  amount  to  44,000,000  francs 
(£1,760,000).  Of  this  sum,  40,500,000  francs  (£1,620,000) 
comes  from  the  gaming-tables,  and  the  rest  from  the 
theatre,  the  gas,  the  Condamine  laundry,  which  still 
belong  to  the  casino,  with  £24,000  paid  for  the  privilege 
of  frequenting  the  reserved  or  private  part  of  the  casino. 
Though  these  are  enormous  receipts  it  must  not  be 
imagined  that  the  bank,  as  it  is  called  when  talking  of 
roulette  or  trente-et-quarante,  wins  eveiy  day.  We  have 
seen  that  in  a  year  it  has  won  £1,620,000  more  than  it 
has  lost,  but  it  loses  sometimes.  To  lose  £4000  in  a  day 
is  quite  a  common  experience.  The  highest  loss  the  bank — 
that  is,  the  casino — has  ever  experienced  in  one  day  is,  in 
round  figures,  £16,000.  But  it  is  on  record  that  in  the  course 
of  two  or  three  especially  unlucky  days  the  casino  lost 
£32,000.  On  the  other  hand,  the  zero  helping,  the  bank 
usually  wins,  and  when  especially  fortunate  its  winnings 
are  larger  than  those  of  the  public.  While  the  highest 
record  credits  the  public  with  having  won  in  a  single  day 
£16,000,  there  exists  in  the  history  of  the  casino  the  record 
of  a  day  when  it  is  credited  in  the  Government  accounts 


with  having  won  £36,000.  That  is  the  largest  profit 
reaUsed  in  one  day  since  the  casino  has  been  in  existence. 
Thus  does  the  Government  control  the  casino,  taking 
very  great  care  to  know  all  that  goes  on,  so  that  these 
huge  receipts  shall  not  be  made  without  giving  the  public 
some  share  in  them. 



TO  superintend  and  manage  all  the  tables,  and  con- 
trol the  crowds  that  gather  round  them,  is  a  gigantic 
undertaking.  Few  persons  realise  the  amount  of  ad- 
ministrative and  organising  skill  that  is  necessary.  It  is  true 
that  the  enormous  staff  required  was  gradually  recruited. 
The  casino  has  grown  rapidly,  but  step  by  step,  so  that 
more  and  more  experience  was  acquired  as  the  establish- 
ment increased  in  size.  To-day,  however,  to  manage  the 
tables  and  to  watch,  many  hundred  persons  are  employed. 
The  exact  figure  in  the  height  of  the  season  of  1910-1911 
was  530,  and  during  1911-1912  there  were  a  few  less — 
namely,  525.  Some  of  these  employees  are  only  engaged 
for  four  months,  others  for  seven  months,  and  the  rest  all 
the  year  round.  There  are  many  more  applicants  for  these 
posts  than  there  are  vacancies.  The  position  has  the 
advantage  of  regular  employment  with  the  prospect  of 
a  pension.  As  far  as  possible,  the  preference  is  given  to 
those  who  are  already  employed  by  the  casino  in  some 
other  capacity.  This  affords  some  sort  of  guarantee  ;  they 
are  not  strangers.  Indeed  the  self-restraint  and  inherent 
lionesty  required  is  such,  that  perhaps  one  of  the  most 
marvellous  things  in  connection  with  the  casino  is  the 
very  small  number  of  robberies  committed.  Here  we 
have  several  hundred  men  doing  work  which  requires 
constant,  concentrated  attention,  though  it  is  not  difficult. 
Any  pei'son  of  ordinary  intelligence  could  learn  what  has 
to  be  done  in  a  day,  if  not  in  a  few  hours ;  yet  it  must 
require  a  good  many  weeks  to  get  into  the  habit  of  doing 
this  promptly,  and  without  error.  Consequently  a  school 



is  occasionally  held.  Formerly  it  met  in  one  of  the  spare 
rooms  giv^ing  on  to  the  gallery  that  surrounds  the  atrium, 
but  these  are  now  all  required  for  the  ever-increasing  staff 
of  the  administration.  In  1909  and  1910  there  was  no 
school,  and  previously  it  was  held  at  the  Palais  des  Beaux 

On  one  occasion,  I  was  allowed  to  attend.  The  chef  de 
pa?-tie,  anxious  to  do  the  honours  of  the  table,  presented 
me  with  a  cap  full  of  money.  There  were  real  five-franc 
pieces,  large  and  small  rouleaux  representing  500  francs 
and  1000  francs  in  gold  rolled  up  in  paper,  though  in 
reality  it  was  only  little  round  pieces  of  wood  that  were 
thus  carefully  packed.  Finally  there  was  a  bountiful 
provision  of  bank-notes  made  of  blue  paper  cut  to  the 
size  of  100-franc,  .500-franc,  and  1000-franc  notes.  Being 
thus  furnished  with  ample  funds  I  was  invited  to  play. 
The  pupils  raked  up  the  money  1  lost,  paid  me  what  I 
won;  and  as,  in  the  circumstances,  there  was  no  virtue 
in  restraint  or  moderation,  I  played  most  wildly.  Unfor- 
tunately, it  never  occurred  to  me  to  count  how  much 
money  I  had  on  starting.  Though  my  cap  seemed  as  full 
when  I  had  finished  as  when  I  began,  still  the  question 
of  space  is  not  of  much  importance  where  bank-notes  are 
concerned,  so  that  to  this  day  I  have  not  the  slightest 
idea  whether,  on  the  whole,  I  won  or  lost.  One  detail 
I  vividly  remember.  At  a  given  moment  1  tried  what  had 
been  described  as  the  Labouchere  system,  inquiring 
whether  the  croupiers  and  their  pupils  present  had  ever 
heard  of  it.  They  were  not  only  unacquainted  with  the 
system,  but  knew  nothing  about  Mr  Labouchere.  Having 
first  expatiated  on  the  renown  and  the  talents  of  Mr 
I^abouchere,  I  proceeded  to  play  his  system;  but  my 
eloquence  was  wasted,  for  when  it  was  seen  that  I  was 
losing  all  the  time,  I  fear  those  present  had  but  a  poor 
opinion  of  Mr  Labouchere  and  all  his  works.  The  hearty 
laugh  of  the  chef  de  partie  haunts  me  still,  and  makes 
me  feel  that  I  made  but  a  sorry  show  and  had  better  have 
said  nothing  about  the  talents  of  the  late  editor  of  Truth. 


Of  course  there  were  many  persons  having  a  sham 
game  of  roulette  beside  myself,  otherwise  it  would  not 
have  been  a  sufficient  test  for  the  pupils.  To  constitute  an 
effective  school  it  is  necessary  to  have  a  real  table  and  a 
large  crowd  of  players.  One  or  two  chefs  dc  partie  act  as 
professors,  and  in  a  short  time  the  candidate  has  acquired 
sufficient  skill  and  knowledge.  The  slight  special  technical 
instruction  and  training  necessary  must  be  given  by  the 
casino  authorities  themselves.  The  candidate,  as  he 
appears  before  them,  is  in  the  position  of  an  unskilled 
worker.  On  the  other  hand  he  must  be  thoroughly  trust- 
worthy, well  behaved,  obliging  and  courteous,  tidy,  clean 
in  his  habits,  simply  but  well  dressed.  Such  qualifications 
are  those  of  the  poor  clerk,  and  these  worthy  persons  are 
"a  drug  on  the  market."  Therefore  the  applicants  for 
employment  in  the  casino  gaming-rooms  are  not  in  a 
position  to  stand  out  for  a  higher  salary.  The  fact  also 
that  they  are  an  international  body,  recruited  from  all 
parts  of  Europe,  makes  it  impossible  for  them  to  check 
or  control  the  supply  of  their  particular  form  of  labour. 
On  the  contrary,  their  employment  is  greatly  sought 
after,  and  to  be  in  the  service  of  the  casino  is  con- 
sidered a  very  enviable  privilege. 

So  far  as  the  gaming-rooms  are  concerned,  the  position 
of  the  employee  is  in  one  respect  no  longer  so  advan- 
tageous. Of  late  the  hours  of  labour  have  been  increased. 
Formerly  the  hours  of  attendance  at  the  casino  were 
from  noon  to  eleven  at  night,  and  the  croupiers  were  on 
duty  one  day  five  hours,  the  next  six  hours  and  so  on 
alternately.  Now  the  tables  are  worked  from  ten  in  the 
morning  till  midnight,  and  the  employees  have  to  attend 
seven  hours  every  day,  divided  into  two  shifts,  one  of 
three  and  the  other  of  four  hours.  At  a  private  club,  the 
croupiers  receive  tips  from  the  members  who  win,  and 
this  constitutes  quite  a  large  income.  Formerly  at  Monte 
Carlo  the  authorities  closed  their  eyes  when  gratuities  were 
given  to  the  croupiers,  but  subsequently  this  was  forbidden. 
No  croupier  was  allowed  to  accept  anything  whatsoever 


from  the  players ;  but  to-day  gifts  are  permitted,  though 
under  certain  rather  severe  conditions.  First  and  foremost, 
players  must  not  give  anything  to  individuals.  The 
assistant  or  sub-chief  of  the  table  is  alone  allowed  to  take 
a  donation,  and  this  he  does  in  a  collective  sense — that  is, 
for  all  those  who  are  employed  at  the  table.  Any  employee 
who  by  word,  sign  or  insinuation  seems  to  ask  for  a  gift 
would  be  breaking  the  rules  and  exposing  himself  to  a 
reprimand,  perhaps  a  penalty.  The  casino  administration 
has  always  been  anxious  to  prevent  social  intercourse 
between  croupiers  and  the  players.  Invitations  to  meals 
or  any  sort  of  hospitality  offered  to  a  croupier  has  always 
been  discouraged,  and  is  sanctioned  no  more  to-day  than 
in  the  past.  Persons  might  try  and  make  friends  with 
croupiers  in  order  to  induce  them  to  co-operate  in  some 
conspiracy  to  rob  the  bank.  Perfectly  honest,  honourable 
kindness  might  also  have  a  disastrous  effect.  The  croupiers 
cannot  aspire  to  very  high  salaries.  Their  occupation  gives 
promise  of  but  a  modest  and  unambitious  existence.  If, 
however,  they  were  occasionally  invited  by  rich  visitors  to 
luxurious  hotels  or  villas  they  might  become  unsettled 
and  dissatisfied  with  their  lot  in  life,  and  thus  tempted  to 
some  dishonest  act.  It  is  considered  necessary  to  keep  a 
sharp  watch  not  alone  at  the  tables  but  generally.  In  the 
rooms,  those  who  watch,  watch  everybody  and  everything, 
not  only  the  croupiers.  The  administration  does  not 
suspect  them,  and  does  not  believe  they  are  at  all  likely  to 
steal  anything.  It  is  the  outsiders  who  try  to  steal.  People 
come  from  all  parts  of  the  world  in  the  hope  of  finding 
an  opportunity  of  stealing.  In  spite  of  the  elaborate 
precautions  taken,  some  of  these  rogues  sometimes  manage 
to  gain  admission.  But  if  a  croupier  did  steal,  the  chances 
are  that  he  would  not  be  caught  in  the  act.  He  is  more 
likely  to  betray  himself  afterwards  by  his  manner  of  living 
or  by  indulging  in  unwonted  pleasures. 

IJndoubtedly  there  are  not  many  pleasures  in  store  for 
the  croupier,  and  his  life  at  the  wheel  and  at  the  tables, 
watching  the  players  and  ladling  out  the  money,  must 


become  terribly  monotonous.  If  he  is  forbidden  to  make 
friends  with  any  of  the  players,  and  compelled  to  content 
himself  with  the  society  of  fellow-employees,  his  lot  is  not 
likely  to  be  a  happy  one.  In  this  respect  it  does  appear  to 
me  that  the  two  administrations  of  the  principality,  the 
Government  at  JNIonaco  and  the  casino  at  JNIonte  Carlo, 
have  been  very  neglectful.  They  do  not  seem  to  have 
considered  that  those  whom  they  employ  require  some 
pleasure  and  some  joy  in  life.  This  is  barely  to  be  obtained 
with  the  scant  wages  they  earn,  unless  by  some  form  of 
organit,ation  and  collective  action.  To  play  a  game  of 
cards  or  dominoes  at  a  modest  cafe  is  not  a  very  festive 
diversion,  and  costs  a  good  deal.  In  England  we  should 
probably  have  a  club,  a  workmen's  club,  at  a  subscription 
of  threepence  a  week,  which  would  be  cheaper  than  cafes, 
though  not  conducive  to  good  manners  or  sobriety.  There 
would  also  be  better  clubs  for  those  who  could  afford  to 
pay  more.  Then  the  various  sports  provide  distraction,  but 
at  Monaco  the  sports  are  organised  for  the  strangers,  for 
the  visitors,  rarely  for  the  inhabitants. 

The  one  diversion  is  the  band,  and  it  is  a  good  band, 
which  plays  two  or  three  times  a  week.  But  the  Place 
d'Armes  is  small,  one  of  the  few  damp  spots  in  the 
principality,  situated  in  a  sort  of  a  canyon  formed  by  tall 
houses  on  one  side  and  the  rock  of  INIonaco  on  the  other. 
It  is  so  placed  as  to  afford  a  passage  for  the  coldest  wind 
that  ever  blows  in  these  favoured  resorts.  The  climate, 
however,  is  so  good  that  even  in  this  badly  selected  spot 
it  is  generally  very  enjoyable  to  walk  round  the  band- 
stand, listening  to  the  music.  Those  who  say  that  Monaco 
is  a  sink  of  iniquity  where  every  vice  flourishes  should  go 
and  see  the  people  listening  to  the  music.  It  has  been  a 
great  pleasiu'e  to  me  to  attend  these  performances,  and  I 
have  always  been  grieved  to  find  that  no  strangers  were 
present.  I'he  excellent  behaviour  of  the  people,  the 
absence  of  any  horseplay,  the  classical  beauty  of  some  of 
the  women,  enhanced  by  their  modest  behaviour  and  very 
simple   dress,  would   set   a   wholesome  example   to   the 


Monte  Carlo  crowd.  Perhaps  that  is  why  so  few  of  the 
strangers  at  Monte  Carlo  ever  take  the  ti'ouble  to  see  how 
the  people  of  the  principality  live.  But  too  much  has  been 
done  for  these  strangers,  and  not  nearly  enough  for  the 
Monegasques,  or  those  who  have  become  de  facto  Mone- 
gasques  by  electing  to  earn  their  living  in  the  principality. 
Among  these  the  employees  of  the  casino  represent  the 
majority.  As  the  population  is  close  upon  20,000,  count- 
ing women  and  children,  and  the  casino  employs  at  least 
3000,  who  are  nearly  all  adult  males,  it  will  be  seen  that 
not  many  breadwinners  remain  to  work  for  other  enter- 
prises. Therefore  the  provision  of  means  of  enjoyment, 
which,  I  plead,  should  be  largely  increased,  would  in  the 
main  benefit  the  employees  of  the  casino  and  their 

First,  there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  theatre  for  the  princi- 
pality. The  people  cannot  go  to  the  casino  theatre ; 
though  there  is  no  reason  why  a  popular  representation 
should  not  occasionally  be  given  at  the  casino.  On  the 
14th  of  July,  the  National  Fete  Day — the  "  Independence 
Day  "  of  France,  for  it  is  the  anniversary  of  the  downfall 
of  the  Bastille — the  Grand  Opera  and  all  the  theatres  are 
thrown  open  to  the  public  free.  Formerly,  on  the  prince's 
birthday,  the  gaming  saloons  were  open  to  everyone, 
which  was  far  from  being  the  same  thing.  But  it  was  not 
merely  the  people  of  the  principality  who  profited  by  this 
free  admission.  Great  crowds  arrived  from  Nice,  Menton 
and  other  places  where  the  inhabitants  are  strictly  for- 
bidden to  enter  the  gaming-rooms.  The  chance,  a  unique 
chance  in  the  course  of  the  whole  year,  of  a  nibble  at 
forbidden  fruit  brought  ever-increasing  numbers  of  curious 
folks,  so  that  the  crowd  became  unmanageable.  Therefore 
the  casino  was  closed  earlier  on  the  prince's  birthday,  and 
then  earlier  still,  till  at  last  it  was  closed  altogether.  This 
is  better,  for  now  there  is  at  least  one  day  of  complete 
rest  in  the  year.  What  was  possible  twenty  years  ago  is 
out  of  the  question  to-day.  Naturally,  the  crowds  of 
people  were  very  different  from  the  ordinary  players,  and 

THE    PEOPLE    AND    THE    BAND  351 

some  of  them  were  rather  rough  and  vulgar.  On  the  other 
hand,  very  few  of  them  played  ;  their  chief  motive  in 
coming  was  mere  curiosity.  To  "  see  the  beasts  feed " 
was  the  main  idea.  With  what  sort  of  amusement  did 
these  rich  foreigners  feed  themselves  ?  Perhaps  it  is  as 
well  that  the  wealth-producers  should  no  longer  be 
allowed  to  see,  be  it  only  on  the  prince's  birthday,  how 
the  wealth-consumers  scatter  the  fruits  of  industry. 

There  is  a  project  for  enlarging  the  quay  that  faces  the 
port  at  the  Condamine.  The  small  beach  and  the  shallow 
water  might  be  built  over  so  as  to  form  a  broad  open 
promenade,  much  better  sheltered  than  the  Place  d'Armes, 
with  a  splendid  view  of  Monaco  on  one  side,  jMonte  Carlo 
on  the  other,  the  port  and  the  sea  in  front.  This  situation 
is  within  easy  access  of  the  industrial  population  of  the 
principality,  and  here  they  could  gather  at  moments  of 
leisure.  Room  might  also  be  found  here  for  a  theatre,  and 
there  certainly  would  be  plenty  of  space  for  marionettes 
or  Punch  and  Judy  shows  on  holidays  for  the  children. 
But  ijF  the  casino  has  been  built  at  Monte  Carlo  without 
adding  much  to  the  joys  and  pleasures  of  the  population, 
what  can  be  said  of  tlie  other  Imge  structui'C,  the  Ocean- 
ographic  Museum  at  Monaco  ?  In  Paris  some  5000  persons 
have  asked  to  hear  the  popular  lectures  given  at  the 
Oceanographic  Institute.  These  are  not  lectures  for 
students,  but  for  workmen,  tradesmen,  for  the  people  at 
large.  What  has  been  done  at  Monaco  for  tlie  same  class 
of  people — -the  employees  of  the  casino  and  the  trades 
and  industries  of  the  principality  ?  \Vhat  would  happen, 
for  instance,  to  a  grocer's  assistant  who  had  some  inkling 
that  many  of  the  things  he  sold  came  from  over  the  seas ; 
or,  perhaps,  to  a  labourer  employed  in  the  casino  gardens 
who  vaguely  knew  that  the  sea  had  also  its  gardens  and 
its  vegetation  ?  I^et  us  suppose  that  after  seeing  the  high 
and  mighty  and  the  ambassadors  of  great  nations  take 
part  in  the  inauguration  of  the  Oceanographic  Museum, 
one  of  these  humble  individuals  determined  to  go  and 
inaugurate  the  museum  on  his  own  account.  What  would 


happen  ?  His  first  experience  would  be  that  of  having 
to  pay  a  franc  for  entrance.  This  sum  deducted  from  his 
slender  wages  would  be  a  consideration.  Once  inside, 
what  help  would  he  find,  when  help  is  most  needed,  just  at 
the  dawn  of  intellectual  life,  when  the  hesitating  spirit  does 
not  know  whether  it  is  worth  while  to  make  an  effort,  or 
whether  it  is  not  better  to  be  content  with  mere  stagnant 
existence  ?  Obviously,  popular  lectures  are  needed  in 
Monaco  as  in  Paris,  and  on  Sundays  the  museum  must  be 
thrown  open  free  to  the  people.  Some  competent  and, 
above  all,  some  tactful  cicerone,  to  explain  and  help 
forward  those  who  are  willing  to  learn,  should  be  present 
at  such  tiines. 

Here  is  a  population  of  20,000  people  without  whose 
labour  and  industry  Monaco  and  Monte  Carlo  would  have 
been  impossibilities.  What  share  have  they  in  the  results  ? 
They  have  been  paid  wages  and  salaries,  very  poor  salaries, 
especially  in  the  Giovernment  employ,  but  this  much  they 
must  have  received  even  if  the  casino  and  the  museum 
had  been  dead  failures.  What  have  they  received  for 
contributing  to  one  of  the  most  stupendous  successes  ever 
achieved  ?  In  towns  that  are  quite  poor  better  provision 
has  been  made  for  the  amusement  of  the  people.  This 
great  and  discreditable  omission  will,  I  am  satisfied,  be 
rectified  in  the  near  future ;  but  it  is  no  honour  to  the 
principality  to  have  delayed  so  long. 

Unless  there  are  some  joys,  diversions  and  pleasures 
within  easy  access  the  position  for  men  who  are  earning,  if 
it  be  a  sufficient,  nevertheless  a  very  modest  income,  is 
fraught  with  tremendous  temptations.  Doubtless  as  things 
are  under  the  harsh  law  of  supply  and  demand  the  croupiers 
receive  perhaps  even  a  little  more  than  their  actual 
market  value ;  but  what  an  atmosphere  to  live  in !  "  It 
seems,"  one  of  them  remarked  to  me,  "  as  if  money  had 
lost  its  value  at  the  casino.  We  see  what  to  us  represents 
a  year's  salary  lost  and  won  with  the  levity  we  might 
ourselves  display  over  penny  stakes  should  we  have  a 
game   of  cards   at   home."  These  men,  living  in  needy 


circumstances,  are  handling  thousands  and  thousands  of 
pounds  in  gold  and  notes,  but  not  as  the  paying  clerks  at 
a  bank  handle  equally  large  sums.  At  a  bank  there  are 
cheques  and  other  written  evidence  to  act  as  vouchers 
for  every  transaction.  There  is  nothing  of  the  sort  on  the 
gambling-tables.  The  money  is  raked  in  and  lies  in  heaps. 
Those  who  watch  may  keep  some  inental  count  of  the 
1000-franc  notes,  for,  after  all,  they  are  not  so  very 
plentiful,  and  6000  francs  is  the  roulette  maximum  of 
what  can  be  staked  at  a  time.  The  five-franc  pieces  are  too 
big ;  and,  in  any  case,  are  not  worth  the  trouble  of 
stealing ;  but  the  small  gold  piece  counts  for  four  times 
as  much,  and  is  far  easier  to  deal  with  by  sleight  of  hand. 
When  several  hinidred  gold  pieces  have  been  raked  in 
and  lie  in  a  heap  under  the  employee's  hand  it  is  abso- 
lutely impossible  for  anyone  watching  to  know  exactly 
how  much  money  is  there.  The  gold  flows  in  and  out 
so  constantly  and  rapidly  that  the  disajipearance  of  a  few 
pieces  must  of  necessity  remain  unnoticed. 

Formerly  the  highest  salary  that  a  croupier  could  hope 
to  earn  was  £12  a  month.  Now  this  has  been  raised  to  £l7. 
All  the  services  connected  with  the  casino  have  been 
gradually  improved.  The  change  has  not  taken  place 
suddenly,  on  any  one  particular  day,  but  during  the  last 
twenty  years  there  has  been  a  general  increase  in  wages  or 
salaries  varying  from  25  to  33  per  cent.  From  these  wages 
nothing  is  deducted  for  pensions  or  sick  funds.  Formerly 
the  administration  never  abandoned  widows  or  orphans 
of  its  employees.  But  there  was  no  rule ;  it  was  merely  a 
matter  of  good  feeling.  To-day  the  administration  puts 
aside  a  sum  of  money  yearly  to  build  up  a  pension  fund, 
something  on  which  the  employees  can  rely,  apart  from 
all  good  feeling,  and  which  would  continue  to  exist  even 
if  the  casino  were  closed.  As  for  what  is  collected  at  the 
tables,  that  is  an  irregular  asset.  At  one  table  some 
fortunate  player  may  be  very  generous,  at  another  most 
of  the  players  may  lose ;  and  it  is  only  those  who  win  that 
make  presents.    It   has   been   proposed   to   pool   all   the 


receipts  so  as  to  obtain  something  more  like  a  regular  and 
reliable  average,  but  this  would  need  the  installation  of  an 
office,  a  book-keeper — in  fact,  a  small  administration.  By 
leaving  each  table  to  deal  with  its  own  collection-box,  the 
division  of  the  money  is  easily  managed,  and  without  any 

Another  matter  in  which  the  employees  are  greatly 
concerned,  though  it  does  not  much  affect  the  croupiers, 
is  the  terrible  overcrowding  of  the  services  in  the  base- 
ment of  the  casino.  There  is  absolute  lack  of  room. 
Gaming  saloons  have  been  added  to  one  another  without 
thought  of  the  employees,  who  also  needed  rooms.  Indeed, 
the  growth  of  the  casino  has  been  very  like  that  of  the 
prickly  pear  cactus.  A  big  fat  leaf  sprouts  out  of  the  side 
of  another  similar  leaf.  Then  there  come  a  second  and 
a  third,  without  plan  or  general  design,  actuated  solely  by 
the  desire  to  exist.  Apart  from  the  fact  that  more  gaming- 
tables need  more  croupiers  to  attend  to  them,  more 
concerts,  more  theatrical  representations,  ballets  and 
entertainments  of  all  sorts  have  also  to  be  provided  for  the 
ever-increasing  crowd  of  visitors.  An  extra  concert-room 
was  built  in  the  newest  part  of  the  casino,  and  a  small 
band  detached  to  play  at  the  Sporting  Club,  together  with 
another  small  orchestra  to  play  occasionally  in  the  atrium. 
While  all  this  was  done,  and  done  somewhat  eagerly,  no 
one  seemed  to  consider  that  the  increased  contingent  of 
singers  and  actors,  musicians  and  dancers  needed  some 
place  to  dress  and  to  wait  in  till  it  was  their  turn  to 
perform.  Then  there  are  the  rehearsals,  ever  increasing  in 
number  and  in  frequency.  These  again  were  to  a  large 
extent  forgotten,  so  that  to-day  the  congestion  of  the 
services  has  become  intolerable.  Everyone  concerned 
admits  that  something  must  be  done,  and  done  at  once. 

Of  course  all  this  should  have  been  carefully  thought 
out  as  the  new  wings  were  one  by  one  added  to  the 
casino.  To  make  up  for  the  deficiency,  it  is  now  proposed 
to  utilise  the  space  between  the  far  end  of  the  casino  and 
the  side  and  back  of  the  Cafe  de  Paris.  The  slope  of  the 


hill  might  be  bridged  over,  and  underneath  offices  built 
that  would  be  on  the  same  level  as  the  basement  of  the 
casino,  thus  providing  the  room  needed  for  the  various 
services.  This  would  also  give  more  space  for  the  venti- 
lating air-shafts,  mixing-chambers,  etc.  For  the  moment, 
the  crowding  below  the  casino  is  appalling,  and  the 
heat  at  times  beyond  endin-ance.  The  people  employed 
are  thus  exposed  to  the  risk  of  catching  cold  and  of  being 
unable  to  perform  the  work  for  which  they  are  engaged. 
This  is  another  example  of  the  evil  of  too  much  success. 
Things  get  out  of  hand  and  out  of  joint.  All  concerned 
are  overwhelmed  with  work.  There  is  no  opportunity  for 
relaxation.  Yet  in  spite  of  all  the  hurry,  stress,  strain  and 
effort  blunders  are  made  and  very  important  matters 
forgotten.  Managers,  organisers,  directors,  might  one  and 
all  have  had  happier  lives  if  less  successful,  but  they  could 
not  check  the  rising  tide  of  popularity. 



NEEDLESS  to  say,  by  reason  of  his  long  personal 
experience,  the  director  who  governs  the  gaming- 
rooms  is  probably  the  greatest  living  technical 
authority  on  the  games  played  at  Monte  Carlo.  He  is, 
for  example,  one  of  those  very  rare  persons  who  pro- 
fess themselves  to  have  solved  the  problem  as  to  what 
is  really  the  advantage  that  the  bank  obtains  from  the 
refait  in  trcnte-et-quarante.  The  peculiar  feature  of  this 
problem  is  that  no  one  seems  to  know  how  it  can  be 
worked  out,  and  doubtless  those  who  have  considered 
the  matter  will  be  somewhat  incredulous  regarding  the 
methods  employed  by  the  director.  But  the  advantage 
of  consulting  a  person  in  such  a  position,  is  that  although 
his  methods  of  calculation  may  be  theoretically  incor- 
rect, we  can  nevertheless  place  the  most  implicit  re- 
liance on  his  statement  as  to  the  result.  Such  absolute 
confidence  is  justifiable  because  it  is  not  based  merely 
upon  a  mathematical  theory,  but  is  the  outcome  of  years 
of  personal  experience  :  experience  of  tables  and  of  actual 
play  that  is  unequalled  in  the  world's  history.  Such  an 
opinion,  based  upon  this  conclusive  practical  test,  coin- 
cides with  the  opinion  of  the  great  majority  of  players. 
It  agrees  that  the  refait  at  trente-et-quaranie  is  not 
quite  so  advantageous  to  the  bank  as  the  zero  at  roulette. 
By  this  time  the  casino  authorities  must  be  well  aware 
which  of  the  two  games  brings  them  the  greater  profit. 
Therefore  if  the  player  can  afford  to  play  in  gold,  and  is 
content  with  the  simple  chance,  he  will  find  that  the 
brokerage  charged  for  playing  is  a  little  less  at  trente-et- 


LATE    HOURS  357 

quarantc  than  at  roulette.  The  greatest  advantage, 
however,  appears  to  be  for  those  who  stake  1000 -franc  or 
500-franc  notes,  insuring  them  against  the  refait.  The  rate 
of  insurance  is  only  10  francs  for  1000  francs,  or  1  per 
cent.  ;  but  it  should  be  two  or  three  francs  more  per 
1000  francs.  Very  few  players,  however,  pause  to  make 
these  calculations.  If  gamblers  carefully  calculated,  neither 
the  refuit  nor  the  zero  would  suffice  to  produce  the 
enormous  fortune  the  casino  represents.  Another  proof 
of  how  little  heed  is  paid  to  such  considerations  is  the 
fact  that  trente-et -guar ante  does  not  attract  so  many 
people.  In  the  height  of  the  season  of  1912,  there  were 
seventeen  I'oulette  and  only  six  trente-et-quarante  tables 
in  the  casino.  There  were  also  three  more  tables  at  the 
Sporting  Club,  and  these  latter  are  kept  going  till  four 
in  the  morning.  In  answer  to  my  protests,  I  was  told 
some  persons  conceive  that  enjoyment  is  impossible  in 
the  daytime  and  that  it  is  commonplace,  almost  vulgar, 
to  get  up  before  lunch.  The  casino  seems  to  think  it  is 
bound  to  cater  for  all  these  aberrations.  This  was  not  so 
always.  Once  upon  a  time  Monaco  professed  to  be  a  health 
resort.  When  people  said  it  was  very  imhealthy  to  go 
into  the  overheated  and  unventilated  gaming-rooms,  the 
answer  was  that  the  casino  closed  early  and  then  there 
was  absolutely  nothing  to  do  but  to  go  to  bed,  which  was 
a  very  good  thing  for  everybody,  but  especially  for  the 
delicate.  To-day  a  few  foolish  persons  have  decreed 
otherwise,  and  the  casino  doubtless  thinks  wisely  that 
those  who  are  weak  enough  to  yield  to  such  silly  fashions 
will  be  weak  enough  to  lose  their  money.  The  pity  of  it 
is  that  the  poor  croupiers  and  the  club  servants  have  to 
sit  up  in  this  unwholesome  manner  to  wait  on  the  folly  of 
such  people. 

One  of  the  most  trying  and  humiliating  conditions  of 
this  employment  is  that  employees  may  sometimes  im- 
agine they  are  suspected  more  or  less  of  theft.  There  has 
been,  of  course,  especially  in  the  past,  a  good  deal  of  pilfer- 
ing, and  the  process  of  sifting  the  honest  from  the  dishonest 


required  time.  But  many  of  the  stories  of  this  thievery 
are  obvious  exaggerations.  For  instance,  it  has  been 
seriously  stated,  and  in  print,  that  special  waistcoats  and 
boots  were  manufactured  for  the  employees  with  crafty 
contrivances  for  the  concealment  and  storing  of  stolen 
•20-franc  pieces.  However,  without  any  such  thieves' 
pockets,  better  fitted  to  betray  the  wearer  than  to  assist 
his  peculations,  it  is  impossible  entirely  to  remove  oppor- 
tunities for  dishonesty.  One  cannot,  for  example,  forbid 
an  employee  to  rub  or  scratch  the  back  of  his  neck.  Yet 
this  simple  and  ordinary  action  may  enable  him  safely 
to  slip  a  gold  piece  under  his  collar  and  down  his  back. 
The  detection  of  such  small  thefts  is  so  difficult  that  the 
best  precaution,  as  already  stated,  is  to  watch  the  employees 
after  they  have  left  the  casino.  This  is  one  reason  why 
such  a  large  nuinber  of  persons  is  employed  outside  the 
principality.  Their  mission  is  to  shadow  not  only  the 
doubtful  characters  who  frequent  the  casino  while  living 
at  Nice,  Menton  and  elsewhere,  but  also  the  employees 
who  visit  these  places  M^hen  off  duty.  If  they  were  found 
to  spend  more  money  than  their  visible  means  appeared 
to  justify  there  would  be  reason  to  suspect  that  they  had 
discovered  some  method  of  robbing  the  bank.  Dropping 
20-franc  pieces  down  the  back  was  at  one  time  a  trick  of 
constant  occurrence. 

In  discussing  these  and  similar  practices  with  M. 
Maubert.  whom  1  had  the  good  fortune  to  meet,  the 
director  became  quite  enthusiastic  concerning  the  wonder- 
ful honesty  of  the  croupiers.  Recently  three  of  them  had 
been  detected  and  dismissed  for  stealing.  But  what  was 
that  ?  There  were  530  such  employees,  it  was  only  a  half 
per  cent.  Where,  in  the  midst  of  similar  and  constant 
temptation,  would  only  a  half  per  cent,  of  black  sheep 
be  found  ?  Without  actually  stealing,  some  of  the  em- 
ployees might  pretend  that  they  were  able  to  influence 
the  wheel.  If  they  found  a  dupe  who  was  ignorant  enough 
to  believe  them,  and  fortunate  enough  to  win,  they  might 
expect  and   receive  a   gratuity.   But   it  is  obvious   that 


this  could  not  be  done  often,  as  most  persons  know  it  is 
quite  impossible  to  influence  the  wheel.  It  is  a  fraud  to 
make  any  such  pretence,  and  if  an  employee  were  found 
out  in  an  attempt  so  to  impose  on  a  player  he  would  be 
instantly  dismissed. 

As  M.  Maubert  talked  upon  this  topic  I  could  not 
help  recalling  the  oft-told  story  of  the  pinch  of  snuff.  In 
that  case  the  employee  was  quite  innocent :  he  did  not 
know  that  his  pinch  of  snufF  was  being  used  by  clever 
swindlers  to  make  money.  They  induced  greenhorns  to 
stake  on  red  by  asserting  that  the  employee  was  their 
confederate,  and  that  his  taking  a  pinch  of  snufF  was  the 
signal  agreed  upon  to  indicate  that  the  wheel  would  be 
so  twisted  as  to  cause  the  marble  to  fall  in  red.  If  red 
did  win,  the  impostors  claimed  a  large  share  in  the  profits, 
which  was  rarely  refused :  if  the  marble  preferred  black 
they  proinptly  disappeared. 

There  also  came  to  my  mind  another  story  which  has 
been  related  in  nearly  all  the  books  and  most  of  the  articles 
published  upon  this  subject.  Here,  an  employee  who  dealt 
out  the  cards  at  tre nte-et-quarante  had  a  prepared  pack 
skilfully  passed  to  him  under  a  bank-note.  His  colleagues 
thereupon  played  the  maximum,  and  won  every  time.  If 
they  had  been  more  prudent  and  less  avaricious  they  would 
have  contrived  to  lose  now  and  then  in  order  not  to 
awaken  suspicion.  As  it  was,  their  extraordinary  and 
inexplicable  luck  so  impressed  the  chef  cle  partie  that  he 
stopped  the  game  and  counted  the  cards.  The  trick  was 
at  once  discovered,  and  the  employee  who  had  received 
the  prepared  pack  promptly  arrested.  But  his  accomplices 
had  ainple  time  to  escape  with  their  winnings.  It 
is  said  that  a  grocer  at  Nice  supplied  70,000  francs  for 
the  carrying  out  of  this  plot.  Three  others,  one  of  them 
the  owner  of  a  cafe  at  Nice,  divided  the  grocer's  money, 
and  it  was  arranged  that  they  should  stake  the  maximum 
of  12,000  francs  as  soon  as  the  signal  was  given.  Though  the 
trick  was  discovered  before  all  the  prepared  cards  had  been 
utilised,  the  conspirators  are  believed  to  have  netted  close 


upon  half-a-millioii  francs.  M.  Maubert  was  somewhat 
reticent  when  I  referred  to  this  well-known  story.  He  did 
not  deny  that  something  of  the  sort  had  occurred,  but 
he  could  not  remember  what  fate  had  befallen  the  un- 
faithful employee.  The  point  was  that  prepared  cards  could 
only  be  used  when,  as  in  this  case,  the  croupier  who  dealt 
them  out  was  himself  one  of  the  conspirators ;  but  then 
he  could  not  escape  detection,  and  no  one  would  take  part 
in  a  robbery  if  he  were  absolutely  certain  of  being  arrested. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  however  (according  to  one  version 
of  the  tale),  the  conspirators  attempted  to  take  away  by 
leger  de  mains  as  many  cards  as  they  had  brought  with 
them,  but  they  had  not  got  back  the  full  number  when 
the  game  was  suddenly  stopped.  Had  this  been  done, 
counting  the  cards  would  not  have  proved  anything.  In 
any  case  such  is  the  version  given  in  an  anonymous  and 
scurrilous  book  written  by  a  person  who  professes  to  have 
been  a  police  detective  in  the  employ  of  the  casino. 

As  many  discreditable  stories  given  by  this  ex- 
policeman  are  constantly  reappearing  in  slightly  modified 
garb,  and  sometimes  in  respectable  publications,  I 
inquired  why  some  answer  was  not  made.  M.  JNIaubert 
said  there  was  a  police  detective  who  had  been  dismissed 
a  good  many  years  ago.  But  as  a  rule  attacks  and 
scurrilous  stories  were  allowed  to  pass  unnoticed.  It  was 
not  necessary,  he  added,  with  a  smile,  to  point  out  that 
the  casino  had  ample  means  of  replying.  But  the  casino 
was  like  Caesar's  wife,  and,  being  above  suspicion  or 
reproach,  it  might  be  a  degradation  to  attempt  any 
defence.  Besides,  these  attacks  generally  defeated  their 
own  ends.  There  had  been  insulting  hoardings  put  up  at 
Nice.  The  casino  could  have  got  rid  of  these  by  other 
than  the  childish  device  of  throwing  sulphuric  acid  over 
them  as  the  ex-policeman  in  question  professed  to  have 
done.  He  also  pretended  there  had  been  negotiations  with 
the  anarchists  to  prevent  them  from  blowing  up  the 
casino.  This,  too,  was  pure  romance,  on  a  par  with  the 
legend  of  bombs  that  were  supposed  to   explode  under 


the  i-oulette- table  when  anyone  won  too  much !  The 
only  thing,  M.  Maubert  went  on  to  say,  that  had  really 
taken  place,  happened  some  years  ago.  A  man  had 
placed  liis  hat  on  a  mantelpiece.  There  was  a  petard  hid 
inside,  and  when  it  burst  it  made  a  very  alarming  noise, 
but  no  one  was  injured. 

To-day  the  attacks  made  against  the  casino  had 
generally  a  double  meaning.  There  had  recently  appeared 
a  pamphlet  entitled  "  On  vole  a  Monte  Carlo."  The  exact 
equivalent  of  on  does  not  exist  in  the  English  language. 
It  means  anyone  or  everyone,  and  is  so  delightfully  vague 
that  it  is  a  very  safe  term  to  use.  Thus  this  title  might  be 
translated,  "They  rob  at  Monte  Carlo."  Most  persons 
would  imagine  that  the  author  of  the  pamphlet  was 
accusing  the  Monte  Carlo  casino  of  stealing.  If,  however, 
the  casino  made  a  complaint  it  could  easily  be  proved  that 
there  were  pickpockets  and  other  thieves  at  Monte 
Carlo,  and  that  nothing  had  been  said  against  the  honour 
of  the  casino  or  its  management.  Blackmailing  and  thiev- 
ing was  all  on  the  other  side.  From  all  parts  of  the  world 
people  came  in  the  hope  of  plundering  the  bank  at  Monte 
Carlo ;  but  M.  Maubert  agreed  with  me  when  I  pointed 
out  that  the  cases  when  an  unfair  or  fraudulent  advantage 
was  obtained  over  the  bank  must  be  very  few,  otherwise 
it  would  not  be  necessary  to  dish  up  over  and  over  again 
the  same  stories  in  the  different  books  and  newspaper 
articles  that  appeared. 

Putting  aside,  however,  the  question  of  plots  and 
conspiracies,  or  deliberate  attempts  at  robbery  which  all 
experience  proves  are  as  rare  as  they  are  impracticable, 
the  most  serious  point,  that  which  does  exercise  the  minds 
of  some  quite  reasonable  persons,  is  whether  the  wheel  at 
roulette  may  be  so  turned  or  the  marble  so  thrown  as 
at  least  jiartially  to  influence  the  result.  For  instance,  is 
it  possible  to  make  the  marble  fall  more  often  in  one  half 
than  in  the  otlier  half  of  the  wheel  ?  Indeed,  the  popularity 
of  playing  on  Ics  vuiiins  indicates  that  the  public;  does 
imagine  that  the  marble  is  likely  to  fall  again  in  the  same 


part  of  the  wheel,  for  the  croupier  may  use  exactly  the 
same  amount  of  force  the  next  time  he  throws  the  marble. 
M.  Maubert,  however,  was  very  positive  as  to  the  absolute 
reliability  and  mechanical  precision  of  the  instrument.  All 
the  stories  about  pinching  the  partitions  and  playing  to 
the  defect  so  caused  were  mere  nonsense,  and  he  invited 
me  to  examine  the  roulette  myself  and  see  if  there  was 
anything  that  could  be  squeezed  or  so  altered  as  to  enable 
a  player  to  win.  One  man,  he  argued,  may  make  the 
wheel  go  round  more  often  than  another,  but  the  result  is 
equally  uncertain  in  either  case.  Still,  I  urged  that  by  dint 
of  repeating  the  same  movement  it  might  be  rendered  so 
liabitual  that  each  man  would  develop  individual  char- 
acteristics producing  results  in  accordance  with  his  special 
idiosyncrasies.  In  a  general  sense  the  action  of  walking  is 
the  same  for  all ;  yet  the  wear  of  our  boot-soles  shows 
emphatically  that  there  are  considerable  differences  in  our 
manner  of  walking.  Some  of  the  casino  employees  turn 
the  roulette-wheel  almost  as  often  as  they  take  steps  in 
walking.  Just  as  they  tread  over  their  heels  or  wear  their 
soles  in  a  particular  way,  may  they  not  hit  one  side  of  the 
wheel  more  frequently  than  the  other  ? 

This,  apparently,  was  a  new  argument,  for  INlaubert 
did  not  answer  at  once,  but  proceeded  to  examine  the 
heels  of  his  own  boots,  and  then  was  delighted  to  find 
that  my  heels  were  damaged  in  the  same  way  as  his 
own.  After  that  he  stood  up  and  pressed  his  feet  on  the 
floor,  and,  having  sat  down  again,  concluded  that,  in  spite 
of  the  delicate  anatomy  of  the  human  foot,  my  com- 
parison with  the  wear  of  our  boot-soles  was  far  too  rough 
to  apply  to  so  well-balanced  and  precise  an  instrument  as 
the  roulette.  Of  course  the  arm  might  be  as  strong  as  the 
leg,  so  that  the  muscular  force  expended  in  the  first 
impulse  might  be  as  great,  and  might  likewise  differ 
widely  with  each  individual.  But  that  would  only  govern 
the  number  of  times  the  wheel  and  the  marble  went 
round  and  not  the  termination — that  is,  when,  where  and 
how   the   marble   and    the   wheel   stop.    Practical    tests, 


however,  are  more  convincing  than  words,  and  if  I  would 
come  on  the  morrow  half-an-hour  before  the  doors  were 
open  to  the  pubhc  I  could  not  only  examine  the  tables 
for  mj^self  but  see  how  carefully  they  were  tested  each 
day  before  the  play  began.  For  this  purpose  no  fewer 
than  four  different  functionaries  are  appointed.  There 
must  be  present  a  representative  of  the  engineering 
department,  a  representative  of  the  ai-chitectural  depart- 
ment, a  controller  from  the  cleaning  department,  and  a 
sub-director  of  the  games. 

On  the  morrow,  when  all  these  functionaries  had 
gathered,  and  M.  Maubert  and  myself  were  ready,  to- 
gether with  several  attendants,  one  of  them  carrying  a 
lantern,  we  penetrated  the  silent,  vast,  empty  gaming- 
rooms.  It  was  a  strange  experience,  and  reminded  me  of 
the  search  made  at  Westminster  under  the  Houses  of 
Parliament  before  the  opening  of  a  new  session,  for  fear 
there  might  be  concealed  somewhere  a  second  edition  of 
Guy  Fawkes.  The  most  important  part  of  the  inspection 
is  to  make  certain  that  the  wheels  are  on  a  perfect  level, 
though  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  the  level  can  be  disturbed 
short  of  an  earthquake.  Thei'e  is  an  arched  brass  frame 
that  fits  precisely  across  the  wheel  while  bridging  over 
its  handle.  In  the  centre  of  this  instrument  there  is  a 
spirit  level,  and  thus  every  wheel  is  tested  every  day. 
Obviously,  if  the  level  were  not  absolute  and  the  wheel 
tilted  to  one  side  this  might  influence  the  result.  Still 
further  to  secure  the  stability  and  true  level  of  the  wheel 
it  is  not  put  on  the  roulette-table  at  all.  Certainly  it 
seems  to  be  part  and  parcel  of  the  table ;  as  a  matter  of 
fact  there  is  nothing  in  the  middle  of  the  table  but  a  big 
round  hole.  In  this  hole  is  fitted  an  entirely  separate  case 
or  table,  which  is  made  of  bronze  or  gun-metal :  this 
latter  is  firmly  fixed  to  the  floor  independently  of  the 
large  wooden  table  by  which  it  is  surrounded.  This 
wooden  table  is  also  very  strong  and  solid,  and  firmly 
riveted  to  the  floor,  for  the  players  in  their  excitement 
are  apt  to  push  or  lean  against  it  somewhat  violently.  No 


shaking,  however,  of  the  table  can  affect  the  wheel, 
because  it  is  on  a  different  and  an  immensely  heavy  stand. 
The  inner  metal  table  that  holds  the  wheel  is  beyond  the 
reach  of  the  public.  It  is  hedged  round  by  the  cagnottes 
or  cases  that  hold  the  money,  and  protected  on  each  side 
by  three  croupiers.  Thus  it  is  absolutely  out  of  the  reach 
of  the  players  sitting  or  standing  round  the  tables ; 
though  it  is  difficult  to  see  what  they  could  do  even  if 
the  wheel  were  nearer  at  hand. 

After  the  question  of  securing  a  perfect  level  comes 
that  of  the  pivot.  In  the  centre  and  under  the  wheel  there 
is  a  metallic  tube  about  four  inches  long  and  one  inch  in 
diameter.  This  is  the  pivot  or  axle  fitting  into  the  rising 
centre  of  the  wheel.  The  latter  is  flat  underneath  and 
arched  above.  Thus  there  is  much  more  space  in  the 
centre  than  at  the  edges.  It  is  of  course  in  the  middle 
of  this,  the  thickest  part,  that  the  pivot  is  introduced. 
To  receive  this  pivot  there  is  the  metallic  tubing  and 
the  top  inside  is  convex.  On  the  other  hand,  the  pivot 
at  its  summit  is  concave.  Thus  where  the  two  meet  there 
is  a  sort  of  cup-and-saucer  effect,  and  that  is  the  most 
delicate  and  fragile  part  of  the  whole  apparatus.  The 
fit  of  the  pivot  into  the  centre  of  the  wheel  must  be 
perfect,  and  it  must  be  kept  well  oiled  and  thoroughly 
clean.  The  little  point  that  enters  the  concave  part  of 
the  pivot  has  also  to  be  watched,  and  replaced  if  it  shows 
any  sign  of  wear.  It  was  not  without  a  certain  emotion 
that  I  saw  these  wheels  lifted  out  of  the  gun-metal  tables 
on  which  they  rest.  The  millions  of  money  that  had 
changed  hands  at  the  bidding  of  this  simple  mechanism 
confers  a  strange  interest  on  these  veritable  wheels  of 
fortune.  How  many  persons  have  thought  and  puzzled 
and  wondered  how  to  induce  them  to  turn  to  their  own 
advantage ;  and  here  was  the  whole  thing  before  me, 
inside  and  outside,  all  made  plain  and  visible.  There 
was  nothing  concealed  and  nothing  to  conceal.  I  was 
welcome  to  touch,  feel,  move,  lift,  examine  outside, 
inside  or  below,  anything  I  chose  and  verify  for  myself 




THE    INSIDE    OF    THE    WHEEL  365 

if    it    were    possible   in   any   way   to   tamper   with   the 

Nor  was  this  all.  Even  the  drawings  made  for  the 
constructors  of  the  roulettes  were  placed  at  my  dis- 
posal. They  used  to  be  made  at  Strasbourg,  but  now 
they  are  manufactured  in  France.  The  drawing  here 
reproduced  gives  a  section  of  the  wheel  just  lifted  out  and 
held  above  the  well.  Arrows  marked  A  show  the  little 
point  and  the  convex  indenture  which  it  enters  and  where 
it  turns.  The  shading  indicates  the  material  used  for  the 
different  parts.  The  point  is  of  chromated  steel.  Other 
similar  points  are  kept  ready  at  hand  to  replace  those  in 
use  as  soon  as  they  show  any  sign  of  wear.  Also  it  is  just 
conceivable  that,  if  a  very  violent  shock  was  given  to  the 
wheel,  the  point  might  break.  On  one  occasion  a  point, 
probably  because  there  was  a  flaw  in  tlie  metal,  did  break, 
and  made  a  slight  noise  in  the  cylinder.  The  game  was 
at  once  stopped.  The  wheel  was  lifted  off,  a  new  point 
adjusted  and  everything  put  in  order  before  the  play  Avas 
renewed.  The  most  likely  or  frequent  damage  is  done 
to  the  table,  not  to  the  cylinder  or  wheel.  The  sectional 
drawing  as  well  as  the  observations  made  above  explain 
that  the  table  is  a  separate  structure.  The  green  cloth  with 
which  it  is  covered  and  on  which  the  players  stake  their 
money  wears  out  and  is  occasionally  torn,  but  it  is  very 
rare  anything  happens  to  the  wheel.  The  level,  so  carefully 
tested  every  day,  hardly  ever  changes,  especially  now  that 
the  table  which  holds  the  roulette  is  made  of  gun-metal. 
But  even  if  the  level  were  uneven  it  would  only  influence 
the  side  where  the  marble  fell  into  the  wheel  and  not  the 
part  of  the  wheel  into  which  it  fell.  The  chances  would 
remain  the  same.  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  tables  are 
inspected  mainly  for  cleaning  piu'poses  and  to  see  that 
they  have  not  been  tampered  with  during  the  night.  The 
daily  ceremony  also  inspires  confidence  among  the  playei's, 
and  this  is  perhaps  necessary,  considering  the  reckless, 
thoughtless  talk  that  is  too  often  heard.  For  instance,  it 
has   been   said  that   the   result  might  be  controlled  by 


electricity ;  but  the  bronze  with  which  the  table  is  made 
is  a  non-conductor,  and  of  greater  importance  is  the  fact 
that  the  marble,  that  must  be  loose,  that  cannot  be 
connected  with  anything,  is  of  ivory,  on  which  electricity 
has  no  action  whatsoever.  Everything  is  foreseen  and  so 
watched  that  accidents  are  most  improbable.  Even  the 
lozenge-shaped  obstacles  are  touched  every  day  to  make 
sure  that  they  remain  firmly  affixed. 

A  story  has  been  told  of  a  man  who  succeeded  in 
hiding  himself  under  one  of  the  divans  of  the  casino 
until  everyone  had  left.  According  to  another  version  of 
the  same  story,  he  did  not  hide,  but  got  in  at  night 
through  a  window  that  was  not  properly  closed.  These 
stories  are  all  so  old  that  in  the  course  of  ages  their 
details  begin  to  vary.  But  the  important  point  is  that, 
being  alone  in  the  gaming-rooms,  he  went  to  a  roulette- 
table  and  pinched  some  of  the  partitions  so  that  it  would 
be  more  difficult  for  the  marble  to  enter  between  those 
thus  rendered  smaller.  Having  created  this  defect  in  the 
wheel,  and  having  also  succeeded  in  getting  out  of  the 
gaming-rooms  without  being  detected,  he  returned  next 
day  and  made  a  large  amount  by  staking  on  the  numbers 
facing  the  partitions  he  had  not  squeezed  and  rendered 
narrower.  This  story  may  seem  fairly  plausible  to  those 
who  have  had  no  opportunity  of  examining  the  wheel 
closely.  The  first  thing  I  did  was  to  take  two  of  these 
very  partitions  and  squeeze  them  as  hard  as  I  could 
between  my  thumb  and  forefinger.  In  this  practical 
manner  I  was  able  to  convince  myself  that  they  were 
far  too  strong  to  be  moved  unless  by  the  use  of  tools. 
But  more  important  than  this  difficulty  is  the  fact,  not 
realised  at  a  distance,  that  these  partitions  are  very  wide, 
and  much  wider  than  the  marble.  They  seemed  to  me 
more  than  an  inch  wide,  and  care  is  taken  that  the 
diameter  of  the  marble  shall  not  exceed  two-thirds  of 
the  space  that  separates  the  partitions  between  which 
it  settles.  Therefore  if  it  were  possible  to  move  some 
of  these   partitions  sufficiently  seriously  to   impede  the 

TAMPERING    WTTK    THE    ^\^EEL         367 

marble  when  about  to  fall  between  them,  such  alteration 
would  be  extensive  enough  to  attract  attention.  Of  course 
with  a  small  toy  roulette  this  could  be  done,  because  a 
very  slight  pinch  would  be  enough  to  make  a  difference, 
and  yet  it  could  not  easily  be  detected.  In  reality,  as 
M.  Maubert  observed,  if  such  tricks  were  possible,  the 
casino  would  not  exist. 

M.  Maubert  then  proceeded  to  demonstrate  what 
I  had  not  realised  before  nor  heard  discussed,  yet  it 
seems  to  be  far  and  away  the  most  important  factor : 
between  the  axle  or  pivot  and  the  partitions  whei'e  the 
marble  ultimately  settles  the  wheel  rises  up  to  its  centre. 
It  is  dome-shaped  :  not  a  very  pointed  or  cone-shaped 
dome  ;  on  the  contrary,  a  comparatively  flat  dome,  though 
steep  enough  for  the  marble  to  run  down  very  rapidly. 
It  consequently  requires  a  pretty  strong  impulse  for  the 
marble  to  run  up  the  sides  of  this  dome-like  centre  of 
the  wheel.  The  dome  in  question  is  made  of  very  smooth, 
highly  polished  brass,  and  beautifully  and  evenly  rounded. 
These  facts  must  be  taken  into  consideration,  together 
with  another  important  detail.  The  wheel  is  placed  at  the 
bottom  of  what  has  often  been  described  as  a  well.  This 
term  is  an  exaggeration.  In  any  case,  it  is  a  very  shallow 
well,  but  it  is  deep  enough  to  give  the  marble  a  sufficient 
impetus  to  run  up  the  brass  dome  ;  the  outer  edge  of  this 
so-called  well  consists  of  a  smooth  polished  mahogany 
course,  round  which  the  marble  is  sent  spinning.  After 
a  while  the  force  of  the  impetus  fails,  the  speed  of  the 
marble  slackens,  and  finally  it  falls  into  the  wheel.  In  this, 
however,  the  marble  acquires  a  new  impulse,  an  impetus 
that  is  not  due  to  any  human  hand,  but  results  solely 
from  the  difference  of  level  between  the  course  it  has 
pursued  round  the  upper  part  of  the  well  and  the  wheel 
that  is  at  tlie  bottom.  This  running  downhill  to  the 
wheel  gives  the  marble  sufficient  impetus  to  clear  the 
partition  that  divides  the  numbers  from  each  other,  and 
run  up  the  smooth  surface  of  tiie  dome.  What  M.  Maubert 
desired  to  demonstrate  was  that  when  once  the  marble 


got  on  to  this  smooth  brass  dome  there  was  an  end  to 
any  possible  or  conceivable  control. 

Dividing  the  wheel  into  the  four  parts  of  the  compass, 
we  might  imagine  that  an  employee,  after  years  of 
practice,  was  able  to  throw  the  marble  in  such  a  manner 
that  it  would  stop  and  fall  into  the  wheel,  we  will  say 
just  opposite  the  north.  This  is  difficult  enough  in  itself, 
but  it  would  be  quite  useless  unless  he  had  equal  control 
over  the  wheel.  That  part  of  the  wheel  containing  the 
number  or  numbers  on  which  the  stakes  of  confederates 
had  been  placed  would  also  have  to  stop  just  opposite 
the  north  so  as  to  receive  the  marble.  No  one  has  ever 
been  found  to  do  this.  "  But,"  said  M.  Maubert,  "do  it 
yourself:  stop  the  wheel  with  your  own  hand.  Hold  the 
marble  in  your  own  fingers,  and  let  it  drop  just  where 
the  number  you  want  is  situated,  and  see  what  will 
happen."  The  result  was  that  the  marble,  acquiring  an 
impetus  by  running  down  the  side  of  the  well,  jumped 
over  the  aperture  of  the  number  at  which  I  was  aiming 
and  ascended  the  brass  dome  opposite.  When  the  impetus 
was  exhausted  it  came  down  again,  but  at  an  angle  from 
the  line  of  its  ascent.  On  repeating  the  experiment,  I 
found  it  was  impossible  to  foresee  what  kind  of  angle 
this  would  be.  Sometimes  it  was  a  right  angle,  sometimes 
a  left  angle,  sometimes  an  acute,  sometimes  an  obtuse 
angle.  It  was  never  the  same.  Thus,  with  the  wheel 
perfectly  still,  holding  the  marble  in  my  fingers  in  any 
position  in  relation  to  any  number  I  chose,  I  could  never 
make  it  fall  in  the  particular  partition  I  had  selected.  The 
moment  the  marble  goes  up  the  brass  dome  it  is  absolutely 
impossible  to  tell  how  it  will  come  down  again.  The  brass 
impediments  round  the  side  of  the  well,  which  often 
throw  the  marble  about  in  an  erratic  manner,  do  not 
defeat  calculation  or  skill  so  completely  as  this  smooth 
shining  brass  covering.  Even  if  the  wheel  is  controlled, 
even  if  the  marble  is  controlled  and  made  to  fall  into  a 
selected  part  of  the  wheel,  the  moment  the  marble  begins 
to  ascend  the  central  dome  all  the  calculations  and  skill 

BE  BAKING    THE    BANK  369 

that  may  have  been  made  and  exerted  become  useless. 
There  is  no  knowing  towards  which  partition  on  the  edge 
of  the  wheel  the  marble  will  descend. 

The  examination  of  the  tables  takes  place  between 
nine-thirty  and  ten  o'clock  every  morning.  The  lantern, 
of  course,  is  used  for  looking  under  the  tables,  to  see 
if  all  is  clean  and  in  order.  Here  there  is  a  sort  of  casing 
which  serves  a  double  purpose.  It  holds  the  empty  cash- 
boxes  which  were  employed  to  bring  the  money  from  the 
bank,  and  will  serve  to  take  it  back  again  plus  the  profits. 
It  is  also  very  useful  in  preventing  the  pieces  of  money 
that  are  constantly  dropped  from  rolling  out  of  reach. 
While  the  examination  proceeds  the  employees  or  croupiers 
begin  to  assemble.  The  coverings  are  removed  from  the 
tables,  and  finally  the  heavy  cash-boxes,  borne  along  by 
two  men  holding  a  handle  on  each  side,  are  brought  in. 
Every  roulette-table  receives  80,000  francs,  or  £3200,  and 
the  trcntc-ct-qnarante  tables  150,000  francs,  or  £6000. 

This  money,  of  course,  is  taken  out  of  the  portable 
cash-boxes,  counted  out  and  placed  in  due  order  in  the 
cagnottes  or  tills  by  the  side  of  the  wheel  in  roulette, 
and  of  the  dealer  of  the  cards  at  trente-et-qnarante.  The 
empty  cash- box  is  then  sent  rattling  into  the  big  receptacle 
under  the  table  to  await  the  result  of  the  day's  play.  How 
often  is  it  taken  upstairs  back  to  the  bank  lighter  than 
it  came  down  ?  Sometimes  this  occurs,  but  not  often,  or 
there  would  be  no  casino.  Besides,  with  the  modern 
arrangements  it  is  no  longer  possible  to  break  the  bank 
in  the  theatrical  manner  which  was  the  life  and  joy  of  the 
former  generation  when  playing  at  Baden-Baden  or 
Wiesbaden.  The  great  Benazet  had  the  dramatic  sense. 
He  would  allow  the  till  to  run  dry,  and  permit  the  players 
to  see  that  this  receptacle,  which  they  had  so  often  filled 
with  their  money,  was  now  empty  and  its  contents  in 
their  pockets.  This,  of  course,  was  the  signal  for  every- 
body to  go  mad,  and  for  neurotic  women  to  indulge  in 
the  hysteria  of  excessive  joy.  The  game  stopped  ;  the 
principal   winner   was   carried   shoulder   high   round  the 



rooms,  and  sometimes  out  into  the  gardens.  It  was  a 
triumphal  procession.  The  newspapers  teemed  with  details. 
The  man  who  broke  the  bank  rose  from  obscurity  to 
world-wide  renown,  and  the  next  post  brought  him 
hundreds  of  begging  letters  from  distressed  people  anxious 
to  share  his  winnings.  Naturally  it  all  served  as  an 
excellent  advertisement,  and  any  number  of  people  were 
forthwith  fired  with  the  ambition  to  break  the  bank 

The  bank,  of  course,  was  never  really  broken.  All  that 
happened  was  the  exhaustion  of  the  amount  of  ready  cash 
placed  in  the  till  of  some  one  particular  table.  This  occurs 
constantly  at  JNIonte  Carlo,  and  there  are  reserves  held 
ready,  conveniently  divided  up  into  silver,  gold  and  bank- 
notes, according  to  what  experience  has  proved  will  most 
probably  be  needed.  When  at  any  one  of  the  seventeen 
roulette-tables,  or  the  six  trcnte-et-quarante  tables  the 
supply  of  money  is  running  short,  the  chef  de  partie  does 
not  wait  for  the  bank  to  break,  but  sends  for  reinforce- 
ments. If  it  is  a  roulette  bank  that  shows  signals  of 
distress  it  will  receive  £2000,  or  .50,000  francs  in  a  few 
minutes.  For  the  trentc-et-quarantc  tables,  exactly  double 
that  amount  is  sent.  There  is  no  possibility  of  breaking 
the  banks  that  can  thus  be  constantly  replenished.  Even 
at  Baden-Baden  all  that  breaking  the  bank  meant  was 
that  the  amount  of  money  taken  to  start  the  game  had 
proved  insufficient.  This,  M.  Maubert  said,  was  constantly 
occurring  at  Monte  Carlo,  and  hardly  a  day  passed  but 
one  or  other  of  the  tables  had  to  send  for  more  money. 
It  would  not  therefore  be  practicable  to  make  a  great 
demonstration  over  what  happened  so  frequently.  At 
Baden-Baden  there  were  fewer  tables  and  fewer  players. 



STRANGE  as  it  may  seem,  it  is  nevertheless  a  fact 
that  the  number  of  persons  who  enter  the  gaming 
saloons  has  never  been  counted  in  a  reliable  manner 
till  within  the  last  year  or  two.  Nothing  is  more  difficult 
than  to  get  accurate  demographical  statistics  about  the 
principality ;  yet  in  their  absence  it  is  impossible  to 
establish  anything  approaching  a  scientific  comparison 
with  other  centres  of  population.  Of  course  there  is  a 
natural  love  for  big  figures  ;  they  look  well  on  paper. 
The  largest  of  all  these  figures  is  that  of  the  number 
of  travellers  who  have  booked  for  the  principality.  The 
increase  from  year  to  year  is  duly  published,  and  it  is 
shown  that,  for  instance,  only  314,787  travellers  came  to 
Monaco  in  1879,  whereas  there  were  no  fewer  than 
1,587,130  in  1911.  Many  of  these  bookings  represent  the 
same  person  coming  in  every  day  and  going  out  every 
evening.  They  only  indicate  in  a  very  rough  manner  that 
there  was  a  large  increase.  The  question  then  arises.  How 
has  this  affected  the  casino  ?  But  the  casino  statistics 
were  defective  exactly  in  the  same  way  as  the  railway 
statistics.  They  simply  recorded  how  many  tickets  had 
been  issued  giving  access  to  the  gaming  saloons.  As  many 
persons  have  a  fresh  ticket  every  day,  others  every  month, 
this  issue  of  tickets  does  not  show  how  many  different 
individuals  enter  in  the  course  of  the  year.  These  figures, 
like  those  of  the  railway  tickets,  indicate  a  general 
increase,  and  that  is  all.  According  to  this  old  and  de- 
fective system,  while  in  1904  the  number  of  passengers 
who  booked  for  Monaco  was  1,279,232,  the  number  of 


admission  cards  issued  for  the  gaming  saloon  was  295,000. 
Thus  it  might  be  said  that  for  every  four  railway  tickets 
issued  there  is  one  admission  given  to  the  casino.  But 
both  for  the  railway  and  the  casino  it  is  often  the  same 
person  who  comes  round  and  round  again,  like  the  troops 
of  a  stage  army. 

The  casino  authorities  have  determined  to  draw  up 
absolutely  reliable  statistics,  and  this  has  a  double  dis- 
advantage ;  it  is  a  great  deal  more  trouble,  and  produces 
much  smaller  figures,  which  of  course  do  not  look  so  well. 
They  are  now  counting,  not  by  the  number  of  admission 
cards  issued,  but  by  the  number  of  different  names 
entered  in  their  books.  Thus  every  card  given  is  checked 
to  see  if  the  same  person  had  been  admitted  already  at 
some  other  period  of  the  year.  In  this  manner  duplication 
is  prevented.  The  result  is  that  in  the  year  1910  there 
were  155,950  different  names  entered.  This  seems  like 
a  considerable  falling  off  from  the  295,000  admission 
cards  issued  in  1904.  In  reality,  it  is  an  increase  of 
close  upon  50,000  since  1904.  The  number  of  cards  issued 
in  1910  is  373,000,  but  it  will  be  seen  that  more  than 
half  of  them  were  duplicates. 

The  following  year — that  is,  the  twelve  months  from 
the  Istof  Aprill910tothe31stofMarch  1911— there  were 
184,000,  and  in  the  year  ending  the  31st  of  March  1912 
no  less  than  197,000  different  persons  who  obtained  admis- 
sion cards  to  the  part  of  the  casino  reserved  for  players.  It 
is  true  a  few  of  these  only  had  a  look  round  and  came 
away  without  playing ;  but  their  number  is  so  small  that 
it  may  be  omitted.  Also  it  is  absolutely  impossible  to 
know  how  many  really  resist  the  temptation  of  throwing 
be  it  but  one  solitary  five-franc  piece  on  the  table.  Now 
having  at  last  ascertained  at  least  approximatively  the  num- 
ber of  players,  we  can  easily  reckon  the  average  loss  they 
make.  Thus,  during  the  last  administrative  year,  the  gross 
receipts  from  the  tables  being  40,500,000  francs,  we  there- 
fore only  need  divide  this  by  the  197,000  entries  to  realise 
that  the  average  loss  was  205  francs  or  £8,  4s.  per  head. 

THE    AVERAGE    LOSS  373 

Therefore  each  of  the  players  contributed  voluntarily  for 
the  maintenance  of  the  casino,  for  the  dividends  of  its 
shareholders,  for  the  cost  of  the  Monegasque  government, 
for  the  promotion  of  art  and  science — fortunately  the 
shareholders  do  not  get  all  the  profits — rather  more  than 
the  average  annual  taxation  levied  per  head  on  the  in- 
habitants of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  to  provide  for 
all  national  and  local  expenditure.  Since  only  foreigners 
are  allowed  to  play,  this  is  indeed  taxing  the  foreigner. 
But  why  should  Englishmen  only  contribute  to  the  relief 
of  the  poor  and  the  reduction  of  taxation  when  they  play 
in  France  or  at  Monte  Carlo  ?  Could  not  the  far  larger 
amount  of  gambling  in  which  Englishmen  indulge  when 
at  home  be  also  utilised  for  such  good  purposes. 

The  casino  authorities,  as  shown  by  these  figures,  are 
face  to  face  with  a  very  serious  problem.  They  are  too 
successful.  This  is  not  a  usual  complaint,  and  it  may  be 
regarded  as  a  fault  on  the  right  side ;  but  it  is  none  the 
less  perplexing.  Of  course,  if  these  visitors  could  only 
be  spread  more  evenly  over  the  year  it  would  be  easy  to 
manage,  but  the  enormous  majority  will  persist  in  coming 
in  January  and  February.  In  these  circumstances  the 
management  of  the  gambling  saloons  becomes  a  matter 
of  great  difficulty.  During  one  part  of  the  year  they  are 
overcrowded  and  overheated,  while  at  another  season  the 
visitor  is  impressed  mainly  by  a  sense  of  emptiness. 
Perhaps  there  are  few  things  more  depressing  than  to  see 
the  employees  sitting  at  an  empty  table,  liolding  their 
rakes  up  in  the  air  like  signals  of  distress  because  they 
have  no  work  to  do.  Instead  of  the  rush  and  scramble  for 
chairs,  one  or  two  persons  may  be  seen  looking  askance 
at  the  table.  They  stand  at  a  distance  hesitating,  as  if  too 
timid  to  go  by  themselves  and  be  the  first  to  take  a  seat. 
When  scenes  of  this  description  become  more  and  more 
frequent,  table  after  table  is  covered  over  and  definitely 
abandoned  until  next  season. 

To  know  how  to  cope  with  such  fluctuations,  further 
statistics  are  needed,  and  of  late  a  new  system  has  been 


introduced.  On  four  days  during  the  year  no  one  is 
admitted  into  the  gaming  saloons  without  having  his 
admission  card  punched.  The  cards  are  only  punched 
once,  so  that  the  same  person  returning  a  second  or  third 
time  is  not  recorded  again.  In  this  manner  it  was  ascer- 
tained that  on  the  4th  of  April  1910  the  number  of 
visitors  who  entered  the  gaming  saloons  amounted  to 
5767.  During  the  summer  there  was  no  counting,  and  the 
next  statistics  were  drawn  up  on  the  20th  of  September 
1910,  just  at  the  commencement  of  the  new  season.  The 
entries  for  that  day  numbered  1207.  On  the  2nd  of 
December  following,  M^hen  the  season  was  well  launched, 
the  cards  were  again  punched,  and  on  that  day  there  were 
2390  entrances.  The  greatest  crowd  is  at  carnival  time, 
and  the  authorities  are  convinced  that  during  the  carnival 
week  of  1911  there  must  have  been  at  least  8000  entries 
in  a  single  day.  Perhaps  it  was  because  they  were  so 
numerous  and  everyone  was  overworked  that  no  attempt 
was  made  to  secure  the  positive  figures.  This  was  not 
done  before  the  31st  of  March  1911,  when  people  were 
beginning  to  leave  and  the  season  was  already  on  the 
wane.  Even  in  these  circumstances  the  highest  record  was 
obtained,  the  entries  amounting  to  6558.  This  is  an 
increase  of  791  on  the  number  counted  at  the  correspond- 
ing period  of  the  previous  year.  On  the  4th  of  April  1911 
the  number  had  further  increased  to  6500.  The  autumn 
count  was  a  month  earlier  in  1911,  and  on  the  29th  of 
August  that  year  only  930  different  persons  entered  the 
gaming  saloons.  In  winter  there  was  no  count,  but  on  the 
6th  of  March  1912  there  were  9800  different  tickets 
punched.  This  was  an  increase  of  half  as  many  more  when 
compared  with  the  6558  of  the  31st  of  March  1911. 

The  worst  aspect  of  the  situation  is  that  to-day 
quantity  rather  than  quality  predominates.  This  has 
given  cause  for  much  reflection,  no  small  alarm  and 
anxiety  and  a  great  deal  of  useless  regret.  After  all,  the 
development  of  economic  forces  is  like  the  tide  of  the 
sea,  it  takes  but  little  account  of  would-be  Canutes,  even 

A   NEW    CLASS    OF    VISITORS  375 

if  they  are  casino  directors.  It  is  the  old  battle  between 
the  first  and  the  third  class,  between  the  saloon  and  the 
steerage,  between  the  orchestra  stalls  and  the  pit  or  the 
gallery.  Though  the  situation  is  very  different,  the  result 
will  be  the  same.  The  mass  will  win  ;  indeed,  it  has  won 
already.  It  is  true  M.  Maubert,  the  directeur  des  jeux,  was 
very  careful  to  impress  upon  me  that  there  had  been  no 
falling  off"  in  the  number  of  the  high-class  frequenters  of 
the  casino.  They  came  now  as  in  the  bright  days  of  yore, 
when,  he  was  fain  to  confess,  their  presence  was  much 
more  obvious.  But,  he  promptly  continued,  they  are  there 
now,  only  they  are  lost  in  the  crowd  ;  they  are  not  less 
numerous,  but  they  are  crowded  in  the  mass  of  pleasure 
excursionists,  of  Cooks  tourists,  of  travellers  booked 
through  by  innumerable  agencies  and  syndicates.  Again, 
there  is  the  question  of  the  automobile.  Formerly, 
people  found  that  it  was  a  long  journey,  and  when  they 
reached  Monte  Carlo  they  were  glad  to  stop  for  a  month 
at  least,  and  often  for  a  considerably  longer  period.  Now 
they  come  in  their  own  motor  cars  and  by  easy  stages, 
and  after  they  have  been  at  Monte  Carlo  for  a  week  or  so, 
they  feel  as  if  they  must  travel  farther  as  they  have  their 
own  automobiles,  and  it  is  so  easy  to  go  on  another  stage. 
Thus  it  is  that  the  casino  crowd  has  quite  a  different 
aspect.  It  is  not  what  it  was  twenty  or  even  ten  years 
ago.  For  one  thing,  there  was  no  German  predominance 
in  those  days.  Here  and  there  a  German  might  be  met, 
for  Monte  Carlo  was  always  a  cosmopolitan  place,  but 
Germans  were  not  more  numerous  than  visitors  of  other 
nationalitities.  To-day,  however,  imited  Europe  can 
scarcely  cope  with  them. 

Mr  Filson  Young,  in  his  remarkable  essay  on  Monte 
Carlo,  still  considers  that  all  the  wealth  of  the  civilised 
world  is  represented  on  this  spot  dining  a  few  months  in 
the  year.  Here  it  is  that  "  the  civilisation  of  pleasure  has 
come  to  its  zenith."  The  following  word  painting  from 
*'  Memory  Harbour,"  one  of  Mr  Filson  Young's  mmierous 
publications,  gives  a  striking  and  living  picture  of  the 
casino  crowd : — 


"  Evening,  the  grateful  cool  evening  of  the  South,  has 
stolen  down  from  the  mountains  and  hangs  fragrantlj^  in 
the  darkening  sky.  The  odorous  shrubs  in  the  garden  send 
out  their  perfume  more  persistently ;  the  dust  of  the  day 
has  subsided ;  lamps  grow  amid  the  flowers  ;  men  and 
women,  some  of  the  most  lovely  of  women  and  the  most 
beautifully  attired,  walk  on  the  spotless  pavements  as 
though  they  walked  on  a  lighted  stage.  The  murmur 
of  music,  melodies  of  passion  and  romance,  steal  from 
violins,  out  of  the  cafes  and  among  the  trees.  There  is  a 
rustle  of  feet,  a  whisper  of  dresses,  a  hum  of  voices.  This 
is  under  the  evening  sky  ;  but  as  you  pass  under  the  great 
portals  of  the  Casino  and  enter  the  rooms  the  odour  of 
the  evening  and  the  perfume  of  the  flowering  shrubs  fade 
and  vanish  suddenly  like  an  overture  that  is  ended.  The 
lights  blaze  from  the  chandeliers  on  the  decorated  walls 
and  marble  floor  of  the  Atrium  ;  the  atmosphere  thickens, 
becomes  less  fragrant,  less  sparkling,  grows  heavy  and 
overpowering  like  a  drug.  Room  after  room  opens  before 
you,  filled  with  a  throng  that  flows  in  and  out  and  moves 
in  eddying  orbits  round  the  tables.  There  is  something  in 
the  atmosphere  that  is  strange  and  compelling  ;  you  realise 
that  you  are  approaching  the  heart  of  something,  that  you 
are  coming  near  the  centre  of  a  system  of  tides  and 
currents  and  influences  that  has  drawn  men  and  women 
from  North  and  South  and  East  and  West,  from  San 
Francisco  and  from  St  Petersburg,  from  the  Northern  and 
the  Southern  Seas.  You  come  nearer,  pulled  as  though 
by  a  magnet,  to  where  the  throng  is  gathered  round 
the  light  and  green  baize  of  a  table.  Its  edge  is  fenced  by 
a  seated  row  of  men  and  women,  with  piles  of  money 
before  them  little  and  big ;  with  books  and  diagrams  and 
columns  of  figures  ;  with  faces  very  intent  and  a  little 
hard.  In  the  middle  of  the  table  and  at  its  ends  and  sides 
sit  the  stolid  croupiers  with  their  rakes  and  cases  of 
money  ;  and  all  the  time  except  when  the  ball  is  spinning 
and  the  cards  are  being  dealt,  money  is  being  pushed 
about   by   those   rakes,    money   enough    to    replenish    a 


starving  town,  to  build  a  bridge  or  a  ship,  found  a  family, 
to  reclaim  an  estate,  to  feed  the  hungry,  clothe  the  naked, 
procure  from  Rome  forgiveness  of  sins,  and  to  buy  the 
Kingdom  of  Heaven.' 

Then  again  INIr  Filson  Young  alludes  to  the  people 
here  as  a  family  of  pleasure,  that  may  be  the  last  corrupt 
flower  of  our  civilisation  but  which  has  a  curious  charm 
of  its  own,  adding,  "  Pleasure  is  a  thing  of  the  surface, 
pain  is  a  thing  of  the  deeps  and  upon  this  shimmering 
surface  only  pleasure  flourishes." 

For  INlonte  Carlo,  this  may  indeed  be  the  whole  truth, 
for  the  principality  it  is  certainly  but  a  half  truth.  It  is 
utterly  foreign  to  the  history,  the  struggle  and  endeavours 
that  will  make  Monaco  long  survive  in  the  memory  of 
man  the  glitter  and  frivolities  of  Monte  Carlo.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  one  of  these  days  this  gifted  writer  will  go  to 
Monaco  and  find  that  he  possesses  the  temperament  to 
enter  its  charmed  world,  to  breathe  its  atmosphere  and 
live  its  life  as  he  did  that  of  Monte  Carlo.  Extremes  meet, 
therefore  this  is  perhaps  not  impossible. 

Sometimes  it  even  happens  that  offshoots  from 
Monaco  are  found  at  Monte  Carlo  and  within  the  pre- 
cincts of  the  casino  itself.  This  certainly  never  occurs  in 
the  gaming-rooms,  but  in  the  atrium  groups  are  formed, 
conversations  held  by  persons  whose  ability  and  achiexe- 
ments  must  command  respect.  It  may  seem  incredible 
to  some,  but  in  these  groups  any  conversation  about 
roulette  or  trente-et-quarante  is  severely  ostracised. 
Indeed  there  are  circles  in  the  principality  where  talk  con- 
cerning these  games  is  considered  bad  form,  just  as  if  in 
a  London  drawing-room  someone  were  to  extol  the  charm 
of  getting  drunk  and  propose  to  discuss  the  pleasantest 
forms  of  intoxication.  When  speaking  with  people  of  this 
stamp,  useful  information  and  ideas  may  be  obtained. 
Thus,  during  a  discussion  of  this  description  in  which 
an  able  barrister  who  is  a  leading  member  of  the  French 
colony  took  part,  the  question  of  the  political  bearing  of 


the  casino  crowd  was  raised.  As  the  visitors  increased  in 
number,  and  changed  in  character,  what  was  hkely  to  be 
the  pohtical  upshot  ?  Without  reproducing  the  observa- 
tions made,  I  will  endeavour  to  embody  the  drift  of  what 
was  said  on  that  occasion.  While  the  subject  is  interesting, 
it  will  illustrate  the  style  of  conversation  which,  despite 
the  gambling  and  the  frivolous  character  of  the  majority 
present,  may  nevertheless  be  heard  even  within  the  pre- 
cincts of  the  casino. 

It  was  not  until  after  the  Franco-German  War  of  1870 
that  ISIonte  Carlo  began  to  acquire  its  great  popularity. 
Looking  upon  the  principality  as  almost  a  part  of  France, 
the  Germans  did  not  venture  to  come  till  the  bitter 
feelings  caused  by  the  war  had  been  softened  by  the  lapse 
of  time.  At  first  the  French,  being  so  near  at  hand, 
constituted  the  predominant  element  among  the  visitors. 
Then  the  Italians,  as  close  neighbours,  also  came.  It  is 
true  they  belonged  to  the  Triple  Alliance,  but  this  fact 
has  never  weighed  heavily  on  the  French  mind.  The 
family  instinct  is  stronger  than  diplomatic  combinations ; 
and,  whatever  governments  may  say  and  do,  the  Latin 
races  are  natural  allies.  Thus  the  Italian  was  always  wel- 
comed at  Monte  Carlo  by  the  French  crowd  that 
frequented  the  casino.  Nevertheless  the  Italians  were 
rather  timid  at  first,  and  only  a  few  ventured.  When, 
however,  it  was  found  that  no  accidents  occurred,  that 
they  were  not  individually  held  responsible  for  the  Triple 
Alliance,  the  number  of  Italian  visitors  increased.  The 
Italian  is  usually  courteous.  Some  of  the  Italian  women 
were  beautiful,  and  stylishly  dressed,  so  that  their  coming 
added  to  the  attractions  of  the  casino.  Then  followed 
another  current  of  immigration  which  was  not  so  welcome. 
In  speaking  of  the  difficulty  of  getting  gardeners,  I  have 
described  the  unwillingness  of  the  native  to  do  any  heavy 
woi'k.  Along  the  whole  of  the  Riviera,  indeed  throughout 
the  south  of  France,  when  any  hard  work,  sucli  as  navvy's 
work,  is  required,  foreign  labour  must  be  imported.  Now 
Italy,  though  a  southern  country,  has  extensive  mountain- 


ous  districts  where  a  very  poor  but  strong  race  live 
exposed  to  a  rude  climate  and  many  hardships.  They  are 
well  capable  of  doing  navvies'  and  similar  hard  work,  and 
as  the  principality  began  to  prosper  they  came  in  flocks 
to  help  in  cutting  roads  on  the  rocky  sides  of  the  hills,  and 
were  useful  generally  where  powei-ful  muscles  were  needed. 
But  there  soon  followed  another  class  of  Italians  who  are 
not  so  welcome.  These  are  small  tradesmen.  They  opened 
shops,  became  permanent  residents,  and  in  too  many 
cases  sought  to  be  naturalised  as  Monegasques. 

The  inrush  of  Italians  was  so  marked  that  suspicion 
arose.  If  war  did  break  out  again  Italy  belonged  to  the 
Triple  Alliance,  and  it  might  pi'ove  very  useful  to  have 
a  friendly  population  in  that  part  of  French  territory 
where  a  hostile  raid  might  be  attempted.  The  larger  the 
Italian  population  the  greater  the  temptation  to  disregard 
the  neutrality  of  Monaco.  It  would  not  be  the  first  time 
in  history  that  Italian  troops  had  landed  in  the  historic 
port  of  Hercules.  This  feeling  of  distrust  was  especially 
emphatic  in  the  eighties.  It  was  even  believed  that  the 
emigration  of  Italians  to  the  principality  had  been  encour- 
aged for  political  motives,  especially  when  several  medical 
men  also  arrived  as  if  to  give  tone  and  prestige  to  the 
Italian  colony.  In  the  meanwhile  the  Germans  founded 
colonies  near  at  hand,  notably  at  San  Remo  in  Italy,  very 
close  to  the  French  border.  From  this  vantage  ground 
they  came  over  one  by  one.  The  fact  that  the  ruling  prince 
of  Monaco  was  on  intimate  terms  with  the  German 
Kaiser  made  the  German  tourist  think  he  would  surely  be 
well  received  in  Monaco.  In  this  assumption  he  was  not 
mistaken.  Indeed,  even  in  France  there  has  never  been 
any  tendency  to  show  resentment  toward  the  individual 
German.  But  a  current  of  immigration  created  for  a 
military  and  political  purpose  is  quite  another  matter. 
Thus  it  did  come  about  when  the  German  invasion  of  the 
principality  assumed  such  formidable  proportions  that  it 
was  thought  diplomatic  representations  should  be  made 
reminding  the  authorities  that  Monaco  was  iii  France.  It 


was  even  stated  that  places  where  Germans  congregate  to 
drink  their  favouinte  beer  remained  comparatively  empty 
on  the  days  when  there  were  French  military  manoeuvres 
in  the  neighbourhood.  And  it  does  not  tend  to  inspire 
confidence  to  discover  that  such  important  fortresses  as 
those  on  the  summit  of  Mont  Agel  were  not  only  built 
to  a  large  extent  by  Italian  labourers,  but  that  some 
Italian  officers  disguised  themselves  as  labourers  so  as  to 
penetrate  inside  the  fort. 

In  the  past  the  fact  that  Monaco  occupied  an  important 
strategical  position  was  on  the  whole  an  advantage.  While 
all  the  neighbouring  states  desired  to  possess  this  port 
they  were  equally  determined  to  prevent  its  falUng  into 
the  hands  of  a  rival  state.  Tiie  princes  of  Monaco,  playing 
off  these  mutual  jealousies  one  against  the  other,  contrived 
to  keep  themselves  in  existence.  To-day  the  position  has 
entirely  changed.  It  is  only  necessary  to  keep  on  good 
terms  with  the  French  people  and  their  Government.  The 
most  dangerous  thing  that  could  happen  would  be  the 
raising  of  the  cry  of  "  Prussian  spy  "  against  the  princi- 
pality. It  will  be  understood,  therefore,  what  fears  the 
German  invasion  has  engendered.  In  these  circumstances 
it  is  not  surprising  to  find  that  many  old  residents  regret 
the  days  when  most  of  the  visitors  were  either  French  or 
British.  Some  of  the  authorities  to  whom  I  spoke  on  the 
subject  sought  to  minimise  the  matter  by  insisting  that 
though  a  great  many  persons  spoke  German  they  were  not 
all  Germans.  There  were  many  Austrians  and  Swiss  from 
the  German-speaking  cantons  of  Switzerland,  and  a  few 
from  the  Balkan  principalities  who  know  German  better 
than  French,  so  that  the  German  language  predominated 
more  than  the  German  people. 

Putting  aside  all  political  or  military  considerations, 
there  remains  the  fact  that  the  Germans  are  not  par- 
ticularly distinguished  for  their  elegance  of  person,  dress 
or  inanners.  Consequently  a  large  crowd  of  Germans  in 
the  casino,  or  parading  on  the  terraces,  does  not  add  to 
the  beauty  and  charm  of  the  place.   It  is  true  that  the 

THE    "COOKS    AND    COOKESSES "        381 

Germans  are  always  clean,  and  their  clothes,  even  among 
the  poorest  classes,  in  perfect  order  and  repair.  They  do 
not  wear  picturesque  rags,  like  some  of  their  Italian  allies. 
But  the  Italian  labourer,  as  he  saunters  by  in  his  shirt 
sleeves,  has  affixed  a  bunch  of  bright  red  geraniums  to  the 
side  of  his  large,  torn  and  battered  brigand  hat,  which 
just  makes  him  a  perfect  picture.  Englishmen,  it  must  be 
admitted,  do  dress  well,  though  when  they  get  abroad 
they  sometimes  wear  eccentric  costumes  that  are  very 
profitable  to  the  Continental  caricaturists.  Englishwomen 
are  sometimes  grotesque,  often  dowdy,  occasionally  quite 
elegant.  The  British  people,  formed  out  of  many  races, 
are  an  uncertain  quantity,  but  they  used  to  be  considered 
a  genuine  acquisition  to  the  casino.  Their  arrogance  was 
overlooked  because  they  paid  well.  The  tradesmen, 
anxious  to  do  business,  ingeniously  discovered  that  the 
English  were  eccentric,  and  that  therefore  their  impertin- 
encies  were  to  be  overlooked.  But  when  the  English  in  a 
railway  carriage  spread  their  rugs  over  seats  that  do  not 
belong  to  them,  frown  at  anyone  who  attempts  to  enter, 
and  haughtily  refuse  to  exchange  a  civil  word  with  a 
fellow-traveller,  they  are  not  thought  eccentric.  The  term 
used  is  less  indulgent,  and  the  Englishman  himself  who 
is  an  experienced  traveller  knowing  foreign  languages 
will  take  good  care  to  avoid  his  fellow-countrymen. 
Nevertheless  the  English  were  very  popular  at  Monte 
Carlo,  but  will  this  popularity  survive  the  advent  of  the 
cheap  trippers,  of  the  Cooks  and  Cookesses  according  to 
Pierre  Loti's  denomination  ?  If,  as  Pierre  Loti  would 
have  us  believe,  they  can  ruin  Egypt  and  the  Temples  of 
the  Gods  even  up  to  the  Second  Cataract,  what  could 
they  not  do  at  Monte  Carlo  ? 



THE  lover  of  polemics  might  raise  some  very  close 
arguments  over  the  question  as  to  what  constitutes 
a  notable  player.  Is  it  some  celebrity  who  plays  or 
is  it  some  unknown,  insignificant  person  w^ho  contrives 
to  play  in  a  remarkable  manner  ?  Undoubtedly  the  first 
impulse  is  to  watch  a  grand  duke,  a  member  of  a  royal 
family  or  a  millionaire  who  may  happen  to  be  hovering 
round  tlie  table ;  but  his  JSIajesty  Money  is  king,  and  the 
man  who  wins  the  most  soon  eclipses  all  other  attractions. 
The  future  heir  to  a  throne  may  be  playing  at  table  No.  10, 
but  if  some  totally  unknown  individual  is  really  about 
to  break  the  bank  at  table  No  17,  the  majority  of 
spectators  will  prefer  to  witness  such  a  triumph.  So  long, 
however,  as  nothing  particular  is  happening  with  regard 
to  the  vicissitudes  of  the  game,  the  players  have  a  better 
prospect  of  being  considered  according  to  their  social 
position  than  according  to  their  good  fortune  in  playing. 
Nevertlieless  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  a  spot  in  Europe 
where  less  attention  is  paid  to  celebrities  than  in  the 
gaming-rooms.  The  employees  and  attendants  endeavour 
to  remember  the  appearance  of  distinguished  visitors, 
so  as  to  avoid  being  reproached  for  want  of  deference, 
but  the  general  public  thinks  of  little  else  than  the  game. 
Yet  when  once  outside  the  rooms,  as  the  gossip  to  be 
heard  on  the  terraces  or  in  the  atrium  clearly  indicates, 
considerable  interest  is  manifested  concerning  the  manner 
of  playing  adopted  by  well-known  persons. 

How  many  people,  for  instance,  have  puzzled  over  de 
Rothschild's  mysterious  No.  17.  The  late  INIonsieur  Arthur 
de  Rothschild  was  an  assiduous  roulette-player.  Formerly 



he  came  to  Monte  Carlo  every  year  in  his  yacht. 
When  he  could  no  longer  travel  in  this  manner  he  came 
in  a  motor  car.  M.  de  Rothschild  was  among  the  first 
to  travel  in  a  motor  car.  He  had  a  villa  at  Monte  Carlo, 
and  a  special  garage  was  constructed  for  his  car.  Though 
he  stayed  several  months  at  Monte  Carlo  he  rarely 
passed  a  day  without  trying  his  luck  at  roulette.  But  the 
extraordinary  part  about  it  was  that  he  never  varied  his 
play.  He  always  put  his  stake  on  No.  17.  If  he  were  fairly 
successful  he  would  play  for  an  hour.  If  not,  he  would 
get  someone  to  keep  his  place  and  go  out  to  smoke  a 
cigar.  After  a  while  he  returned  and  resumed  the  same 
play.  The  only  change  he  ever  allowed  himself  was 
occasionally  to  stake  on  zero,  but  never  on  any  other 
number.  If  his  ill-luck  continued  he  was  apt  to  lose  his 
temper,  and  finally  would  jump  up  in  an  evident  passion. 
On  such  occasions  he  would  return  yet  again  in  the 
evening.  Here,  then,  is  a  real  problem.  M.  de  Rothschild 
cannot  be  considered  a  thoughtless  gambler.  He  belonged 
to  one  of  tiie  greatest  financial  families  of  Europe,  and 
had  control  of  millions.  What  can  have  induced  such  a 
man  to  play  at  all,  and  to  play  in  so  peculiar  a  manner  ? 
What  mysterious  connection  can  there  be  between  the 
house  of  Rothschild  or  that  one  individual  member  of 
this  celebrated  family  and  No.  17. 

There  was  a  Polish  gentleman,  possessing  a  beautiful 
villa  at  Monte  Carlo,  wlio  played  in  a  similar  manner  ;  but 
his  favourite  number  was  32.  He  would  not  only  place  the 
maximum  on  32,  but  still  further  to  increase  his  stake  he 
also  put  money  a  chcval  and  on  tlie  airrc,  which  included 
No.  32.  It  is  said  that  32  was  really  a  good  number  for 
him,  as  he  is  reputed  to  have  won  at  least  1,000,000  francs, 
and,  what  is  much  more  wonderful,  he  is  further  credited 
with  having  kept  some  (iOO,000  francs.  During  the  season 
of  1911  he  hardly  played,  and  seems  to  have  realised  that, 
if  it  is  possible  to  win,  it  is  not  possil)le  to  win  always. 
There  are  many  other  great  financiers  who  are  fond  of 
playing  at  Monte  Carlo,  but  they  are  not  all  troubled 


by  favourite  numbers  or  special  systems.  Mr  Vanderbilt 
came  with  all  his  family,  and  they  all  played.  There  was 
his  son,  his  son-in-law,  and  their  families.  None  of  them 
failed  to  play,  though  it  did  not  appear  that  they  had 
studied  the  chances  and  prepared  any  method  to  cope 
with  them.  Mr  Vanderbilt  senior  had,  however,  a  peculi- 
arity which  somewhat  amused  the  onlookers.  He  generally 
put  a  1000-franc  note  on  a  tr-ain^veisale,  and  then  whether 
he  won  or  lost  he  would  run  off  to  another  table.  In  this 
we  have  the  beginning  of  a  system,  of  a  theory.  If  all 
is  pure  luck,  if  there  is  nothing  whatsoever  to  be  done 
to  alter  the  decrees  of  Fate,  why  run  from  table  to  table  ? 
Mr  Vanderbilt  was  no  ordinary  person,  but  a  man  of 
extraordinary  acuteness  and  wide  experience  in  money 
speculations.  What  could  have  induced  such  a  brain 
as  his  to  imagine  he  would  be  more  fortunate  if  he  con- 
stantly changed  tables  ?  There  was  another  American 
gentleman  who  was  very  wealthy  and  used  to  come  to 
Monte  Carlo  in  a  yacht.  He  had  an  extraordinary  faith 
in  No.  14 ;  but  his  confidence  was  misplaced,  and  he  lost 
a  great  deal.  On  one  occasion  he  was  seen  to  lose,  at 
a  single  sitting,  about  £2000,  all  on  No.  14.  With  regard 
to  a  favourite  though  often  fatal  number  there  is  the  old 
and  very  stale  story  of  Miss  Jane  Armstrong. 

A  book  published  some  ten  years  ago,  obviously  for 
blackmailing  purposes,  relates  that  this  lady  was  a  rich 
orphan  from  New  York  who  came  and  played  on  No.  24, 
and  at  first  won  some  £800  ;  but  ultimately  she  is  said 
to  have  lost  £10,000  and  thei'eupon  to  have  committed 
suicide.  The  book  in  question  also  published  a  sensational 
sketch  of  Miss  Armstrong  with  a  big  hat,  wild  eyes,  and 
a  graceful  figure,  pointing  a  revolver  at  her  heart.  The 
strange  thing  is  that  though  this  suicide,  due  to  losses  on 
No.  24,  is  said  to  have  taken  place  in  1881,  the  melancholy 
story  is  related  anew  on  every  possible  occasion,  in  spite 
of  its  being  more  than  thirty  years  old.  It  appeared  once 
in  The  Looking  Glass  of  the  18th  of  March  1911,  when 
the   fancy  sketch  just   mentioned  was   reproduced,  and 


details  were  given  in  the  following  issue  of  that  paper. 
JVie  Looking  Glass  of  the  25th  of  March  expresses  its 
astonishment  that  Miss  Armstrong  could  have  been 
portrayed  in  the  act  of  shooting  herself  when  cinemato- 
graph operators  were  as  yet  unknown,  and  adds  that  she 

"  took  a  fancy  to  No.  St  at  roulette,  possibly  because  when  she  first  went 
into  the  rooms  it  was  the  number  of  her  restiaire  ticket,  and  she  had 
the  good  fortune  to  see  it  come  up  three  times  in  succession.  She  won 
20,000  francs  in  no  time,  and  that  was  the  cause  of  her  ruin.  For  days 
and  days  she  stuck  to  No.  24,  but  wherever  she  played  it  would  not 
'come  up.'  She'd  walk  up  to  another  table  just  in  time  to  hear  the 
croupier  call  out : — '  Fingt-qualre,  noir,  pair  et  passe.'  But  when  she  began 
to  stake,  it  would  never  repeat  itself.  And  after  half-an-hour's  play,  just 
as  she  was  leaving  that  particular  table,  up  came  No  24 !  It  was 
maddening — heart-breaking.  The  more  she  lost,  the  more  entetee  she 
became.  After  a  fortnight's  gamble  she  had  lost  the  greater  part  of  her 
fortune,  and  became  so  down-hearted  that  she  shot  herself  one  night 
on  returning  home." 

The  most  wonderful  part  of  this  story  is  that  such 
minute  details  should  have  been  remembered  and  repeated 
from  mouth  to  mouth,  from  newspaper  article  to  news- 
paper article,  and  from  book  to  book,  for  now  more  than 
thirty  years.  Such  stories  must  be  very  scarce  for  this  one 
to  be  so  carefully  .stored  and  so  constantly  reproduced. 
In  any  case,  Miss  Armstrong,  by  her  persistent  devotion 
to  the  number  24,  and  her  dramatic  end,  is  certainly 
entitled  to  be  mentioned  among  the  notable  players. 

It  must  be  confessed,  however,  that  some  of  these 
players  are  chiefly  notable  for  their  extreme  foolishness. 
Perhaps  one  of  the  best  descriptions  given  of  this  type 
of  person  is  contributed  by  "  Flic  "  to  Black  and  White, 
21st  March  1911.  This  writer  on  "Merry  Monte" 
describes  the  first  visit  of  a  lady  who 

"  is  quite  the  pink  of  propriety  at  home,  and  would  no  more  think  of 
backing  a  horse  than  of  doing  a  cake-walk  down  the  Strand.  The  air  of 
Monte,  however,  got  into  her  head,  and  the  gambling  fever  seized  her. 
She  simply  must  have  a  flutter  at  the  tables.  She  appealed  to  an  ac(|uaint- 
ance,  an  old  hand  at  the  game,  as  to  how  she  should  go  about  it. 
'  Nothing  more  sim|)le,'was  the  reply.  'Take  your  seat  at  the  table,  back 
the  number   that  will  turn  up,   and   you    will    soon    win    quite   a  large 



amount ! '   '  Thank  you  very  much  indeed,'  was  the  beaming  response. 
'  How  deUghtfuUy  easy  ;  I  wish  now  I  had  heard  of  it  sooner.'  " 

To  return  to  players  who  are  notable  apart  from  any 
peculiarity  in  their  manner  of  playing,  the  Grand  Duke 
Nicholas  of  Russia  may  be  mentioned  as  an  assiduous 
frequenter  of  the  tables.  He  has  a  peculiarly  fanciful  way 
of  staking  his  money.  Generally  he  risks  from  £20  to  £40 
at  a  time,  and  likes  to  cover  one  number  in  every  possible 
way.  First  he  stakes  on  the  number  itself,  then  a  c/ieval, 
then  on  the  can-e,  the  t?'ansversa/e,  and  so  on.  On  one 
occasion  he  managed  to  dispose  of  forty-seven  louis  in  back- 
ing directly  and  indirectly  one  single  number.  Thus,  though 
he  may  not  win  often,  he  has  the  satisfaction  of  receiving 
several  different  payments,  and  of  raking  in  a  very  large 
sum  when  he  does  win.  The  Grand  Duke  Nicholas,  how- 
ever, has  no  favourite  number,  nor  any  favourite  table. 
When  he  has  placed  his  money  over  a  number  in  this 
elaborate  manner,  he  walks  off,  for  he  strongly  objects 
to  seeing  the  wheel  go  round  and  his  money  being  swept 
away.  Therefore  he  goes  to  the  next  table  or  stands  at 
a  distance,  trusting  to  the  cJicfde  partie,  who  will  make 
him  a  sign  if  he  has  won.  This  is  easy  to  do,  for  the  Grand 
Duke  Nicholas  is  so  tall  that  he  can  be  readily  distin- 
guished above  the  crowd.  If  the  Grand  Duke  loses,  he 
may  return  and  stake  again  at  the  same  table ;  but,  when 
he  wins,  he  picks  his  money  up  and  goes  off  at  once,  if 
not  out  of  the  casino  altogether,  at  least  to  some  other 
table.  The  Grand  Duke  Nicholas  comes  to  Monte  Carlo 
twice,  sometimes  three  times,  in  the  course  of  the  year. 
He  is  very  courteous,  and  manages  to  salute  the  croupiers 
before  the  latter  have  time  to  recognise  and  salute  him. 
His  brother,  the  Grand  Duke  Michael,  seats  himself  at  the 
end  of  a  table,  for  he  has  a  prejudice  against  the  middle 
of  the  table.  To  please  him,  the  croupiers  have  to 
remember  that  he  does  not  like  the  cylinder  to  turn 
quickly.  It  is  customary  to  keep  the  wheel  in  motion 
while  the  players  are  laying  their  stakes  ;  but  the  Grand 
Duke  likes  the  wheel  to  turn  slowly  so  that  he  may  more 


easily  see  in  which  partition  the  marble  has  fallen,  and 
which  are  the  neighbouring  numbers.'  He  seems  somewhat 
more  authoritative  in  his  manner ;  but  when  he  perceives 
that  attention  has  been  paid  to  his  wishes,  and  that  the 
wheel  does  not  go  round  too  quickly,  he  does  not  fail 
to  make  a  sign  with  his  head  as  an  acknowledgment.  In 
1910  his  father  died  at  Cannes,  and  since  then  the  Grand 
Duchess,  his  mother,  does  not  come  so  often.  It  is  curious 
to  note  that,  in  opposition  to  her  son,  the  Grand  Duchess 
prefers  to  sit  near  the  middle  of  the  table,  and  she  always 
gives  her  money  to  one  of  the  croupiers  to  stake  for  her. 
The  late  Grand  Duke  Serge  and  the  Gi'and  Dukes  Paul, 
Peter  and  Alexis,  were,  every  one  of  them,  assiduous 
frequenters  of  Monte  Carlo,  and  greatly  enjoyed  playing. 
A  long  list  might  be  drawn  up  of  royal  families  who 
have  patronised  the  gaming-tables  at  Monte  Carlo.  Indeed, 
if  expedition  and  brevity  were  the  object,  the  best  thing 
to  do  would  be  to  compile  a  list  of  those  who  have  not 
been  to  Monte  Carlo.  This  would  be  a  very  short  list. 
It  is  true  that  her  late  Majesty,  Queen  Victoria,  though 
she  often  drove  through  the  principality,  did  not  visit  the 
casino.  On  the  other  hand,  his  late  Majesty,  King  Edward 
VII.,  when  Prince  of  Wales,  was  a  constant  visitor.  His 
Majesty  was  usually  accompanied  by  his  private  secretary. 
In  manner  and  bearing,  the  late  king  passed  as  a  simple, 
unpretending,  courteous  gentleman.  He  went  into  all 
and  any  of  the  rooms  just  as  the  first-comer  might,  and 
generally  asked  one  of  the  attendants  to  place  his  stakes 
for  him  on  the  table.  It  is  not,  however,  only  future 
kings  but  reigning  sovereigns  who  come  for  an  occasional 
gamble.  The  King  of  the  Belgians  was  so  frequent  a 
visitor  that  he  bought  himself  a  fine  villa  and  property 
near  at  hand  by  the  beautiful  harbour  of  Villefranche. 
The  late  King  Oscar  of  Sweden  and  his  son  were 
assiduous  patrons  of  the  roulette-tables.  The  Archdukes 
Ferdinand  and  Francis  of  Austria  likewise  came  to  Monte 
Carlo,  and,  among  the  German  visitors.  Prince  Hohenlohe 
and  several  members  of  his  family  may  be  noted.  Then 


there  are  pretenders,  such  as  Don  James  de  Bourbon,  who 
is  never  so  happy  as*  when  someone  in  anticipation  calls 
him  your  Highness.  He  has  no  special  system,  but  he  often 
plays,  and  is  very  lucky.  Another  pretender  who,  when  an 
exile,  used  to  come  frequently  to  IMonte  Carlo,  did  not 
possess  the  best  of  teinpers.  On  one  occasion  he  showed 
his  ill-humour  by  boxing  the  ears  of  a  croupier.  Of  course 
there  was  a  great  commotion.  The  prince  had  to  apologise, 
and  he  also  offered  1000  francs  as  compensation.  With 
great  dignity  the  simple  croupier  accepted  the  prince's 
apology  but  refused  his  money. 

In  more  recent  times  INlr  Darnborough  won  widespread 
renown  by  his  extraordinary  good  luck.  Generally  he 
played  on  the  eight  numbers  that  were  nearest  to  zero, 
and  won  in  all  2,000,000  francs,  or  £80,000.  Further,  he 
is  one  of  those  very  rare  men  who,  having  won  a  great 
deal,  has  not  returned  to  play  and  lost  it  all.  On  the 
contrary,  he  has  invested  £48,000  in  the  purchase  of  an 
annuity,  so  that  the  casino  authorities,  who  take  care 
to  be  well  informed  on  such  matters,  have  lost  all  hope 
of  getting  the  money  back.  There  was,  on  the  other 
hand,  a  Pole  from  Warsaw  who  also  won  just  about 
2,000,000  francs,  but  he  punctually  lost  them  all  again. 
Now  it  seems  as  if  there  are  some  people  who  cannot 
possibly  be  saved  from  their  own  folly,  for  this  Pole  had 
the  extraordinary  luck  to  win  about  2,000,000  francs 
a  second  time.  It  might  be  thought  that  having  already 
once  lost  all  he  had  won,  he  would  know,  on  the  second 
occasion,  when  to  stop,  but  it  was  not  so.  He  continued 
playing  till  once  again  he  lost  all  the  2,000,000  francs  of 
his  second  fortune. 

It  is  not,  however,  the  notable,  especially  the  wealthy 
players,  who  are  most  profitable  to  the  casino.  The  rich 
man  who,  out  of  his  large  income,  risks  a  few  thousand 
pounds  every  year  is  of  comparatively  little  benefit  to  the 
casino.  It  is  true,  that  one  year  he  may  lose  all  this 
money,  but  the  player  is  none  the  worse.  Out  of  next 
year's  income  he  risks  a  similar  sum,  and  this  time  his 

THE    PLAYERS    ^^^^0    win  389 

luck  returns  and  he  wins  back  about  as  much  as  he  had 
lost.  Thus  the  game  continues,  and  the  most  the  bank  can 
hope  to  win  is  the  percentage,  the  brokerage,  the  zero 
represents.  As  this  amounts  to  only  1|  per  cent,  on 
the  simple  chance  at  roulette  and  a  little  less  at 
trente-et-quarante,  a  player  who  only  risks  his  super- 
fluous cash  may  continue  playing  for  many  years.  The 
position  stands  thus :  is  it  worth  while  losing,  on 
an  av^erage,  £51,  6s.  8d.  for  the  pleasure  of  winning 
£48,  13s.  4.d.  ? 

Speaking  to  one  of  the  assistant-  or  sub-directors 
who  has  been  in  the  employ  of  the  casino  since  the 
Homburg  days,  he  expressed  his  conviction  that  the 
players  with  only  a  little  inoney  brought  the  most  profit 
to  the  bank.  They  could  make  no  fight  of  it ;  and  as  they 
were  never  content  with  a  small  profit,  something  pro- 
portionate to  the  small  capital  they  brought,  they  were 
bound  to  go  under.  Then  they  could  not  afford  to  come 
again  the  next  year  and  win  it  all  back,  as  the  rich  people 
did.  With  regard  to  the  poor  people,  who  toiled  very 
hard,  working  out  some  system  by  which  they  made,  with 
some  approach  to  certainty,  perhaps  twenty  francs  a  day, 
they  might,  and  indeed  did,  live  on  the  bank  for  many 
years.  Yet  the  day  comes  when  they  give  it  all  back. 
Nevertheless  he  agreed  with  me  that  the  bank  depended 
on  the  folly  of  the  player  far  more  than  on  the  zero.  If 
every  person  who  won  stopped  playing  after  losing  50 
per  cent,  of  his  winnings,  the  casino  could  not  exist.  But 
those  who  keep  what  they  gain  are  almost  unknown. 
After  all  these  years  of  experience  it  was  evident  that, 
on  the  whole,  the  public  must  lose.  Some  system  might 
succeed  for  a  while,  but  there  was  no  certain  method, 
otherwise  it  would  have  been  discovered  and  applied  long 
ago.  By  far  the  most  notable  player  was  the  player 
who  carried  away  his  winnings  and  did  not  return  to  lose 
them  all. 

Well  worthy  of  being  mentioned  among  notable 
players  are  those  pathetic  women,  wives  or  sweethearts, 


who  seek  to  redeem  the  lost  fortunes  of  their  husbands 
or  lovers.  The  inost  wonderful  and  cheering  thing  about 
it  is  that  they  are  sometimes  successful.  The  American 
paper.  The  Sun,  of  23rd  October  1910,  is  responsible  for 
the  following  story  : — 

"  Yet  if  the  poisoned  atmosphere  makes  sirens,  it  also  brings  out 
traits  of  womanly  devotion.  What  of  the  touching  and  romantic  story  of 
Suzanne  Bernnatzki,  who  became  infatuated  with  the  young  Count  X, 
a  confirmed  gambler?  l3 -i 

"  Count  X  had  gambled  away  his  family  fortune,  though  no  one  but 
Suzanne  knew  how  near  he  must  be  to  the  crash.  Only  certain  funds 
which  amounted  to  a  trust  were  at  his  call.  One  afternoon  Suzanne 
discovered  that  he  had  sent  for  the  money — and  was  on  his  way  to  play 
it.  She  hastened  to  the  Casino,  found  him  at  roulette  No.  3,  and  watched 
him  at  a  distance. 

'•'  He  was  losing,  already  embarked  on  the  stubborn  man's  system  of 
'  betting  against  the  bank's  game,'  and  forcing  his  luck.  Suzanne  knew 
better.  She  dived  into  her  purse  satchel  and  fetched  out  three  100- 
franc  notes.  Without  any  particular  plan  she  begged  a  gentleman  in 
front  to  place  them  on  the  red  and  they  won  for  her,  just  as  her  lover 
at  the  other  end  of  the  table  had  lost  300  francs  on  black. 

"  Someone  made  room  for  her.  She  took  a  seat  just  as  the  young 
Count  bet  600  francs  between  the  first  and  second  columns.  '  They'll 
both  lose,'  an  intuition  told  her,  so  she  quickly  slapped  300  francs  on 
the  remaining  one.  Click  !  She  raked  in  600  francs — the  600  that  he  was 
losing  !  And  the  luminous  idea  pursued  her.  So  long  as  her  stakes  held 
out  she  would  bet  against  her  lover.  Should  she  lose  it  would  not  matter 
— he  would  be  winning.  But  should  he  lose  then  she  must  win  for 

"  She  won  and  won ;  her  pile  of  bank-notes  grew  imposing ;  she  let 
herself  go  into  speculative  byplays ;  she  was  winning  more  than  X  was 
losing.  Then  the  end  came  quickly.  He  rose  from  the  table.  Sweeping 
all  her  new  wealth  into  her  purse  satchel,  Suzanne  followed. 

"  He  walked  the  beautiful  terrace  in  the  darkening  twilight.  Suicide 
was  in  his  heart.  She  approached  him.  They  sat  in  the  marble  hemicycle. 

"'I  am  ruined  and  dishonoured,'  he  said.  '1  have  just  20,000 
francs  that  are  not  mine.' 

"'That  is  funny,'  answered  Suzanne.  'I  have  just  won  26,000 — a 
wonderful  run  of  luck  at  table  No.  3.' 

"'That's  where  I  lost  my  money.  Black  and  even  the  double 

" '  And  I  won  on  red,  odd  and  single  columns,'  laughed  Suzanne 
bravely.  '  My  friend,  I  have  evidently  won  your  money.'  Then  opening 
her  satchel  to  show  the  mass  of  wealth,  she  added  :  '  you  must  take  it 
back,  I  cannot  keep  it.'  " 


Should  this,  Hke  so  many  other  casino  stories,  prove 
to  be  apocryphal,  there  is  absolutely  nothing  improbable 
about  it.  Indeed  something  of  the  sort  must  have  occurred 
several  times.  When  a  person  plays  on  the  dozens  or  the 
simple  chances  nothing  is  easier  than  to  neutralise  the 
result  by  playing  on  the  opposite  chances.  The  only 
risk  of  loss  then  remaining  is  the  zero.  But  even  if  the 
zero  came  out  with  more  than  usual  frequency  it  would 
only  mean  an  occasional  loss ;  the  winning  side  would 
still  win  nearly  if  not  quite  as  much  as  the  other  side  had 
lost.  To  the  anxious  wife  who  sees  her  husband  ruining 
the  family  this  method  may  be  strongly  recommended. 
Indeed,  it  is  difficult  to  suggest  what  else  can  be  done  to 
save  the  situation.  It  is  far  safer  than  going  and  playing 
afterwards.  In  the  one  case  the  winning  back  of  all  the 
losses  excepting  what  zero  takes  is  a  mathematical  certainty. 
In  the  other  case,  it  is  merely  a  question  of  luck,  though 
it  does,  and  not  infrequently,  happen  that,  of  a  couple, 
the  one  is  as  lucky  as  the  other  is  unlucky. 

A  story  of  this  character  was  told  me  by  a  servant 
concerning  her  former  master.  The  gentleman  was  of 
noble  family,  had  a  large  estate  in  Savoy,  where  he  was 
much  respected.  To  escape  the  severity  of  the  winter  he 
took  a  villa  on  the  Promenade  des  Anglais,  at  Nice.  Of 
course  he  went  to  Monte  Carlo,  which  is  within  easy 
reach  from  Nice,  and  there  finally  lost  all  his  fortune. 
Hastening  back  to  his  country-seat  he  broke  the  news 
to  his  wife,  telling  her  that  the  estate  and  all  they  had 
must  be  sold.  This  was  the  more  humiliating  as  he 
had  always  been  so  highly  considered  throughout  the 
neighbourhood.  But  his  wife  was  not  disposed  to  submit 
thus  tamely  to  their  ill-fortune.  Looking  around  her,  she 
collected  what  ready  cash  it  was  still  in  her  power  to 
raise,  and  took  the  first  train  to  Monte  Carlo.  This  lady 
was  not  a  gambler,  that  was  her  husband's  vice ;  but  on 
this  occasion  she  played,  and  played  boldly.  In  a  short 
time  she  had  won,  perhaps  not  as  much  as  her  husband 
had  lost,  but,  in  any  case,  quite  enough  to  redeem  their 


fortunes  and  render  the  sale  of  the  estate  unnecessary. 
Overwhelmed  with  joy,  her  newly  acquired  wealth  about 
her,  this  excellent  wife  hastened  home.  It  was  too  late. 
Her  husband's  life  was  wrecked  though  his  fortune  had 
been  saved.  He  could  not  shake  himself  free  from  the 
impression  that  he  was  ruined,  and  soon  fell  into  a  sort 
of  dotage. 

Such  dramatic  and  distressful  occurrences  are  the 
inevitable  result  of  all  gambling,  whether  on  the  Stock 
Exchange,  on  the  racecourse  or  at  roulette.  But  a  de- 
voted wife  would  not  find  it  as  easy  to  counteract  her 
husband's  gambling  propensities  on  the  Stock  Exchange 
or  on  the  racecourse  as  at  the  roulette-table.  It  is 
difficult  to  imagine  a  lady  rushing  oft"  to  a  race  to  back 
the  field  against  her  husband's  favourite  horse,  or  at- 
tempting to  bear  the  market  when  her  husband  was 
speculating  with  the  bulls.  At  roulette  it  is  impossible 
for  a  player  to  conceal  his  game ;  on  the  racecourse  or 
money  market  the  speculator  need  not  reveal  how  he 
has  invested  his  money. 



TO  describe  jNIonte  Carlo  as  a  "  gambling  gehenna " 
that  "  makes  heaven  kiss  hell,"  where  people  fear 
to  take  morning  walks  because  they  know  not 
"  at  what  turn  they  may  come  across  a  dead  body,"  is  the 
style  some  writers  adopt  apparently  in  good  faith.  Before 
me  is  an  article  cut  out  of  an  old  number  of  The  Echo  and 
preserved  as  a  curiosity,  which  says :  "It  is  averred  by 
those  who  profess  to  know  that  such  cases  [suicides]  are 
never  fewer  than  300  in  any  year,"  and  that  "  a  few  miles 
fi-om  Monaco  is  a  cemetery  used  only  for  the  burial  of 
suicides."  In  "The  Secrets  of  Monte  Carlo,"  by  Mr  William 
Le  Queux,  which  has  now  run  to  a  sixpenny  edition, 
this  highly  imaginative  author  says  : 

"  To  the  readers  of  these  reminiscences  it  may  also 
be  a  surprise  to  know  that  since  1877  up  to  the  present 
time  "  (there  is  no  indication  to  show  when  this  was  written) 
"  the  average  number  of  suicides  in  the  principality  of 
Monaco,  with  its  four  thousand  inhabitants,  has  been 
more  than  one  daily  !  " 

The  authoress  of  "  The  Komance  of  Monaco  "  speaks 
of  the  "  sinister  roll  of  suicides,  two  thousand  since  1860," 
apparently  on  no  better  authority  than  that  of  an  author 
whose  book  was  condenmed  for  libel.  Hundreds  of  other 
equally  Avild  assertions  have  been  made,  till  at  last  the 
idea  of  suicide  has  become  intimately  associated  with 
Monte  Carlo. 

That  a  number  of  people  should  wish  to  fling  stones 
at  Monte  Carlo  is  quite  natural.  There  is  a  great  variety 
and  multiplicity  of  reasons  to  account  for  such  irritability. 



But  it  is  astounding  and  alarming  to  find  that  persons 
who  are  sufficiently  intelligent  to  make  their  way  in  the 
world  as  authors  are  so  careless  and  imprudent  as  to  write 
on  an  important  demographical  problem  without  first 
obtaining  at  least  some  elementary  knowledge  of  the 
question.  Surely  these  writers  might  have  devoted  a  few 
hours  to  studying  some  work  on  vital  statistics.  They 
might  have  looked  at  the  Registrar-General's  Annual 
Report,  just  to  get  some  idea  as  to  what  are  the  prob- 
abilities and  possibilities.  We  should  not  then  be  told 
that  since  1877  there  have  been  more  than  one  suicide 
per  day  in  the  principality  with  its  four  thousand  in- 
habit anis.  It  is  a  detail,  perhaps,  that  none  of  these 
inhabitants,  whether  four  thousand  or  more,  was  allowed 
to  play.  Before  thus  specifying  the  number  of  inhabitants 
it  would  have  been  prudent  to  take  up  the  statistics. 
These  show  that  at  the  quinquennial  census  of  1873  there 
were  3443  inhabitants;  in  1878  this  number  had  already 
increased  to  6049  ;  to-day  the  figure  amounts  to  nearly 
20,000.  But  this  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  suicides,  since 
the  object  is  to  denounce  the  casino,  which  the  inhabitants 
are  not  allowed  to  enter.  Then  why  mention  the  four 
thousand  ?  If  among  them  more  than  one  suicide  per  day 
occurred,  in  less  than  ten  years  the  entire  population  would 
have  committed  suicide  instead  of  increasing  three  and 
four  fold.  But  we  will  examine  the  situation  as  it  affects 
the  gamblers. 

When  the  population  of  the  principality  was  about 
4000 — that  is,  in  1874 — the  number  of  people  who  booked 
to  Monaco  amounted  to  186,000.  In  1811  it  was  1,587,130, 
and  there  were  197,000  persons  admitted  to  the  gaming- 
rooms  ;  therefore  the  proportion  between  booking  and 
admissions  to  the  gaming-tables  is  about  one  to  eight. 
Consequently,  in  1874  some  23,250  people  went  to  the 
gaming-tables,  and  if  there  were  any  truth  at  all  in  the  story 
it  would  be  out  of  these  players,  not  among  the  in- 
habitants, that  more  than  one  committed  suicide  per  day. 
Let  us  say  the  total  was  400.  This  would  mean  a  death- 

INSULT    TO    MEDICAL    MEN  395 

rate  from  suicide  alone  of  18  per  1000  per  annum.  Have 
such  writers  ever  seen  statistics  of  the  death-rate  of  any 
town  or  country  ?  If  they  had  they  could  not  write  such 

There  is  another  extraordinary  manifestation  of  mental 
blindness.  The  people  who  talk  of  one  suicide  per  day 
seem  impervious  to  the  fact  that  this  is  a  gross  libel  on 
the  medical  profession.  There  is  a  medical  society  at 
Monaco,  and  it  might  increase  its  funds  by  bringing 
actions  and  claiming  damages  for  such  a  libel.  The  number 
of  suicides  said  to  take  place,  in  proportion  to  the  popu- 
lation and  visitors,  is  so  absolutely  beyond  anything  con- 
ceivable that  if  it  were  correct  such  an  occurrence  would 
convulse  Europe.  If  correct  but  concealed,  then  all  the 
medical  practitioners  in  the  principality  assist  in  such  con- 
cealment. This  would  be  not  merely  "  infamous  conduct 
in  the  professional  sense "  but  infamous  conduct  in  the 
ordinary  criminal  or  common  law  meaning  of  the  words. 
Even  writers  of  romances  are  supposed  to  keep  to  possi- 
bilities and  probabilities.  What  right  have  they  to  libel  an 
honourable  profession  ?  It  may  be  said  the  casino  pays 
hush  money,  but  this  would  be  a  still  grosser  insult.  Surely 
medical  men  would  not  compromise  their  position  and 
break  their  career  for  the  sake  of  the  casino.  All  the 
medical  men  practising  in  the  principality  hold  their 
degree  from  foreign  faculties.  Even  the  one  Monegasque 
doctor,  Dr  Marsan.  received  his  degree  from  the 
Paris  Faculty  of  Medicine,  which  would  at  once  disown 
him  if  he  attempted  to  conceal  the  cause  of  death  and 
give  a  false  death  certificate.  What  would  become  of  the 
British  practitioners  ?  What  would  the  London  Royal 
College  of  Physicians  or  of  Surgeons  or  the  qualifying 
authority  at  Edinburgh  do  if  they  thought  that  practitioners 
bearing  the  degrees  they  conferred  were  endeavouring  to 
hide  the  fact  that  some  of  their  English  patients  at  Monte 
Carlo  had  committed  suicide  ?  Then,  are  not  the  French  a 
civilised  people?  Would  they  tolerate  such  a  thing  in 
their  very  ?  The   burial  laws   in    France  are   very 


strict,  and  they  are  equally  severe  in  the  principality.  It 
is  a  criminal  offence  to  conceal  the  cause  of  death,  and 
no  administration  could  conspire  to  commit  crimes  of  this 
description.  No  such  secret  could  ever  be  kept.  Those  who 
believe  such  things  must  have  been  hypnotised  by  a 
suggestion  planted  in  the  brain  in  an  unguarded  moment 
and  therefore  accepted  without  investigation  or  criticism. 
The  suggestion  grows  up,  becomes  a  habit,  and  these 
people  have  to  be  awakened  to  understand  the  enormity 
of  what  they  unconsciously  adopted  as  a  truth. 

Needless  to  say,  there  is  absolutely  no  secrecy ;  no 
corpse,  whether  a  suicide  or  otherwise,  can  be  buried 
without  a  medical  certificate  and  a  legal  permission. 
Monaco,  apart  from  its  own  love  of  law  and  justice,  is  too 
near  to  Paris,  to  Rome,  to  London,  to  Berlin,  for  it  to  be 
possible  secretly  to  inter  hundreds  of  people  in  the  course 
of  a  season.  It  is  an  insult  to  the  civilisation  of  Europe  to 
imagine  such  a  thing.  But  how  then  did  this  scare  arise  ? 
The  older  inhabitants  have  no  difficulty  in  answering  the 
question.  It  was  started  by  the  late  Bishop  of  Gibraltar. 
When,  in  the  sev^enties,  it  became  evident  that  Monte 
Carlo  would  develop  into  an  important  resort  and  attract 
rich  and  influential  people,  the  Bishop  of  Gibraltar,  who 
has  the  care  of  all  Church  of  England  chapels  on  the 
Continent,  approached  Prince  Charles  III.  But  the  late 
prince  refused  to  grant  permission  to  build  a  Church  of 
England  chapel  in  the  principality.  This  refusal,  of  course, 
was  ascribed  to  his  bigotry  as  a  Roman  Catholic  and  a 
bitter  feeling  was  engendered.  Thereupon  the  Bishop  of 
Gibraltar  discovered  that  when  people  lost  money  at  the 
casino  they  sometimes  committed  suicide.  An  agitation 
was  organised,  and  the  cry  of  suicides  was  raised  because 
it  was  more  effective  than  arguing  against  gambling  to 
populations  that  back  horses  and  speculate  on  'Change. 

The  last  time  I  had  an  opportunity  of  discussing  public 
matters  with  his  Highness,  Prince  Albert,  I  inquired 
whether  he  had  heard  that  the  campaign  against  Monte 
Carlo  Avith  regard  to  the  suicides  was  started  by  the  late 


Bishop  of  Gibraltar  because  the  permission  to  build  an 
English  church  Avas  refused.  The  prince  replied  that  he 
remembered  the  incident  very  well ;  but  it  was  a  mistake 
to  attribute  the  refusal  to  any  deeply  felt  intolerance.  On 
the  contrary,  it  was  due  to  the  desire  to  obtain  greater 
liberty.  The  difficulty  of  the  principality  had  always  been 
that  it  had  no  bishop  of  its  own.  P^'or  all  ecclesiastical 
purposes,  Monaco  had  been  a  portion  of  the  diocese  of 
Vintimille  or  of  Nice.  Prince  Charles  III.  was  then 
negotiating  with  the  Pope  and  striving  to  secure  the 
appointment  of  a  bishop  for  Monaco  who  would  be 
independent  of  any  French  or  Italian  diocese.  He  was  told 
that  if  he  allowed  an  Anglican  church  to  be  built  in  the 
principality  the  creation  of  Monaco  as  an  independent 
diocese  must  be  abandoned  ;  Rome  would  never  consent. 
So  it  was  the  Pope  of  Rome  and  not  Prince  Charles  who 
refused  the  English  petition.  Nevertheless  it  was  Prince 
Charles  and  the  principality  who  had  to  suffer  the 
consequences.  It  is  true  that  the  thunders  of  the  Anglican 
Church  have  not  wrought  much  injury,  but  Prince 
Charles  and  the  Monegasques  generally  would  have  pre- 
ferred not  to  give  offence  to  any  religious  community, 
whether  Anglican  or  belonging  to  some  other  denomina- 
tion. This  is  amply  proved,  for  now  that  they  have  suc- 
ceeded in  getting  a  bishop  of  their  own  all  churches  are 
authorised  in  the  principality.  Thus  a  short  time  ago  a 
lAitheran  church  was  built  in  the  rue  Grimaldi.  Indeed, 
the  prince  assured  me  that  even  so  far  back  as  the 
eighteenth  century  all  religions,  at  least  in  theory,  were 
tolerated  in  the  principality,  and  in  this  respect  it  was  in 
advance  of  the  rest  of  Europe. 

The  bed-rock  of  fact,  however,  is  the  best  exposure  of 
all  fallacies.  But  with  regard  to  vital  statistics,  these  are 
of  little  use  unless  we  can  establish  a  point  of  comparison. 
This  is  easily  done  in  towns  where  there  is  a  stable  popu- 
lation, but  when  the  question  relates  to  a  popular  resort 
with  many  seasonal  visitors,  two  sets  of  statistics  are  pro- 
vided :  the  crude  death-rate  and  the  corrected  death-rate. 


In  the  principality  the  matter  is  still  more  complicated, 
for  I  am  not  aware  that  there  is  any  profound  interest  felt 
throughout  the  world  in  knowing  what  difference  may 
exist  in  the  frequency  of  suicides  among  the  tradesmen, 
workmen  and  inhabitants  generally  of  Monaco  as  com- 
pared with  the  frequency  of  suicide  in  other  localities.  As 
a  matter  of  fact  it  so  happens  that  this  is  a  problem,  a 
curious  and  interesting  problem,  but  its  existence  is 
utterly  unknown  even  to  specialists.  What  interests  the 
world  at  large  is  the  belief,  assiduously  propagated,  that  a 
large  proportion  of  the  people  who  gamble  at  ISlonte  Carlo 
end  by  committing  suicide.  To  show  that  very  few  suicides 
occur  in  the  principality  is  no  answer,  for  anyone  ac- 
quainted with  the  death-rates  of  most  countries  knows 
full  well  that  suicide  is  not  a  frequent  cause  of  death. 
Thus,  in  any  case,  the  figures  are  bound  to  be  small,  and 
to  talk  of  one  suicide  per  day  is  to  stand  self-convicted  of 
absolute  ignorance  with  regard  to  such  questions.  For 
instance,  in  London — according  to  the  County  Council 
statistics  (vol.  xxi.) — in  every  hundred  deaths  during  the 
five  years,  1899-1903,  the  proportion  due  to  suicide  was  06 
per  cent.,  or  nearly  two  hundred  deaths  before  we  get  one 
suicide.  Since  then  the  proportion  has  increased  to  0*7  per 
cent.  But  then  the  County  Council  knows  how  many 
people  die  in  London,  whereas  we  do  not  know  how 
many  people  gambled  at  Monto  Carlo. 

Fortunately  we  have  to-day  figures  that  are  correct 
enough  for  all  practical  purposes.  If  we  cannot  say  with 
mathematical  precision  how  many  persons  have  actually 
put  money  on  the  tables  we  do  know  how  many  individuals 
received  the  cards  that  admit  to  the  gaming-rooms. 
There  remains  but  one  complication.  These  latter  figures 
relate  to  what  is  called  the  administrative  year,  dating 
from  the  beginning  of  April  to  the  end  of  March,  whereas 
the  demographical  figures,  to  conform  with  those  of  all 
the  rest  of  Europe,  relate  to  the  twelve  months  from  the 
1st  of  January  to  the  31st  of  December.  These  figures,  the 
death-rate  of  the  principality  for  1911,  are  here  photo- 

Repartition    des   d6ces   par   Cause   at    par   Mois 























1 1 




1     ''^ 


ftAvreiyphoidc  (l>-phui  abdominal) , 

Typhus  ciumhtmaiiquc , . . .    . 

Fkvre  et  cachexie  paladecDoes 






















Aulres  maladies  4pidimiqu« 





^    I 







/ .  1 

Cancer  ct  auirci  lumeurs  maligocs  . . 








Himorragicci  raniolliswmcDi  du  ccr- 

vcau ^ 

M^iladics  organiqucs  du  corur 

Broocliitc  aiguc 

















Autrcs  afTcciion:.  dc  I'aouatcil  rc&oir^- 






loi(c  (phlisic  exccptcc) 







Dianhtc  tt   cniiriic  (ju-dciMus    de 
Jcux  ans) 

17        1   Tt.-rni-     nhtin.rrinn   mi.-olii  il.- 














-  - 





Ncplirili-  aiguc  vl  maladic  dc  Bright  . 

Tunicun  non  caocircuw.  ii  -luitcs  af- 
fections d»  org.  gCn.  de  la  fcnimc 

Scpticilmic  pui-rpirale  (fiivrc,  pOrito- 
iinc  phk-biie  pucrpcraici) 

Aiilrc%    accidents     puerjHrraux     de    la 
RroiScMC  el  dc  I'accouchemcnt 

Dchilitc  cong'«ct  vices  dc  cociforniaiioii 


Morts  violcnici  (suicidi;  csccpic) 


Aiittfs  nuladitv 

[*^   DIRECTION       1 


























— \' 



STABILITY    OF    SUICIDE    RATES         399 

graphically  reproduced.  It  will  be  seen  that  they  conform 
in  every  respect  to  the  demogi-aphical  rules  internationally 
established.  Thus  statistics  may  be  drawn  up  inter- 
nationally on  the  same  basis ;  and  if  Monaco  could  not 
produce  and  hold  at  the  disposal  of  all  countries  the 
details  of  its  death-rate,  it  would  deserve  exclusion  from 
the  pale  of  all  civilised  nations.  How  could  the  incidence, 
distribution,  seasonal  aspects  of  diseases  be  studied  and 
known  but  for  such  statistics  ?  Suicide,  if  not  exactly  a 
disease,  is  in  any  case  epidemical.  Even  when  Buckle 
wrote  his  "  History  of  Civilisation  in  Europe,"  though 
demography  was  not  then  the  science  it  has  become 
to-day,  he  was  able  to  deal  at  length  with  the  statistics 
of  suicides,  showing  the  remarkable  stability  of  this  cause 
of  death.  Buckle  points  out  that  money  troubles  do  not 
produce  as  many  suicides  as  we  might  expect.  After 
alluding  to  political  and  commercial  excitement  and 
stress  he  says : 

"  Nevertheless  in  this  vast  metropolis  about  240 
persons"  (to-day  it  is  more  than  500)  "every  year  make 
away  with  themselves ;  the  annual  suicides  oscillating, 
from  the  pressure  of  temporary  causes,  between  266 — the 
highest,  and  213 — the  lowest.  In  1846,  which  was  the 
great  year  of  excitement  caused  by  the  railway  panic, 
the  suicides  in  London  were  266  ;  in  1847  began  a  slight 
improvement,  and  they  fell  to  256 ;  in  1848  they  were 
247  ;  in  1849  they  were  213  and  in  1850  they  were  229." 

The  Monaco  death-rate  for  1911  shows  that  there 
were  13  suicides  out  of  a  total  of  319  deaths.  This  is 
indeed  a  very  high  figure.  It  does  not  quite  amount  to 
one  suicide  per  day  ;  all  the  causes  of  death  put  together 
did  not  produce  one  death  per  day ;  but  the  number  of 
suicides  was  nevertheless  distressingly  high.  Therefore 
the  details  must  be  carefully  studied.  First  of  all,  how 
many  were  inliabitants  who  are  not  allowed  to  gamble 
and  how  many  were  foreigners  who  may  have  gambled  ? 


The  season  when  the  great  crowds  come  opens  in  October. 
But  during  that  month  and  in  November  and  December 
there  was  not  a  single  suicide.  During  the  other  gambling 
months — January,  February  and  March — there  were  only 
four  suicides.  Thus  in  the  six  most  dangerous  months,  so 
far  as  gambling  is  concerned,  there  were  only  four  suicides. 
If  we  refer  back  to  the  casino  statistics  given  in  a 
previous  chapter  it  will  be  seen  that  whereas  more  than 
6000  persons  entered  the  gambling  rooms  in  one  day 
during  the  season,  out  of  the  season,  on  the  29th  of 
August  1911,  when  a  count  was  made,  there  were  only 
930  people  in  the  rooms.  It  is  not  likely  that  there  were 
more  people  in  July ;  yet  in  that  one  month  we  had  four 
suicides.  This  was  really  an  epidemic  of  suicides.  Thus 
one  of  the  persons  who  committed  suicide  was  a  coachman, 
and  his  sister-in-law  killed  herself  within  a  month. 

The  difficulty,  of  course,  is  to  classify  the  suicides,  and  it 
must  be  confessed  that  this  can  only  be  done  approximately, 
but  that  is  precise  enough  for  all  practical  purposes.  To 
the  public  at  large,  acquainted  only  with  the  Monte  Carlo 
suicide  scare,  the  interest  is  limited  to  the  number  of 
gamblers  who  have  killed  themselves, therefore  this  category 
of  suicides  may  be  taken  first.  The  January  suicide  in  1911 
was  that  of  a  Russian,  aged  twenty-five  years,  evidently 
a  gambler.  Then  came  the  very  sad  case  of  the  Austrian 
gentleman,  aged  fifty-seven,  and  his  wife,  who  both  died 
together.  This  was  in  February.  In  March  an  Austrian 
commercial  man,  aged  thirty-four,  killed  himself;  and  all 
these  four  cases  were  undoubtedly  due  to  gambling.  After 
that  the  calculation  becomes  more  complicated.  What  shall 
be  said  of  the  domestic  servant  who  committed  suicide  ?  She 
did  not  gamble.  But  she  lent  her  hard-earned  savings  to 
her  mistress,  who  promptly  lost  them  all  at  roulette.  In 
her  despair  the  servant,  not  her  gambling  mistress, 
committed  suicide.  Is  this  non-gambler  to  be  classified  as 
a  gambling  suicide  ?  Then  there  is  the  gardener.  He  was 
terribly  worried  by  his  wife,  who  complained  that  she  was 
never  well  enough  dressed.  If  the  casino  did  not  attract 


so  many  beautifully  dressed  women  to  Monte  Carlo,  this 
gardener's  wife  might  have  been  less  anxious  about  her 
own  appearance  and  would  not  have  so  worried  her  husband 
that  he  committed  suicide  by  jumping  off  the  rock  at 
Monaco.  Is  this  a  suicide  caused  by  the  casino  ?  Then  in 
May  another  coachman  killed  himself;  this  surely  was 
not  due  to  the  casino  but  probably  to  the  competition 
of  motor  cars.  Perhaps  someone  will  agitate  for  their 
suppression  because  so  many  coachmen  commit  suicide. 
The  August  suicide  was  that  of  an  Italian  mason  who  was 
certainly  never  admitted  to  the  casino ;  but  in  September 
an  Austrian  officer  killed  himself,  and  this  again  was 
undoubtedly  a  gambler's  suicide.  It  seems  that  out  of  the 
thirteen  suicides  there  were  only  five  actual  gamblers,  and 
here  a  really  alarming  and  serious  question  arises.  The 
remaining  eight  suicides,  occurring  in  a  population  of  only 
20,000  people,  certainly  constitute  an  exceptional  figure.  If 
anyone  is  absolutely  determined  to  raise  a  cry  concerning 
suicides  there  is  the  opportunity  ;  only  it  has  no  direct 
connection  with  the  casino  crowd  and  the  gambling. 

The  Penal  Statistics  issued  by  the  Procurator-General 
give,  for  the  ten  years,  1898-1907,  the  number  of  suicides 
and  attempted  suicides  at  106.  There  must  have  been  very 
few  of  the  latter,  for  suicide  is  not,  as  in  England,  a  legal 
offence,  so  the  courts  have  very  rarely  to  deal  with  cases 
of  attempted  suicides.  From  the  Procurator- General  I 
obtained  the  following  analysis  of  recent  suicides.  The 
dossier  of  each  case  was  brought  out  of  the  archives  with 
the  following  result: — In  1909,  out  of  nine  suicides  three 
were  persons  living  on  their  income,  three  domestic 
servants,  one  an  engineer,  one  a  mechanic  and  one  a 
carpenter.  Thus  four  deaths  out  of  the  nine  may  have  been 
due  to  gambling.  Of  the  nine,  four  were  Italians,  four 
French  and  one  German.  For  1910,  of  seven  suicides 
whose  dossiers  were  found — for  there  were  nine  in  all,  and 
twelve  during  the  previous  year — two  were  labourers,  one 
was  a  doctor  of  medicine,  one  a  journalist,  one  a  mer- 
chant, one  an  accountant  and  one  a  coachman.  Four  out  of 



seven  may  have  been  victims  of  gambling.  Five  of  them 
were  Italians  and  two  were  French.  They  lived,  four  at 
Monaco,  one  at  Beausoleil,  one  in  Paris  and  one  at  Palermo. 

For  1911  the  demographical  figures  and  the  legal 
statistics  agree,  as  they  both  show  the  maximum  record 
of  thirteen  suicides  in  that  one  year.  Of  these,  four  were 
persons  living  on  their  income,  four  were  labourers,  three 
were  employed  by  commercial  houses,  one  was  an  oflBcer 
and  one  worked  at  an  hotel.  With  regard  to  nationality, 
four  were  Italian,  four  French,  two  Hungarian,  two 
Russian  and  one  Austrian.  They  lived,  four  in  Monaco, 
three  in  Austria,  one  each  at  St  Petersburg,  Vienna, 
Milan,  Paris,  Toulon  and  Cap  d'Ail. 

During  the  first  three  months  of  1912  there  were  a 
great  many  suicides.  A  street  sweeper  or  scavenger  took 
his  own  hfe,  as  did  also  a  waiter  at  one  of  the  hotels.  There 
were  two  suicides  about  whom  it  was  impossible  to  obtain 
any  information,  so  they  are  registered  as  "  unknown." 
There  was  also  a  man  living  on  his  income  ;  five  cases  in 
all  during  three  months,  and  three  of  these  were  doubtless 
due  to  gambling.  It  is,  however,  difficult  to  understand 
the  meaning  of  all  these  figures  unless  we  bring  them  to 
a  point  of  comparison.  Taking  the  average  of  ten  years 
ending  in  1908,  the  death-rate  from  suicide  of  the  London 
population  per  annum  was  O'll  per  1000.  Since  then,  the 
figure  fell  for  1909  to  0*09.  Trying  to  harmonise  the 
official  figures  with  the  casino  figures  it  is  not  possible  to 
go  farther  back  than  1909.  Even  then  we  must  not  count 
the  first  three  months  of  that  year,  when  there  were  no 
fewer  than  seven  suicides,  because  the  casino  year  begins 
on  the  1st  of  April.  From  that  date  up  to  the  31st  of 
March  1910  there  were  only  five  suicides.  But  we  must 
take  this  figure  so  as  to  compare  it  to  the  155,950 
admittances  to  the  casino  during  those  twelve  months. 
It  gives  us  a  death-rate  from  suicide,  among  the  frequenters 
of  the  casino  gaming-rooms,  of  0-032  per  1000,  admitting 
that  all  five  suicides  were  due  to  gambling.  This,  however, 
is  evidently  an  exceptional  year. 


From  1st  April  to  31st  December  1910  we  have  nine 
suicides,  of  whom  five  may  be  counted  as  gamblers.  Up 
to  the  31st  of  March  1911  there  were  four  more,  all 
gamblers  :  184,000  persons  were  admitted  to  the  gaming- 
tables, of  whom  nine  committed  suicide,  and  this  is  equal 
to  a  death-rate  of  0049  per  1000.  But  what  is  really 
serious  is  that  out  of  the  20,000  inhabitants  who  do  not 
gamble,  who  are  not  admitted  into  the  gaming-rooms, 
no  fewer  than  four  committed  suicide.  This  means  a 
death-rate  of  0.2  per  1000  inhabitants,  which  is  twice  as 
high  as  the  suicide  death-rate  of  London.  With  all  its 
vice,  misery,  drunkenness,  squalor  and  overcrowding  the 
metropolis  has  only  half  as  many  suicides  per  1000  as 
prosperous  Monaco.  As  for  the  gamblers,  the  5lonte  Carlo 
suicides,  that  is  a  comparatively  unimportant  matter,  for 
they  number  only  one  out  of  every  22,444  persons  admitted 
to  the  gambling  saloons ;  but  one  out  of  every  5000 
inhabitants  who  were  not  admitted  killed  himself. 

For  the  year  1911-1912,  calculated  in  the  same  manner, 
there  were  also  thirteen  suicides,  of  whom  eight  were 
probably  gamblers.  As  194,000  persons  were  admitted  to 
the  gaming  saloons,  this  gives  a  proportion  of  0'036  per 
1000  gamblers  and  026  per  1000  non-gamblers.  In  other 
words,  one  gambler  out  of  24,250  committed  suicide  and 
one  out  of  4000  non-gamblers.  This  is  a  startling  dis- 
covery, particularly  if  the  JNIonaco  figures  are  compared 
with  the  London  statistics,  ^^^ly  should  there  be 
twice  as  many  suicides  among  the  inhabitants  of  the 
principality  who  are  not  allowed  to  gamble  as  among 
the  inhabitants  of  London  ?  Here  we  have  a  much  more 
important  and  serious  matter  than  the  question  of  the  few 
gamblers  who  kill  themselves.  My  first  care,  therefore,  was 
to  inquire  whether  any  special  cause  existed  in  the 
principality,  but  most  persons  I  consulted  seemed  to 
think  it  was  the  effect  of  the  climate.  In  that  case,  the 
neighbouring  Riviera  towns  must  suffer  in  a  similar 
manner.  Therefore  on  reaching  Paris  I  proceeded  to 
consult  one  of  the  most  prominent  of  French  demographers, 


Dr  Bertillon,  Chief  of  the  Statistical  Department  for  the 
town  of  Paris. 

Dr  Bertillon  very  kindly  set  to  work  to  answer  the 
question  ;  and  after  consulting  various  documents  and 
making  numerous  calculations  we  obtained  the  following 
figures : — 






















La  Seyne 











At  Monaco,  for  two  years,  the  figures — putting  the 
gamblers  aside — were  0"200  and  0'260.  This  is  absolutely 
similar  to  the  above  rates.  Therefore  the  problem  applies 
not  only  to  Monaco  but  to  Paris  and  the  whole  Riviera. 
It  is,  I  repeat,  well  worth  while  inquiring  why,  in  this  most 
beautiful  country,  twice  as  many  people  kill  themselves 
as  in  London  ? 

As  for  the  Monte  Carlo  crowd,  belonging  to  the 
exceptionally  fortunate  and  wealthy  classes,  it  is  obvious 
that  they  are  not  likely  to  commit  suicide.  But  there  is  a 
certain  number  of  persons  who  are  in  a  mentally  unhealthy 
condition,  and  there  are  others  come  here  as  a  last  resort 
before  committing  suicide.  They  are  driven  to  suicide  by 
what  has  occurred  in  their  own  business  and  home.  As  a 
forlorn  hope,  a  last  chance,  they  risk  the  little  they  possess 
on  the  tables.  It  does  not  seem  to  have  occurred  to  anyone 
that  sometimes — I  fear  not  often,  but  sometimes — they 
may  win.  The  man  who  is  ruined  and  on  the  verge  of 
bankruptcy  may  win  enough  to  tide  over  the  difficulty. 
Then  it  is  not  the  casino  that  has  caused  a  suicide  but  it 


is  the  casino  that  has  prevented  a  suicide.  There  are  no 
statistics  to  record  these  cases,  but  they  do  exist. 

The  above  calculations  show  that  the  death-rate  among 
the  Monte  Carlo  gamblers  amounted  to  0*049  per  1000  in 
the  year  1910-1911  and  to  0036  per  1000  in  the  year  1911- 
1912.  The  casino  is  a  joint-stock  company  run  to  secure 
dividends  for  its  shareholders ;  and  in  doing  so  the  result 
is  that,  on  an  average,  0*040  or  0*045  per  1000  of  the  people 
they  attract  commit  suicide.  This  is  very  sad :  no  one 
defends  gambling,  it  is  a  vice  v^rhich  all  legislatures  and 
reformers  have  desired  to  abolish.  But  if  the  dividends  of 
the  casino  shareholders  are  blood-stained,  we  have  not 
forgotten  the  coffin  ships  and  the  Plimsoll  agitation,  though 
we  have  allowed  the  Pliinsoll  line  to  be  dangerously  raised. 
AVe  also  know  that  by  spending  more  money  on  inspection 
and  inspectors  the  appalling  loss  of  life  in  coal  mines 
could  be  reduced ;  and  the  holocaust  of  railway  servants 
would  be  considerably  lessened  if  shareholders  could  be 
persuaded  to  sacrifice  a  small  portion  of  their  dividends 
to  establish  automatic  couplings.  Taking  the  Abstract  of 
Eabour  Statistics  issued  by  the  Board  of  Trade  it  will  be 
found  that  of  600,000  railway  servants  in  the  united 
kingdom,  the  number  killed  during  the  last  sixteen  years 
fluctuated  from  372  to  631  annually.  From  1895  to  1909, 
the  killed  or  drowned  among  sailors  has  varied  from  the 
minimum  annual  casualty  death-rate  of  4*090  per  1000  to 
the  maximum  of  8*090.  During  the  previous  fifteen  years 
the  death-rate  in  the  coal  mines  varied  from  1*240  to 
1*490  per  1000.  But  in  1910  there  was  a  much  greater 
number  of  fatal  accidents  among  miners,  no  fewer  than 
1769  being  killed.  It  has  been  calculated  that  on  an 
average  there  is  only  four  and  a  half  days'  work  done  in 
the  coal  mines  per  week.  Therefore  if  we  divide  the 
number  of  killed  by  234  days  it  will  be  seen  that 
on  an  average  7  miners  were  killed  on  every  working 
day.  Thus  about  as  many  miners  are  killed  in  a  single  day 
as  there  are  gamblers  who  commit  suicide  at  Monte  Carlo 
during  an  entire  year. 


By  all  means  let  us  save  this  handful  of  gamblers  if  we 
can  ;  but  without  mentioning  other  dangerous  occupations, 
it  may  possibly  occur  even  to  shareholders  that  the 
thousands  of  sailors,  railway  servants  and  miners  annually 
sacrificed  for  the  sake  of  dividends  were  more  useful 
members  of  society  than  the  gamblers  who  are  feeble 
enough  to  destroy  themselves.  Therefore  when  the  owners 
of  mining  property,  the  shareholders  in  railways  and  ships, 
talk  indignantly  about  the  suicides  at  Monte  Carlo,  they 
might  also  devote  some  of  their  energy  to  removing  the 
blood-stains  from  their  own  dividends.  The  beam  is  not 
only  in  the  Englishman's  eye,  it  stands  out  large  and 
threatening  in  the  eye  of  the  American  and  in  that  of  all 
other  commercial  and  industrial  nations. 



ON  the  receipts  the  casino  makes  we  have  seen  that 
a  good  round  sum  is  paid  over  to  the  prince,  by 
whom  it  is  used  for  the  benefit,  first  of  the 
principahty,  and  then  for  the  promotion  of  the  arts  and 
sciences  to  the  advantage  of  the  world  at  large.  Thus  all 
nations  receive  some  return  for  the  wealth  they  have 
brought  to  Monaco.  But,  apart  from  this,  the  casino  itself 
also  spends  large  sums  in  a  manner  that  is  of  general 
advantage,  so  that  all  may,  to  some  extent,  participate 
in  the  extraordinary  success  achieved.  One  outlay  of  this 
description  is  the  gardens,  where  far  more  is  done  than  the 
mere  necessities  of  ornamentation  would  suggest.  Here 
are  provided  exceptional  facilities  for  the  study  of  horti- 
culture and  floriculture. 

Of  course  it  is  "quite  the  proper  thing"  to  speak 
highly  of  the  casino  gardens.  If  they  are  mentioned 
in  commonplace  conversation,  the  words  "  lovely,"  "  very 
nice,"  "  beautiful  "  will  surely  be  heard.  But  how  few 
persons,  even  when  they  employ  superlative  expi'cssions  of 
admiration,  fully  feel  what  they  say,  or  in  any  way  realise 
why  these  gardens  deserve  enthusiastic  eulogium.  But 
there  are  other  more  appreciative  and  thoughtful  people, 
and  they  would  be  interested  and  more  observant  if  they 
were  only  a  little  better  informed.  Perhaps  one  of  the 
most  delightful  experiences  in  the  casino  gardens  is  to 
open  conversation  with  a  likely  person  and  offer  some 
explanation  concerning  the  beauty,  the  history,  the  utility 
of  one  or  more  of  the  many  surrounding  horticultural 



specimens.  Such  an  experiment  will  generally  prove  that 
it  is  neither  indolence  nor  incapacity,  but  merely  ignor- 
ance, which  prevents  appreciation  and  a  fuller  enjoyment 
of  the  glories  of  nature  that  abound  in  the  casino  gardens. 
Even  those  who  have  no  eye  for  colour  nor  admiration 
of  form  would  be  impressed  if  they  knew  what  these 
gardens  meant  in  the  matter  of  forethought,  preparation 
and  organisation. 

In  front  of  the  main  entrance  to  the  casino  is  one  vast 
expanse  of  flowers.  On  either  side  and  throughout  the 
gardens  there  are  numerous  minor  flower-beds.  At  all 
times,  in  all  seasons,  the  flowers  are  fresh  and  in  full 
bloom.  It  may  be  January  or  June — the  flowers  are  not 
the  same  and  their  colours  vary — but  the  flower-beds  are 
always  full,  and  it  always  seems  to  be  the  height  of  the 
season  for  one  or  the  other  of  the  many  blossoms  that 
grace  these  marvellous  gardens.  How  do  they  all  get  there, 
and  how  many  are  required  ?  They  do  not  grow  of  their 
own  accord,  especially  in  mid-winter,  nor  do  they  march 
in  and  march  out  of  the  gardens  each  in  due  season. 
Every  individual  plant  must  be  sown,  nursed  and  carefully 
brought  up  till  it  has  become  a  fully  developed  adult, 
capable  of  going  out  on  duty.  But  the  gardens  are  so 
vast,  the  changes  of  flowers  so  frequent,  that  a  great 
organising  genius  alone  could  keep  up  a  sufficient  and 
constant  supply. 

After  conscientiously  clambering  over  the  acres  and 
acres  of  forcing  grounds,  then  penetrating  innumerable 
hothouses,  and  finally  compiling  statistical  records,  the 
problem  assumed  a  character  similar  to  that  of  the 
organisation  of  an  army.  What  had  Carnot  to  do  when 
he  created  fourteen  armies  and  "  organised  victory  "  ?  He 
did  not  bring  into  the  field  half  as  many  soldiers  as  there 
are  flowers  required  to  occupy  their  allotted  positions  in 
the  casino  gardens,  and  certainly  his  soldiers  were  not  as 
handsome  and  healthy  as  the  flowers.  Though  doubtless 
Carnot  joined  his  troops  in  singing  the  "  Marseillaise,"  he 
did  not  provide  for  future  generations  of  combatants  to 


enter    "  daii^    la    ccwriere   qtiand    nos    aines    ny    seront 

But  the  chief  in  command  of  the  casino  gardens  has  not 
only  to  occupy  every  strategic  position  all  the  year  round, 
he  must  rear  from  their  earliest  infancy  other  forces  ready 
to  take  the  place  of  the  veterans  as  they  fall  at  their  posts 
or  grow  old  and  weary.  This  gigantic  undertaking  is 
entrusted  to  Monsieur  Jules  van  den  Daele,  Knight 
of  the  Order  of  Saint  Charles,  Officer  of  the  Order  of 
Agricultural  JNlerit  and  member  of  several  horticultural 
societies.  For  my  part,  anxious  to  render  homage  to  so 
great  a  power  of  mobilisation  and  organisation,  I  felt 
inclined  to  confer  on  the  casino's  chief  gardener  the  title 
of  Field-Marshal ;  but  if  the  work  done  is,  in  many 
respects,  similar  to  that  of  a  military  command,  the  result, 
being  wholly  pacific,  is  infinitely  preferable.  Therefore  it 
would  not  be  correct  to  speak  of  Field-Marshal  van  den 
Daele ;  on  the  other  hand,  as  a  master  organiser  of  living 
things  he  is  fully  entitled  to  be  described  as  Flower- 
Marshal  van  den  Daele.  The  principality  offers  no  scope 
for  the  genius  that  would  organise  an  army  of  warriors, 
but  it  has  produced  a  very  distinguished  coinmander  of  an 
army  of  flowers,  and  this  is  necessary  in  a  country  where 
there  are  so  many  flower-lovers  and  such  frequent  battles 
of  flowers. 

Naturally  the  provision  of  flowers  that  can  be  exposed 
to  the  open  air  during  the  coldest  months  of  winter  is  the 
greatest  difficulty.  For  this  purpose,  100,000  Cyclamens  of 
the  Persian  variety  are  planted  in  August  so  that  they 
may  be  ready  for  the  forthcoming  winter.  With  these,  as 
with  most  of  the  other  flowers,  the  finest  specimens  are 
not  sent  to  the  front,  in  what  may  well  be  described  as  the 
fighting  line,  but  are  kept  at  home  for  seed.  Even  in  the 
fighting  line — that  is  to  say,  in  the  casino  gardens — some 
succour,  some  protection  is  occasionally  provided.  Just  as 
soldiers  throw  up  a  trench  to  resist  an  eager  foe  ;  so  do  the 
gardeners,  in  the  dark,  when  no  one  can  see,  come  with 

*  To  follow  the  career  when  our  elders  are  no  longer  there. 


hurdles,  and  various  sorts  of  sheltering  materials,  to  place 
round  the  flower-beds  and  ward  off  the  frosty  night  air. 
All  this  is  removed  again  before  the  return  of  daylight 
and  the  warm  southern  sun.  Early,  very  early  in  the  year, 
long  before  Primrose  Day,  an  army  of  some  150,000  Chinese 
Primulas  is  moved  forward,  flanked  by  40,000  Piimuhi 
obco?iica.  These  wonderful  primroses  are  of  many  colours. 
Some  are  actually  a  bright  blue,  others  mauve,  red,  light 
and  dark  reds  to  rose  and  white.  There  is  a  yellow  speci- 
men from  Kew  Gardens  which  grows  in  storeys ;  this  con- 
sists of  a  circle  of  flowers,  then  a  piece  of  straight  stem 
growing  out  of  the  centre,  and  at  a  higher  level  another 
circle  of  flowers  ;  thus  it  may  be  said  that  some  of  these 
primroses  are  three  or  four  storeys  high.  As  for  the 
ordinary  field  primrose,  such  as  may  be  picked  under  the 
hedges  in  England,  it  would  be  of  no  use  whatsoever,  for  it 
blooms  far  too  late  in  the  year. 

For  winter  use,  there  are  also  a  good  many  Cinerarias, 
and  many  specimens  of  these  come  from  England.  The 
leaves  resemble  somewhat  those  of  the  marguerite,  and 
are  of  various  tints,  but  there  is  one  of  a  brick-red  colour 
that  shows  up  remarkably  on  the  grass.  It  is  named  the 
Matador,  perhaps  because  it  recalls  the  sanguinary  results 
of  a  Spanish  bull-fight.  Some  of  these  plants  have  double 
flowers,  and  in  number  they  equal  an  army  corps — 
namely,  30,000.  But  these  flowers  mentioned,  together 
with  some  40,000  pinks  and  10,000  rose-trees,  only 
represent  the  "  crack "  regiments  of  the  army.  They  are 
the  picked  troops,  dressed  in  extravagant  uniforms  made 
with  rich  cloth  of  the  brightest  colours,  ornamented  with 
plenty  of  braiding.  They  are  the  regiments  of  the  guard, 
the  cavalry,  the  artillery  and  the  scientiflc  corps.  The 
troops  of  the  line,  which  are  more  modest,  but  often  more 
useful,  and  always  the  most  numerous,  have  not  yet  been 
mentioned.  These  comprise  from  200,000  to  300,000 
Saiitoiiina,  a  plant  which  has  a  silver-grey  leaf,  rather 
hke  that  of  the  everlasting  flower,  and  here  it  serves  to 
outline   flower-beds.    Elsewhere   it    is   used   for   medical 


purposes.  There  is  another  medical  plant,  the  familiar 
yellow  camomile  flower,  which  also  helps  in  making 
designs.  The  largest  contingent  is  that  of  the  pansy.  Of 
these  there  are  many  varieties,  from  quite  a  common  little 
blue  flower  to  large,  velvet-Uke  death's  heads  of  mysteri- 
ous colouring  and  weird  expression.  The  line,  as  repre- 
sented by  the  pansy,  numbers  from  400,000  to  500,000  ; 
but  there  are  nearly  as  many  daisies — namely,  300,000  to 
400,000  ;  and  a  further  contingent  of  200,000  to  300,000 
Pyrethrums,  or  fever-few,  used  for  designs  in  flowers. 
Thus  the  troops  of  the  line  may  be  estimated  at  1,500,000, 
while  the  choice  regiments  number  390,000  rank  and  file. 
Flower- JNIarshal  van  den  Daele  has  to  supply  the  necessary 
sustenance  to  1,890,000  small  plants  and  flowers,  and  to 
constantly  mobilise  portions  of  this  great  army.  Such  a 
task  needs  an  amount  of  prevision  and  oi-ganisation 
worthy  of  a  Von  Moltke. 

Of  course  all  the  annual  flowers  can  be  displayed  but 
once.  The  difference  is  that  in  an  ordinary  garden  a  flower 
would  be  made  to  last  two  months,  here  it  is  only  utilised 
for  a  month,  during  the  zenith  of  its  power.  But  there  are 
others  constantly  growing  to  take  its  place. 

Some  flowers  can  only  serve  in  the  gardens  for  a 
fortnight  at  a  time.  This  is  notably  the  case  when  they 
are  in  full  bloom.  Others  may  remain  in  position  for 
a  month  or  two,  but  all  are  changed  at  least  five  or 
six  times  in  the  year.  It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that 
it  is  not  only  a  question  of  bringing  into  healthy  exist- 
ence something  like  two  million  living  things ;  but  that 
these  have  to  be  constantly  moved  about.  It  is  a  vast 
army,  reared  on  the  hillside,  where  artificial  shelter  and 
heat  is  provided.  Then  constantly  army  corps  are  made 
up  by  selecting  the  most  fit,  and  these  are  sent  down  to 
the  fighting  line — that  is,  the  casino  gardens.  Here  they 
are  exposed  to  charges  by  trespassing  dogs,  to  the  bom- 
bardment of  children's  balls  and  playthings,  and,  still 
more  fatal,  to  the  chilly  night  air  or  the  fierce  mistral  wind. 
In  this  contest  many  of  the  flowers  are  killed  outright. 


The  amount  of  work  all  this  implies  renders 
it  necessary  to  employ  150  gardeners.  5lany  of  the 
flowers  have  to  be  divided  after  they  have  begun  to 
grow,  and  put  into  forcing  ground,  then  into  small 
pots,  etc.,  and  are  thus  transplanted  four  times  before 
they  are  taken  out  to  the  gardens  for  ornamental  pur- 
poses. The  preparing  of  the  earth  is  an  expensive  and 
complicated  process.  It  is  not  the  dry  limestone  rocks 
round  the  principality  that  can  provide  a  suitable  mould. 
This  must  be  imported.  A  large  quantity  is  collected 
from  under  the  chestnut-trees  in  Corsica  and  is  brought 
from  the  island  in  small  sailing  boats.  The  boats  take 
seven  to  eight  days  to  come  over,  and  the  trade  is  hardly 
likely  to  yield  much  profit.  Other  very  good  soil  is 
obtained  from  heatherland,  and  is  imported  by  rail  or  in 
carts.  It  must  then  be  carried  to  the  hillside  where  the 
casino  nursery  gardens  rise  in  terrace  after  terrace,  right 
away  into  French  territory,  up  the  valley  of  the  Moulin 

From  the  higher  end  or  top  of  the  casino  garden, 
going  eastwards,  runs  the  main  thoroughfare  of  this  part 
of  the  principality.  It  is  called  the  Boulevard  des  Moulins, 
and  a  little  farther  on  a  rivulet,  which  sometimes  swells 
into  a  torrent,  passes  under  this  road.  The  water,  though 
in  the  dry  season  but  scant  in  volume,  comes  down  from 
so  great  a  height  that  it  acquires  sufficient  velocity  to 
turn  the  wheel  of  a  water-mill.  Here  the  olives  gathered 
from  the  wild  groves  that  covered  the  promontory  now 
known  as  Monte  Carlo  were  crushed  and  converted  into 
oil.  The  wheel  of  the  mill  or  moulhi  which  gives  its  name 
to  the  quarter  still  remains  overgrown  with  weeds ;  a 
green  and  grey  meinento  of  the  sylvan  simplicity  and  rural 
life  that  preceded  the  advent  of  the  casino.  Now,  instead 
of  sweet  olive  oil  we  have  an  appalling  accumulation  of 
foul  linen ;  for  on  the  farther  or  eastern  side  of  the 
mountain  stream  a  modern  steam  laundry  has  been 
erected.  On  the  nearer  side  is  the  V^illa  des  Roses,  and 
here  are  the  headquarters  and  the  offices  of  M.  van  den 


Daele.  At  one  time  M.  van  den  Daele  worked  for 
M.  Gintry  of  Ghent,  the  celebrated  traveller  and  horticul- 
turist. Their  cultivations  were  so  successful  that  some  of 
the  plants  they  sent  to  the  Paris  Universal  Exhibition 
of  1878  were  sold  for  as  much  as  £320  each.  In  1880, 
M.  van  den  Daele  was  engaged  to  assist  M.  Forckel,  at  that 
time  the  chief  gardener  in  the  employ  of  the  late  Madame 
Blanc.  The  experience  of  Homburg  had  demonstrated 
the  utility  of  possessing  close  at  hand  beautiful  gardens, 
where  fresh  air  and  pleasant  scenery  could  be  enjoyed 
without  going  too  far  away  from  the  allurements  of  the 
casino.  From  the  very  first,  therefore,  when  the  Monte 
Carlo  casino  was  but  in  its  infancy,  expensive  trees  and 
plants  were  imported  and  flower-beds  laid  out.  Just  above 
the  casino  gardens,  where  to-day  stand  large  hotels  and 
houses,  Madame  Blanc  had  five  hothouses  built,  and 
secured  some  of  the  rarest  plants  from  Prince  DemidofTs 
Palace  of  San  Donato,  near  Florence.  One  of  the  hot- 
houses was  60  feet  high  and  164  feet  long,  so  that  it 
might  contain  magnificent  trees  from  tropical  countries. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  M.  Forckel  was  a  horticulturist, 
rather  than  a  cultivator ;  and,  as  the  figures  given  above 
indicate,  rapid  and  extensive  cultivation  is  needed  to 
keep  the  casino  gardens  bright  with  flowers  in  full 
bloom.  When,  in  1880,  M.  van  den  Daele  first  came  to 
Monte  Carlo,  he  found  the  gardens  in  a  shocking  state 
of  neglect.  The  scullerymen,  after  washing  the  plates 
and  dishes  at  the  Hotel  de  Paris,  were  sent  out  to  water 
the  flowers.  Ferns  and  other  plants  of  great  value  withered 
up.  It  was  a  pitiful  massacre.  Some  ferns  are  very  costly, 
and  grow  to  the  size  of  trees.  I  remember  seeing  in  one 
of  Madame  Blanc's  hothouses  a  Blechvum  lirasiUenms 
with  leaves  that  were  more  than  six  feet  long.  Gradually 
M.  Forckel  and  M.  van  den  Daele,  working  together, 
managed  to  get  things  in  better  order,  but  they  always 
had  the  greatest  difficulty  in  securing  competent  and 
willing  assistants. 

Before  the  advent  of  the  casino,  the  local  resources 


were  very  restricted  and  the  population  correspondingly 
poor.  Consequently,  any  opportunity  of  earning  money 
would,  it  might  be  thought,  be  welcome ;  but  the  climate 
is  antagonistic  to  hard  work.  ^Vork  was  natural  and 
well  suited  to  Northerners  such  as  M.  van  den  Daele.  The 
dwellers  on  the  shores  of  the  North  Sea  need  work  to 
keep  themselves  warm ;  and  if  they  did  not  work  they 
would  starve,  or  the  sea  would  overflow  the  dikes  and 
drown  them.  It  was  all  Aery  well  for  men  of  the  Flemish 
race  to  be  eloquent  about  the  virtues  of  and  the  necessity 
for  work ;  but  why  should  those  who  were  born  on  the 
fruitful  shore  of  the  Mediterranean  trouble  themselves  ? 
Why  not  sit  still,  breathe  the  balmy  air  and  enjoy  life 
without  further  effort  ?  But  there  are  a  few  necessaries 
that  have  to  be  bought ;  this  is  acknowledged,  and  there- 
fore a  little  work  will  be  done  so  as  to  earn  enough 
money  to  purchase  indispensable  articles.  This,  however, 
is  not  a  sufficient  reason  to  justify  any  strain  or  exhausting 
effort.  How  can  life  be  enjoyable  if  it  means  fatigue  and 
heat  ?  Why  should  a  poor  man,  quite  content  and  happy 
in  his  poverty,  bustle  and  hurry  as  if  he  had  a  chance  of 
making  a  fortune  or  of  receiving  high  pay  ?  Let  the  rich 
and  the  well-paid  harass  themselves  if  they  choose ;  but 
the  poor  southern  labourer,  who  can  live  on  a  piece  of 
bread  and  a  little  garlic,  prefers  to  lie  in  the  sun  with  his 
hat  over  his  eyes  and  slowly  breathe  the  balsamic  air 
perfumed  with  thyme,  myrtle,  lavender  and  rose.  Thus, 
while  willing  to  do  a  little  work  now  and  then,  the  native 
has  a  natural  objection  to  continuous  toil.  Therefore  it 
has  been  necessary  to  import  gardeners  from  without  the 
principality,  men  from  distant  countries,  where  in- 
dustrious habits  are  acquired  because  the  conditions  of 
existence  are  not  so  easy. 

Some  of  the  work  needs  very  considerable  muscular 
effort.  This  is  notably  the  case  in  lifting  and  transporting 
the  larger  plants,  such  as  ornamental  palm-trees.  Now 
that  the  gardens  have  been  under  cultivation  for  more 
than   thirty  years   some   very  rare   and  handsome   trees 

THE   BATTLE    FLOWERS    WAGE         415 

have  attained  great  height  and  size.  Younger  trees,  still 
kept  in  pots,  are  conveyed  to  ornament  banqueting  halls, 
concert-rooms,  theatrical  representations,  etc.  Providing 
floral  decorations  for  various  functions  implies  a  great 
deal  of  hard  work.  For  the  young  trees  it  is  a  terrible 
experience,  and  a  large  hospital  has  had  to  be  constructed 
to  receive  these  victims  of  the  JMonte  Carlo  dissipations. 
In  the  hospital  they  are  protected  from  the  excessive 
heat  of  direct  rays  of  sunshine  and  from  the  wind.  The 
branches  which  have  been  wounded  are  amputated,  and 
plants  may  have  to  be  tenderly  nui'sed  for  a  year,  some- 
times two  years,  before  they  ai'e  presentable  again.  Most 
of  the  smaller  trees  are  worth  only  4s.  or  5s.  each  ;  but 
a  good-sized  palm  may  cost  from  £12  to  £16.  A  palm  is 
much  dearer  in  a  tub  than  in  the  earth.  A  fan-palm,  from 
ten  to  twelve  years  old,  if  in  good  condition,  might  sell 
for  £85  when  in  a  tub.  But  it  would  have  attained  its 
actual  dimensions  some  years  sooner  if  it  had  been 
allowed  to  grow  in  the  earth.  Plants,  like  wine,  become 
more  valuable  the  longer  they  are  kept. 

In  the  excitement  of  the  ballroom,  or  while  cheering 
the  toasts  at  a  banquet,  how  few  persons  think  that  the 
ornamental  plants  around  them  are  fighting  the  greatest 
battle  of  their  lives.  Tortured  by  an  unnatural  light, 
poisoned  by  unwholesome  heat  and  a  noxious  atmosphere, 
bruised  by  blows,  their  branches  and  leaves  snapped  and 
broken  by  the  pressure  of  crowds  of  unsympathetic, 
thoughtless  people,  how  many  of  these  plants  survive  ? 
The  loss  of  life  in  the  course  of  a  season  is  put  down  at 
some  30  per  cent.,  and  it  really  is  questionable  whether 
the  ornamental  effect  produced  is  worth  the  sacrifice.  To 
arrange  cut  flowers  on  a  table  seems  not  unnatural ;  they 
make  a  beautiful  decoration,  and  in  any  case  would  not 
have  lived  much  longer.  But  to  place  a  palm-tree  in  the 
middle  of  a  table  is  unnatural.  I'alms  do  not  grow  on 
dining-room  tables,  nor  are  they  intended  to  be  squeezed 
up  against  the  wall  at  the  end  of  a  ballroom.  However, 
there  is  a  demand  for  that  sort  of  thing,  therefore  vast 


hothouses  and  floral  hospitals  have  to  be  maintained  by 
the  casino  gardeners  to  provide  for  this  costly  exaction 
of  modern  fashion,  but  they  do  no  trade.  If  the  casino 
gives  a  ball  or  a  banquet,  they  provide  flowers  for  de- 
corations. If  a  private  person  or  an  hotelkeeper  gives 
a  banquet,  they  get  flowers  from  the  numerous  trading 
horticulturists  to  be  found  in  the  principality. 

At  best,  a  big  tree  in  a  little  pot  is  but  a  poor  thing, 
and  nowhere  can  this    be   better  realised    than    in     the 
casino    gardens   themselves.    Of   all   the   luxuries   to    be 
enjoyed  at  Monte  Carlo  none  can  excel  the  magnificent 
exotic  and  costly  trees   that   flourish   in   these  gardens. 
If  anyone  wants  a  sure  system  of  winning  at  every  spin  of 
the  roulette,  let  him  go  and  revel  in  the  gardens.  Counting 
the  small  flowers  and  the  large  trees  we  have  seen  that 
some  two  million  plants  are  displayed  for  him  to  enjoy 
during  the  course  of  a  single  year.  So  long  as  the  visitor 
abstains  from  playing  he  will  have  won  all  this  ;    a  good 
prize,  surely,  and  a  perfectly  safe  system.     In  the  summer, 
when  the  casino  windows  are  open,  the  chink  of  the  silver 
and  gold  can  be  heard  in  the  gardens.  The  botanist,  the 
horticulturist,  even  the  simple  visitor  who  possesses  no 
technical  knowledge,  but    appreciates   colour   and  form, 
who  loves  nature,  can  sit  in  the  pure,  perfumed  air  and 
feast  his  eyes  on  the  beautiful  scene,  while  the  rattle  of 
coin  sounding  from  the  overheated  gaming-rooms  reminds 
him  that  others  are  paying  for  his  enjoyment.  Indeed,  it 
is  so  obvious  that  the  true  and  absolutely  certain  system 
of  winning  at  Monte  Carlo  is  not  to  play  at  all,  that  there 
are  a  good  many  people  who  do  not  care  to  play,  who  are 
in  no  wise  gamblers,  and  who  yet  throw  a  few  pieces  on 
the  table  just  "  for  the  good   of   the  house."  These  are 
visitors    who    (like    the    admirable    and    public- spirited 
citizens  that  send  conscience-money  to  the  Chancellor  of 
the   Exchequer,    fearing   they    have    not    been    charged 
enough  income-tax),  feel  it  is  hardly  fair   to  come  and 
enjoy    everything    without     contributing    towards    the 
expenses.     Therefore,  they  try  to  lose  a  few  pieces  on  the 

HOW    TO    WIN    AT    EVERY    SPIN        417 

tables.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know  what  such  persons 
feel  when  they  fail  to  lose. 

The  charm  of  the  gardens  does  not  depend  only  on 
their  beauty,  but  also,  and  especially,  on  the  fact  that 
though  we  are  still  in  Europe,  and  quite  near  to  the 
northern  parts  of  Europe,  we  have  here  semi-tropical  and 
even  tropical  trees  and  shrubs.  That  the  date  of  the  palm- 
tree  never  ripens  sufficiently  to  render  it  fit  for  eating 
shows,  however,  that  the  tree  is  not  indigenous  to  the 
soil.  On  the  other  hand,  there  is  a  passage  in  Bouche's 
"  Histoire  de  Provence,"  which  might  be  cited  to  prove 
that  tlie  palm  and  other  trees  are  of  native  growth.  This 
historian  relates  that  King  Henry  IV.,  having  slept  at  the 
Chateau  d'Hyeres,  set  forth  on  the  following  morning, 
which  was  Sunday,  the  29th  of  October  1564,  to  examine 
the  palm,  orange  and  pepper  trees  that  grew  in  the 
neighbourhood.  At  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth 
century  there  were,  however,  no  palm-trees  on  the  French 
Riviera.  In  the  early  part  of  last  century  the  first  palm- 
trees  were  planted  at  Hyeres.  Throughout  Andalusia 
the  Moors  had  introduced  their  favourite  trees  ;  doubtless, 
they  did  the  same  on  the  French  Riviera,  and  some  of 
their  plantations  may  have  survived  when  Hyeres  was 
visited  by  Henry  IV. 

Hyeres  is  the  oldest  of  the  health  resorts.  It  was 
popular  as  a  winter  station  before  Cannes  and  Nice  had 
been  discovered,  and  when  Monaco  and  Menton  were 
utterly  unknown.  Hyeres  also  was  one  of  the  first  places 
where  a  trade  was  created  in  early  fruits,  vegetables  and 
the  making  of  horticultural  experiments.  The  palm-trees, 
successfully  raised  on  the  Place  des  Palmiers,  helped  to 
advertise  Hyeres  in  so  profitable  a  manner  that  now 
wherever  on  the  coast-line  attempts  are  made  to  attract 
foreign  visitors,  the  first  step  taken  is  to  grow  palm-trees. 
The  eucalyptus  or  Australian  blue  gum-tree  was  also 
found  to  be  an  excellent  advertising  medium.  Shortly  after 
the  Crimean  War,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  horticulturists 
of  Hyeres,  M.  Uellor,  at   that  time    a    partner    of  the 

2  D 


renowned  firm  of  Huber  &  Company,  attempted  to 
cultivate  the  eucalyptus,  but  it  was  not  appreciated.  Some 
ten  years  later,  in  1864,  M.  Ramel  returned  to  Hyeres 
from  a  journey  to  Australia,  where  he  had  made  the  ac- 
quaintance of  Herr  von  Miiller,  director  of  the  JNIelbourne 
Botanical  Garden,  and  he  brought  a  collection  of  eucalyptus 
seeds  and  plants.  By  that  time  some  knowledge  had  gained 
ground  concerning  the  sanitary  properties  of  the  tree  ;  so 
that  M.  Ramel  succeeded  where  M.  Dellor  had  failed, 
and  he  soon  became  known  as  "■  Le  Pcre  de  l Eucalyptus." 

The  tree  grows  very  rapidly.  It  contains  a  large 
quantity  of  volatile  oil  which,  like  the  resin  of  the  fir-tree, 
is  a  source  of  ozone.  While  it  helps  to  purify  the  atmos- 
phere, the  roots  spreading  fast  and  far  dry  up  damp  and 
marshy  soil.  It  has  been  observed  that  when  planted  in 
districts  where  malaria  prevailed,  the  presence  of  the 
eucalyptus-trees  checked  the  progress  of  the  disease.  The 
oil  of  the  eucalyptus,  as  a  powerful  antiseptic  and  dis- 
infectant, is  often  preferred  to  carbolic  acid,  since  it  does 
not  produce  local  irritation,  and  is  not  poisonous.  To  have 
so  valuable  a  tree  growing  in  abundance  close  at  hand 
is  an  advantage  for  which  we  should  all  gratefully  recall 
the  names  of  M.  Dellor  and  M.  Ramel.  But  though 
abounding  throughout  the  neighbourhood,  the  eucalyptus 
is  disappearing  from  the  principality.  Perhaps  the  trees 
take  up  too  much  room ;  besides,  their  roots  will  soon 
force  their  way  through  the  foundations  of  a  wall  and 
endanger  any  neighbouring  structure. 

From  the  very  first,  great  ciForts  were  made  to 
cultivate  palm-trees  in  the  casino  gardens,  and  it  was 
rightly  thought  that  they  were  especially  suited  to 
decorate  the  celebrated  terraces  that  overlook  the  sea. 
Unfortunately  the  salt  sea- winds  that  sweep  these  terraces 
were  not  at  all  suitable  for  the  palms.  There  they  remained 
much  as  they  were  when  planted,  looking  picturesque, 
but  refusing  to  grow,  and  soon  showing  decided  signs 
of  decrepitude.  Now,  poor  things,  they  are  coaxed  and 
cajoled  into  prolonging  their  irksome   life.    Waistbands 


round  their  trunks  with  wires  cunningly  attached,  hold 
the  trees  up,  so  that  in  spite  of  themselves  they  are 
obliged  to  continue  the  struggle  for  existence  ;  but  if  they 
were  left  alone  they  would  soon  lie  down,  glad  to  leave 
this  weary  world.  Yet  apart  from  these,  the  earliest  trees 
planted,  which  figure  in  all  the  first  and  traditional  views 
of  the  casino  terraces,  the  other  trees,  and  even  the  palm- 
trees,  have  prospered  exceedingly.  Something  had  been 
learnt  by  experience,  and  the  gardens  are  sheltered  from 
the  sea-wind  by  the  casino  buildings  themselves.  As 
a  result,  we  have  not  only  the  date-palm,  but  very  fine 
and  lofty  cocoanut-trees.  There  are  the  cocos  datil,  the 
cocos  Jiexuosa  and  the  cocos  romanzojjinicma,  which 
attain  a  height  of  from  30  to  40  feet.  Indeed  there 
is  a  date-palm  that  is  almost  50  feet  high,  but  it  is  not 
on  the  terrace  overlooking  the  sea.  'Wvq phoenix  ccmciriends 
is  distinguished  by  its  plentiful  foliage,  and  is  not  supposed 
to  be  very  tall ;  yet  there  is  one  palm  of  this  species  that 
is  33  feet  high,  and  a  phcetiLv  spinosa  stands  to  the  height 
of  30  feet. 

Some  of  the  charnoerops  have  developed  to  formidable 
proportions ;  but  for  size  and  robust  appearance  it  would 
be  difficult  to  excel  the  indiarubber-trees.  One  of  these 
is  particularly  wortliy  of  attention.  It  is  not  only  a  mag- 
nificent tree,  for  it  measures  some  80  feet  in  circumference 
and  60  feet  in  height,  but  it  seems  to  convey  an  object 
lesson  in  the  duties  of  family  life.  After  leaving  the 
casino,  the  visitor  will  find  it  on  the  right-hand  side 
about  half  way  up  the  garden.  The  blue  metallic  label 
standing  in  front  will  inform  the  attentive  observer  that 
the  tree  is  a  ficus  Roxbtirghii.  On  examination,  it  will 
at  once  be  seen  that  the  tree  has  several  stems.  In  the 
centre  there  is  obviously  the  parent  trunk,  and  round 
it  several  younger  ones.  Then,  on  looking  up,  it  will 
be  noticed  that  some  of  the  lower  branches  are  letting 
down  a  strange  sort  of  growth.  This  is  neither  twig  nor 
branch.  It  does  not  stretch  forth  as  leaves  and  branches 
do,  so  as  to  get  as  much  light,  air  and  rain  as  they  can 


catch ;  but  on  the  contrary  it  points  straight  downward, 
as  if  determined  to  reach  the  earth.  This,  indeed,  is  its 
object.  When  the  larger  branches  of  the  tree,  which  may 
well  be  considered  as  the  elder  children  of  the  family, 
begin  to  feel  that  their  parent  trunk  is  weakening  with 
age,  they  come  to  the  rescue.  Instead  of  using  all  their 
youthful  vitality  to  grow  more  twigs  and  more  leaves, 
and  thus  secure  the  largest  share  possible  of  life's  enjoy- 
ment, they  devote  at  least  some  of  their  strength  to 
producing  woody  fibre  which,  growing  downward,  will 
ultimately  reach  the  ground.  Taking  root  there,  this 
growth  from  the  branch  will  develop  into  an  auxiliary 
stem  to  stand  by,  strengthen  and  support  the  parent 
trunk,  and  thus  prolong  the  life  of  the  entire  family, 
while  giving  at  the  same  time  a  magnificent  example 
of  filial  duty  and  gratitude. 

Higher  up  on  the  same  side  of  the  garden,  near  a 
kiosk  where  nurses  and  children  generally  find  shelter, 
there  is  another  scene  in  which  the  plants  offer  an  ex- 
ample less  worthy  of  imitation.  It  is  a  dramatic  illustra- 
tion of  the  struggle  for  life,  a  real  fight  between  two 
formidable  plants.  On  one  side  there  stands,  proudly 
erect,  a  date-palm  from  Africa,  phoenix  dactilifera  by 
name.  At  some  distance,  but  near  enough,  there  is  a 
cactus  from  Mexico  justly  named  after  the  serpent ;  it  is 
the  cereus  serpentirms  cactees.  But  it  is  not  one  serpent, 
it  is  a  cluster  of  serpents,  suggesting  the  avenging  furies, 
the  head  of  the  Medusa.  These  many  serpents,  like  the 
arms  of  an  octopus,  have  thrown  themselves  upon  the 
palm-tree.  Some  encircle  the  trunk  low  down  near  the  root ; 
others  stretch  out  and  reach  as  high  up  as  possible ;  the 
majority  take  the  medium  course  of  striking  the  nearest 
point  where  they  can  get  firm  hold.  It  is  quite  clear  they 
will  not  spare  the  tree,  and  it  is  difficult  to  see  what 
defence  the  palm  can  offer  against  its  numerous  persistent 
and  thorny  aggressors. 

Close  to  this  singular  scene  on  the  other  side  of  the 
path  there  is  a  very  rare  banana,  the  strelitzia  Augusta. 

^       <     J 

=      l" 


But  the  leaves  unfortunately  are  much  spoilt  and  torn  by 
the  wind.  Facing  the  kiosk  to  which  allusion  has  been 
made,  and  therefore  also  close  at  hand,  are  two  splendid  and 
gigantic  cereus  validus  cades  from  South  America.  These 
were  secured  from  the  Villa  Walewski  by  M.  van  den 
Daele  himself.  Both  were  cut  from  the  same  parent 
plant,  and  now  they  have  been  growing  in  the  open  for 
twenty-eight  years.  They  are  undoubtedly  the  most  perfect 
specimens  on  the  whole  Riviera.  It  is  marvellous  to  see 
how  this  cactus  stands  upright  in  spite  of  its  great  height, 
and  the  absence  of  any  kind  of  support.  It  has  large  and 
numerous  red  fruits  growing  from  the  dark  green  stem. 
But  for  their  oval  shape,  they  might  be  taken  for  billiard 
balls,  and  it  appears  that  the  inside  is  edible ;  sweet  and 
glutinous,  it  might  make  good  jam.  Quite  different  from 
this  flavour  is  that  of  an  insignificant  shrub  behind  a  bench 
facing  the  entrance  of  the  Palais  des  Beaux  Arts.  It  has 
angry  but  concealed  thorns  that  surprise  and  attack  the 
hands  of  the  investigator.  But  if,  nevertheless,  one  of  the 
little  seed  pods  can  be  secured,  squeezed  and  tasted,  it  will 
be  discovered  that  the  shrub  belongs  to  the  cayenne 
pepper  variety.  Not  only  are  there  many  specimens  of 
trees  from  far-off  and  tropical  countries,  but  these  have 
been  so  skilfully  grouped  that  there  are  certain  points  of 
view  where  European  vegetation  seems  to  have  entirely 
disappeared.  Here  tropical  scenery  is  enjoyed  without 
the  inconveniences  of  a  tropical  climate.  The  arrangement 
is  wonderful,  and  anyone  with  some  powers  of  imagination 
could  sit  on  this  spot  and  dream  dreams  of  the  Orient  for 
hours  together. 

Perhaps  the  most  remarkable  group  of  trees  is  that 
which  stands  between  the  casino  and  the  side  of  the  Cafd 
de  Paris.  Here  there  is  a  chamcerops  Martiana  which  is  of 
the  greatest  technical  interest.  To  the  ordinary  observer 
it  appears  smaller  and  not  so  imposing  as  many  other 
chamoei'ops  to  be  seen  all  along  the  Riviera,  yet  there  is 
none  so  big  elsewhere  and  it  is  a  unique  specimen  in 
Europe.  Two  other  similar  trees  exist,  one  at  I^yons  and 


another  at  Kew  Gardens,  but  both  are  in  hothouses,  not 
in  the  open  air  as  at  Monte  Carlo.  This  special  sort  of 
cliamoei'ops  comes  from  the  Himalaya  mountains.  Near  to 
it  there  are  other  rare  trees,  the  cocas  Roiuanzqffiana ; 
the  Brahea  RoezU,  with  its  beautiful  blue-tinted  leaves ; 
and  the  enormous  leaves  of  the  Sabal  umh-acuUera  are  rarely 
seen  to  such  perfection  as  in  this  little  cluster  of  trees, 
placed  just  where  everybody  passes,  and  yet  so  little 

Twice  a  year,  in  February  and  March,  there  is  a  show 
of  plants  and  flowers  at  the  Palais  des  Beaux  Arts.  The 
number  of  people  who  pay  to  go  t